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Developmental Biology

2012

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Association Of Modified Cytosines And The Methylated Dna-Binding Protein Mecp2 With Distinctive Structural Domains Of Lampbrush Chromatin, Garry T. Morgan, Peter L. Jones, Michel Bellini Dec 2012

Association Of Modified Cytosines And The Methylated Dna-Binding Protein Mecp2 With Distinctive Structural Domains Of Lampbrush Chromatin, Garry T. Morgan, Peter L. Jones, Michel Bellini

Peter Jones Lab Publications

We have investigated the association of DNA methylation and proteins interpreting methylation state with the distinctive closed and open chromatin structural domains that are directly observable in the lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) of amphibian oocytes. To establish the distribution in LBCs of MeCP2, one of the key proteins binding 5-methylcytosine-modified DNA (5mC), we expressed HA-tagged MeCP2 constructs in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Full-length MeCP2 was predominantly targeted to the closed, transcriptionally inactive chromomere domains in a pattern proportional to chromomeric DNA density and consistent with a global role in determining chromatin state. A minor fraction of HA-MeCP2 was also found to associate ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Neonatal Oocyte Survival And Primordial Follicle Formation In The Mouse Ovary, Robin L. Jones Dec 2012

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Neonatal Oocyte Survival And Primordial Follicle Formation In The Mouse Ovary, Robin L. Jones

Biology - Dissertations

In mammals, formation of the primordial follicle is a complex process involving the breakdown of germ cell cysts, where oocytes must separate from each other and subsequently become surrounded by somatic cells. As cysts separate, a large number of germ cells are lost by apoptosis, however the mechanisms by which cyst breakdown and germ cell death occur are not well understood. We first hypothesized that two anti-apoptotic regulators from the BCL2 family of proteins, BCL2 and MCL1, may be responsible for regulating neonatal oocyte survival. To elucidate the effects of BCL2 in the neonatal ovary, we examined ovaries of both ...


Brief Embryonic Strychnine Exposure In Zebrafish Causes Long-Term Adult Behavioral Impairment With Indications Of Embyronic Synaptic Changes, Nicole Roy, Brianna Arpie, Joseph Lugo, Elwood Linney, Edward D. Levin, Daniel Cerutti Nov 2012

Brief Embryonic Strychnine Exposure In Zebrafish Causes Long-Term Adult Behavioral Impairment With Indications Of Embyronic Synaptic Changes, Nicole Roy, Brianna Arpie, Joseph Lugo, Elwood Linney, Edward D. Levin, Daniel Cerutti

Biology Faculty Publications

Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show ...


Sex Determination In Beetles: Production Of All Male Progeny By Parental Rnai Knockdown Of Transformer, Jayendra Nath Shukla, Subba Reddy Palli Aug 2012

Sex Determination In Beetles: Production Of All Male Progeny By Parental Rnai Knockdown Of Transformer, Jayendra Nath Shukla, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra ...


C. Elegans Pat-9 Is A Nuclear Zinc Finger Protein Critical For The Assembly Of Muscle Attachments, Qian Liu, Takako I. Jones, Rebecca A. Bachmann, Mitchell Meghpara, Lauren Rogowski, Benjamin D. Williams, Peter L. Jones May 2012

C. Elegans Pat-9 Is A Nuclear Zinc Finger Protein Critical For The Assembly Of Muscle Attachments, Qian Liu, Takako I. Jones, Rebecca A. Bachmann, Mitchell Meghpara, Lauren Rogowski, Benjamin D. Williams, Peter L. Jones

Peter Jones Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans sarcomeres have been studied extensively utilizing both forward and reverse genetic techniques to provide insight into muscle development and the mechanisms behind muscle contraction. A previous genetic screen investigating early muscle development produced 13 independent mutant genes exhibiting a Pat (paralyzed and arrested elongation at the two-fold length of embryonic development) muscle phenotype. This study reports the identification and characterization of one of those genes, pat-9.

RESULTS: Positional cloning, reverse genetics, and plasmid rescue experiments were used to identify the predicted C. elegans gene T27B1.2 (recently named ztf-19) as the pat-9 gene. Analysis of pat-9 showed ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes Apr 2012

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stem cell microenvironment contains soluble factors, support cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that combine to effect cellular behavior. Mass spectrometry based proteomics offers the opportunity to directly assay components of extracellular microenvironments, thereby providing a sensitive means for obtaining insight into the stem cell niche. In this study we present the generation and analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) matrix microenvironments using an MS-based proteomics approach.

One of the primary limitations in the proteomics analysis of hESCs and hiPSCs is the reproducible generation of sufficient cell numbers amenable ...


Tol2 Gene Trap Integrations In The Zebrafish Amyloid Precursor Protein Genes Appa And Aplp2 Reveal Accumulation Of Secreted App At The Embryonic Veins, Hsin-Kai Liao, Ying Wang, Kristin E. Watt, Qin Wen, Justin Breitback, Chelsy K. Kemmet, Karl J. Clark, Stephen C. Ekker, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura Mcgrail Feb 2012

Tol2 Gene Trap Integrations In The Zebrafish Amyloid Precursor Protein Genes Appa And Aplp2 Reveal Accumulation Of Secreted App At The Embryonic Veins, Hsin-Kai Liao, Ying Wang, Kristin E. Watt, Qin Wen, Justin Breitback, Chelsy K. Kemmet, Karl J. Clark, Stephen C. Ekker, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura Mcgrail

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background—The single spanning transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic product, amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, have been intensely studied due to their role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the biological role of the secreted ectodomain of APP, which is also generated by proteolytic cleavage, is less well understood. Here, we report Tol2 red fluorescent protein (RFP) transposon gene trap integrations in the zebrafish amyloid precursor protein a (appa) and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (aplp2) genes. The transposon integrations are predicted to disrupt the appa and aplp2 genes to primarily produce secreted ectodomains of the corresponding proteins ...


Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Feb 2012

Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinaceaspecies and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg ...


Hslic Fall 2012 Scholarship Committee Report, Ann Jordan Jan 2012

Hslic Fall 2012 Scholarship Committee Report, Ann Jordan

Ann Jordan

No abstract provided.


Hdac3 Is A Critical Regulator Of Neural Crest Progenitor Cell Biology, Nikhil Singh Jan 2012

Hdac3 Is A Critical Regulator Of Neural Crest Progenitor Cell Biology, Nikhil Singh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Vertebrate embryogenesis relies on the coordinated development of multiple progenitor cell pools. Specific transcriptional programs regulate the specification, expansion, migration and eventual differentiation of these progenitor cell populations, and tight control of these programs is essential for normal development to occur. Class I histone deacetylases (Hdacs), including Hdac3, play critical roles in regulating gene transcription, through both epigenetic and non-epigenetic means. In this dissertation, I use mouse genetics to explore the previously undescribed role of Hdac3 in regulating neural crest progenitor cell behavior. By genetically deleting Hdac3 in premigratory neural crest cells, I use in vivo and ex vivo techniques ...


Wnt2 And Wnt7b Cooperative Signaling In Lung Development, Mayumi Miller Jan 2012

Wnt2 And Wnt7b Cooperative Signaling In Lung Development, Mayumi Miller

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The development of a complex organ, such as the lung, relies upon precisely controlled temporal and spatial expression patterns of signaling pathways for proper specification and differentiation of the cell types required to build a lung. While progress has been made in dissecting the network of signaling pathways and the integration of their positive and negative feedback mechanisms, there is still much to discover. For example, the Wnt signaling pathway is required for lung specification and growth, but a combinatorial role for Wnt ligands has not been investigated. In this dissertation, I combine mouse genetic models and in vitro and ...


A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel Jan 2012

A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel

CMC Senior Theses

The field of stem cell research has been growing more because of the interest in using stem cells to cure diseases and heal injuries. Human embryonic stem cells, because of the controversy surrounding them—and subsequently the difficulties in acquiring samples of the existing aging cell lines—can only be used in limited capacities. While the development of induced pluripotent stem cells in the last decade has allowed the field to progress closer to medical treatments, the low efficiency of reprogramming a somatic cell to a pluripotent state, and the vast molecular and genomic differences between human embryonic stem cells ...


Structure-Function Analyses Of The Tre1 G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Margaret Marie Pruitt Jan 2012

Structure-Function Analyses Of The Tre1 G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Margaret Marie Pruitt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell migration is a process that is essential to animals during their entire lifetime and improper cell migration is implicated in diseased states such as cancer. Primordial germ cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to study cell migration. The movements of Drosophila primordial germ cells are well documented and some of the molecules involved have been identified. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm-1 (tre1) is one of the first genes involved in primordial germ cell migration. The work in this dissertation focuses on the GPCR Tre1, the roles of Tre1 in Drosophila germ cell migration ...