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Articles 1 - 30 of 116

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani Dec 2018

Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a collection of studies that investigate the genetic and epigenetic associations to ascites phenotype in broiler chickens. Ascites is a significant metabolic disease associated with fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) and is a terminal result of pulmonary hypertension syndrome PHS. It is a multi-factorial syndrome caused by interactions between genetic, physiological, environmental, and managemental factors. It was estimated that ascites accounts for losses of about US$1 billion annually worldwide and for over 25% of broilers mortality. Although traditional and molecular genetic methods in the selection and in performance improvements, has greatly reduced ascites frequency, yet it has ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings May 2018

Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogenesis is the biological production of methane. Only anaerobic archaea known as methanogens are capable of such a metabolic feat. They have strict living conditions and substrate sources which determine their rate of metabolism. This is of particular importance from a greenhouse gas reduction perspective or biogas capturing perspective. One of the best ways to optimize methanogen methane production is via genetic manipulation. The current procedures are timely though, therefore a faster cloning processes should be developed. The objective of this study was to optimize a premade genetic transformation kit known as the Gibson Kit. The Gibson Kit was supposed ...


Involvement Of The Ino80 Complex In Chromosome Segregation, Jesus Moreno May 2018

Involvement Of The Ino80 Complex In Chromosome Segregation, Jesus Moreno

Theses and Dissertations

Chromatin remodeling complexes are multi-protein complexes that regulate the dynamics of the nucleosomes in the genome. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex participates in varied biological processes such as: transcription, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosome integrity. It catalyzes the eviction of the H2A.Z variant histone as well as whole nucleosome eviction. This complex is comprised of 15 subunits and the contribution of each to chromosome segregations remains unknown. To evaluate the contribution of each subunit to chromosome segregation, we tested deletion mutants of the non-essential subunits for DNA content and benomyl sensitivity. Also, we assessed members of the SWR1 ...


Rapid And Sensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Using A Qcm Sensor Based On Aptamers Selected By Whole-Bacterium Selex And A Multivalent Aptamer System, Xiaofan Yu May 2018

Rapid And Sensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Using A Qcm Sensor Based On Aptamers Selected By Whole-Bacterium Selex And A Multivalent Aptamer System, Xiaofan Yu

Theses and Dissertations

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the top five pathogens contributing to foodborne diseases, causing an estimated 2,138 cases of hospitalization in the US each year. The extremely low infectious dose demands for more rapid and sensitive methods to detect E. coli O157:H7. The objective of this study is to select aptamers specifically binding to E. coli O157:H7 using whole-bacterium SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) and to create a multivalent aptamer system by rolling circle amplification (RCA) with the selected aptamer sequence for sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 using a quartz ...


Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee May 2018

Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative metabolism is required to produce adequate energy to sustain human life. A primary example of deteriorating oxidative capacity is seen in the cardiac musculature during chronic heart failure. This suggests that by improving oxidative potential, chronic heart disease could be mitigated and one approach to accomplish this may be through targeting the mt-mRNA translation system. Purpose: This investigation’s purpose was to characterize disruptions in mt-mRNA translation machinery in multiple forms of cardiomyopathy and to determine if mitochondrial mRNA translation initiation factor (mtIF2) is necessary to maintain oxidative capacity in cardiomyocytes. Methods Using a combination of animal and cell ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley May 2018

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani May 2018

Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani

Theses and Dissertations

The plant cell wall is of critical importance to plant growth and survival, functioning in maintaining structural integrity, supporting cell expansion, and acting as the first line of defense in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The major components of the cell wall are cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and pectin. Recent focus on the transcriptional machinery regulating cell wall biosynthesis in plants has revealed many key transcription factors responsible for orchestrating cell wall deposition. However, many of these TFs act redundantly and work coherently with a suite of TFs to activate the cell wall biosynthetic machinery. Heterologous expression of TFs is ...


Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, Sai Divya Challapalli Dec 2017

Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, Sai Divya Challapalli

Theses and Dissertations

Histone-like nucleoid structuring proteins (HNS) play significant roles in shaping the chromosomal DNA, regulation of transcriptional networks in microbes, as well as bacterial responses to environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations. In this work, the intracellular organization of HNS proteins in E. coli bacteria was investigated utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, which surpasses conventional microscopy by 10–20 fold in spatial resolution. More importantly, the changes of the spatial distribution of HNS proteins in E. coli, by addition of silver ions into the growth medium were explored. To quantify the spatial distribution of HNS in bacteria and its changes, an automatic ...


Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone Dec 2017

Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...


Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, Nguyen Vo Dec 2017

Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, Nguyen Vo

Theses and Dissertations

Several lines of evidence suggest that early-life gut microbiota composition is a crucial determinant of the susceptibility to diseases later in life. Understanding the evolution of early-life gut microbiota and critical factors that can modify this microbial community will espouse the prevention or reversion of health risk originating from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in the early stage. In this research, we hypothesized that alterations in the environment (simulation of rural conditions by soil exposure) and feeding mode (breastmilk versus formula milk) will have significant impacts on the establishment of the gut microbiota in early life. At first, in literature ...


Detection Of Survival And Proliferation Of Sulfate Reducers Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric And Soil Conditions, Sergio Mosquera Mora Dec 2017

Detection Of Survival And Proliferation Of Sulfate Reducers Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric And Soil Conditions, Sergio Mosquera Mora

Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies have tried to determine the survivability and proliferation of microorganisms under simulated Martian conditions. Furthermore, most of them have been focused on the ability of these microbes to cope with high brines’ salt (NaCl) concentrations inherent of the Martian surface. However, there are not studies related to the ability of bacteria to survive on subsurface environments that have increasing concentrations of sulfate compounds. For this research, a group of microorganisms known as sulfate-reducing bacteria or simply sulfate reducers were chosen due to their ability to use sulfate compounds as terminal electron acceptors to produce metabolic energy, their tolerance ...


Cellular Mechanisms Of Ionoregulation In The Gill Of Japanese Medaka And Rainbow Trout, Rebecca Jo Bollinger Dec 2017

Cellular Mechanisms Of Ionoregulation In The Gill Of Japanese Medaka And Rainbow Trout, Rebecca Jo Bollinger

Theses and Dissertations

Euryhaline fishes are capable of adapting to a wide range of salinities such as freshwater, brackish water or seawater. Through the combined effort of the gill, kidney and intestine, they are able to osmoregulate to maintain a constant internal hydromineral balance. As the gill is in direct contact with the external environment, it is continuously working to maintain ion and acid/base balance, gas exchange and eliminate nitrogenous waste. Fish in freshwater are subjected to osmotic water gain and diffusional ion loss across the gill and experience the opposite in seawater. Therefore, the gill exhibits extreme plasticity when experiencing a ...


Understanding Intracellular Redox Regulation In Methanogens: Characterization Of The Components And Targets Of The Nadph-Dependent Thioredoxin System From Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Addison Clark Mccarver Dec 2017

Understanding Intracellular Redox Regulation In Methanogens: Characterization Of The Components And Targets Of The Nadph-Dependent Thioredoxin System From Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Addison Clark Mccarver

Theses and Dissertations

All cells have a reduced intracellular environment. In the presence of oxygen, the non-specific oxidation of intracellular components leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells leading to oxidative stress. During oxidative stress labile cofactors (e.g. Fe-S clusters) are lost and deleterious disulfide bonds are formed within proteins. Intracellular redox maintenance systems are used to direct reducing equivalents towards the repair of oxidatively-damaged proteins. The thioredoxin system is the ubiquitous intracellular redox system, found in virtually all species. The canonical thioredoxin system is comprised of a NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) that functions to reduced thioredoxin (Trx ...


Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, Nesreen Hamdan Aljahdali Dec 2017

Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, Nesreen Hamdan Aljahdali

Theses and Dissertations

The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. This reaction generates Maillard reaction products (MRPs) which are not present naturally in foods, and are responsible for a range of colors, odors, flavors, and other sensory properties. Conflicting reports of MRPs impacts on human health are probably due to the fact that bioconversion of these digestible molecules by the gut microbiota has been marginally taken into account. This study aimed to determine the effects of different MRPs on rodent’s gut microbiota ...


A Numerical Study Of The Interaction Between One Dimensional Carbyne Chain And Single Stranded Dna, Zeina Salman Aug 2017

A Numerical Study Of The Interaction Between One Dimensional Carbyne Chain And Single Stranded Dna, Zeina Salman

Theses and Dissertations

resolution at the single nucleotide level when developing DNA sequencers. The purpose of this research was to numerically study the electrical properties associated with the interaction between 1D carbon chain, known as carbyne, and ssDNA. First, the electrical properties of the carbyne chain were calculated. Second, the electrical properties of the carbyne chain were calculated in the presence of different ssDNA bases. Analyzing the differences between the two cases led to determining the effects of these different bases on the electrical properties. The numerical simulation approach conducted in this research was based on the first-principle simulation. The first-principle simulation was ...


Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey Aug 2017

Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey

Theses and Dissertations

These studies have investigated different candidate genomic regions for their contributions to ascites in broilers. Ascites syndrome is a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arteriole hypertension that concerns the poultry industry worldwide. Investigations have demonstrated the disease to be genetically regulated and to exhibit moderate to high heritabilities. Although previous studies have indicated a few chromosomes to be involved with ascites, no genes have been identified to date with direct links to the disease. This dissertation presents a collection of studies that determine the genomic and genetic interactions for regions on chromosome 2 and 9 for ascites phenotypes in broiler chickens ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


Characterization Of A Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Variant And Its Interaction Involving The Ras-Related Protein Rheb, Nosaiba Shokr Aug 2017

Characterization Of A Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Variant And Its Interaction Involving The Ras-Related Protein Rheb, Nosaiba Shokr

Theses and Dissertations

Structure-function relationships of any complex underlie the molecular details of the biological interactions. Rheb, Ras Homology Enriched in Brain, is a Ras-related protein, and it is genetically identified as a molecular switch. Rheb is regulated by cycling between the biologically active GTP and inactive GDP-bound forms. This regulation is partially controlled by an interaction with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex2 (TSC2), a GTPase activating protein (GAP). Upon interaction, TSC2 stimulates Rheb GTP hydrolysis and diminishes the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The mTOR pathway is involved in proteins synthesis, cell cycle, and signaling. Mutation in TSC2 causes abnormal activation of Rheb ...


Comprehensive Assessments Of The Genetic Determinants In Salmonella Typhimurium For Fitness Under Host Stressors: Oxidative Stress And Iron Restriction, Sardar Abdullah Aug 2017

Comprehensive Assessments Of The Genetic Determinants In Salmonella Typhimurium For Fitness Under Host Stressors: Oxidative Stress And Iron Restriction, Sardar Abdullah

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is an intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of hosts. The infected host utilizes reactive oxygen species (ROS) and iron-restriction to eliminate the pathogen. We used proteogenomics to determine the candidate genes and proteins that have a role in resistance of S. Typhimurium to H2O2. For Tn-seq, a highly saturated Tn5 library was grown in vitro under either 2.5 (H2O2L) or 3.5 mM H2O2 (H2O2H). We identified two sets of overlapping genes that are required for resistance of S. Typhimurium to H2O2L and H2O2H, and the results were validated via phenotypic evaluation of 50 selected mutants ...


The Structural And Functional Properties Of A Double Mutant Of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Hfgf-1), Arwa Mohammed Alghanmi Aug 2017

The Structural And Functional Properties Of A Double Mutant Of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Hfgf-1), Arwa Mohammed Alghanmi

Theses and Dissertations

Human acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF-1), a member of the FGF superfamily, is a potent mitogen and heparin-binding protein involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes, including angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and wound healing. Design of hFGF-1 with an increased thermal stability and an enhanced cell proliferation activity is highly desired for wound healing applications. Herein, we have designed the variant of FGF-1 by substituting two important amino residues in the heparin-binding pocket. The variant was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was successfully purified to homogeneity using an affinity chromatographic procedure. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis showed that the ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse Aug 2017

Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse

Theses and Dissertations

The craft beer industry is increasing in popularity in the United States. The craft brewing process typically does not use a pasteurization step, therefore the boiling process is the primary critical control step. Any microorganisms introduced after boiling, or those that are not killed during boiling, are likely to participate in fermentation and persist in the final product. Previous culture-based studies have isolated bacteria and yeast from craft beers at specific time points, but little research has been done on the process as a whole. The objectives of this research are to (1) track bacteria development throughout the brewing process ...


A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Xeniya Rudolf May 2017

A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Xeniya Rudolf

Theses and Dissertations

Lipins are a family of proteins that have critical functions in the control of fat storage and energy homeostasis. Biochemically, lipins have two functions. They provide an enzymatic activity (phosphatidate phosphatase or PAP activity) in the glycerol-3 phosphate pathway that leads to the production of storage fats (triacylglycerols). In addition, they play a role in the regulation of genes in the cell nucleus as transcriptional co-regulators. The PAP activity of lipins has been widely studied in a number of organisms. However, the transcriptional co-regulator function is not as well described in the literature. The transcriptional function of lipins depends on ...


Using Rb-Tnseq To Analyze Natural Variation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Syed Raza Mahmood May 2017

Using Rb-Tnseq To Analyze Natural Variation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Syed Raza Mahmood

Theses and Dissertations

One of the main challenges in biology today is the characterization of millions of genes of unknown function being continuously identified in sequencing studies. Transposon mutagenesis is a technique that has been widely used for annotating gene function and has now been combined with next-generation sequencing (Tn-Seq) to assess mutant fitness on a genome wide basis. However, Tn-Seq approaches are often constrained by laborious library preparation protocols which limit the number of organisms or conditions that can be assessed. Random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), is a transposon sequencing technique that streamlines library preparation and increases the throughput of mutant ...


Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen May 2017

Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry production plays an important role in the food supply and security for billions of people. Poultry meat is considered the most efficient, nutritious source of protein, without religious taboos, and is relatively inexpensive. However, the poultry industry is facing substantial challenges. The global environmental temperature has experienced dramatic changes in the last few years. Modern broilers are not well adapted to environmental challenges (heat and cold stress), which have resulted in heavy economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, the use of feed restriction regimens in management of breeders as well as the transportation of young chicks ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown Dec 2016

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Coarse-Grained Simulations Of The Self-Assembly Of Dna-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Charles Wrightsman Armistead Dec 2016

Coarse-Grained Simulations Of The Self-Assembly Of Dna-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Charles Wrightsman Armistead

Theses and Dissertations

The self-assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) of varying shape, size, and composition for the purpose of constructing useful nanoassemblies with tailored properties remains challenging. Although progress has been made to design anisotropic building blocks that exhibit the required control for the precise placement of various NPs within a defined arrangement, there still exists obstacles in the technology to maximize the programmability in the self-assembly of NP building blocks. Currently, the self-assembly of nanostructures involves much experimental trial and error. Computational modeling is a possible approach that could be utilized to facilitate the purposeful design of the self-assembly of NP building blocks ...


Fishes As A Template For Reticulate Evolution: A Case Study Involving Catostomus In The Colorado River Basin Of Western North America, Max Russell Bangs Dec 2016

Fishes As A Template For Reticulate Evolution: A Case Study Involving Catostomus In The Colorado River Basin Of Western North America, Max Russell Bangs

Theses and Dissertations

Hybridization is neither simplistic nor phylogenetically constrained, and post hoc introgression can have profound evolutionary effects. Most studies have focused on tractable model systems, rather than organisms with complicated phylogenetic histories. Finescale Sucker (genus Catostomus) in western North America is recognized as a paradigm of fish hybridization. Yet, its extent of historic and contemporary introgression is largely unstudied, an aspect that impedes the resolution of its phylogeny as a baseline for conservation. To explore reticulation in this group, I assayed variation of 20 Catostomus species across temporal and geographic scales by analyzing hundreds of samples and employing a combination of ...


Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti Dec 2016

Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti

Theses and Dissertations

In an effort to expand the pool of bacterium useful for biotechnology applications, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a common gram negative microbe, was examined for its ability to function in a recombinant setting. P. fluorescens is ubiquitous in nature and was initially identified as a soil bacterium found in dirt and is typically associated with plant material. Past literature indicates that it shared characteristics common to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, including simple growth conditions and potential cloning vectors, providing motivation to look into both the upstream and downstream characteristics of this bacterium. First, it was demonstrated that P. fluorescens could be ...