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2016

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sea Level Change In The Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, Southern British Columbia: Implications For The Interpretation Of Nearshore Archaeological Features, Glenda J. Wyatt Dec 2016

Sea Level Change In The Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, Southern British Columbia: Implications For The Interpretation Of Nearshore Archaeological Features, Glenda J. Wyatt

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Sea level along the B.C. coastline has changed dramatically over the past 10,000 years due to isostatic rebound following deglaciation from the Fra ser Glaciation (Clague & James, 2002). In the future, sea levels globally are also predicted to rise according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014), due to climate change. Lemmen et al. (2008), suggest that in the near future some B.C. coastal communities will have to deal with changes in shorelines due to rising sea levels, and hence erosional patterns, modifications to ecosystems and habitats, and potentially an altered marine food supply. This ...


Pacific Great Blue Heron Population Monitoring On Vancouver Island And The Surrounding Gulf Islands, Trudy A. Chatwin, Travis Heckford Dec 2016

Pacific Great Blue Heron Population Monitoring On Vancouver Island And The Surrounding Gulf Islands, Trudy A. Chatwin, Travis Heckford

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Pacific or Great Blue Heron fannini subspecies winters and breeds on Vancouver Island in locations within 5 km of the marine shoreline. Its visibility and close connection to the Salish Sea make it an important flagship species. Due to population concerns and threats associated with urban development, the Province of BC has coordinated monitoring of Great Blue Heron colonies on Vancouver Island and the adjacent Gulf Islands from 1997 through 2015. Starting in 2005, I trained volunteer stewards and technicians to use a standardized methodology to locate and assess heron colonies, count active nests, determine nest success and follow ...


The Records Continue, Chad Hart Dec 2016

The Records Continue, Chad Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Here we are again. The markets have absorbed record projections for supply and demand, a good amount of crop moved just before harvest to clear out bin space, and harvest has been relatively smooth. That combination of factors took corn prices to new lows and cut the prospects for soybean prices. Whether these prices will be the lows for the harvest season depends on the movement of grain this fall and the willingness of international markets to dive into the crop markets this winter.


Update On Soybean Diseases And Their Management, Daren Mueller Dec 2016

Update On Soybean Diseases And Their Management, Daren Mueller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There were several diseases that appeared in soybean fields in 2016. While diseases were not common early in the season, by late July they became more prevalent. Some of the most prevalent diseases during the 2016 season were bacterial pustule, frogeye leaf spot, sudden death syndrome (SDS), and white mold. This talk will focus on these specific diseases and provide updates on management of soybean diseases in general.


Understanding And Increasing Soybean Yields, Ryan J. Van Roekel, Larry C. Purcell Dec 2016

Understanding And Increasing Soybean Yields, Ryan J. Van Roekel, Larry C. Purcell

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

An understanding of the main factors influencing grain yield in soybean can provide key insights for making management decisions to increase yield. Seed number is determined by the amount of photosynthate produced between R1 and R5 that is allocated to the seeds, divided by the minimum amount of photosynthate needed to keep a single seed from aborting. Stresses or improvements in crop growth prior to flowering should not have a significant impact on final yield, provided that >95% light interception is achieved by R1. Seed weight is determined by the seed growth rate and the length of the seed fill ...


Measuring Progress On The Nutrient Reduction Strategy, John Lawrence, Shawn Richmond, Dean Lemke Dec 2016

Measuring Progress On The Nutrient Reduction Strategy, John Lawrence, Shawn Richmond, Dean Lemke

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (NRS) was officially launched by Governor Brandstad in May 2013. It is a voluntary science-based strategy to achieve the Gulf Hypoxia Task Force goal of reducing the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the Gulf of Mexico by 45%. Twelve states along the main stem of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers are striving for that goal so as to reduce the size of the so called dead zone in the Gulf to its 1980-1996 level.


Meeting The Nitrate Reduction Goal: What Will It Take?, Jamie Benning Dec 2016

Meeting The Nitrate Reduction Goal: What Will It Take?, Jamie Benning

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy is a science and technology-based framework developed to assess and reduce nutrients loss to Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico. The strategy includes efforts to reduce the total loads of nitrogen and phosphorus from both point and nonpoint sources by a combined 45%. The practice-based approach was developed in response to the 2008 Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan that calls for Iowa and other states in the Mississippi River watershed to develop strategies to reduce nutrient loadings to the Gulf of Mexico and ultimately reduce the size of the gulf hypoxic zone.


Nitrogen Myths And Realities, Michael Castellano, Sotirios Archontoulis, Carolina Cordova, Ranae Dietzel Dec 2016

Nitrogen Myths And Realities, Michael Castellano, Sotirios Archontoulis, Carolina Cordova, Ranae Dietzel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

More than 1/3 of the nitrogen in human bodies is derived from industrially synthesized nitrogen fertilizer (Smil, 2004). Without nitrogen fertilizer, agriculture could not sustain the global population of 7 billion people living today, much less the 11 billion people expected to be living by 2100. There is no doubt: nitrogen fertilizer is critical to sustain human health and grow developing economies.


Drainage Design For Improved Profits And Water Quality, Matthew J. Helmers, Greg Brenneman Dec 2016

Drainage Design For Improved Profits And Water Quality, Matthew J. Helmers, Greg Brenneman

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Subsurface drainage systems are an important component of agricultural production systems in many areas of Iowa. However, these drainage systems have been shown to deliver nitrate-N to downstream waterbodies. So, while subsurface drainage is important for crop production we also need to consider the design of these systems to minimize nitrate-N loss. Use of drainage water management in the design and operation of subsurface drainage systems is one potential method to reduce nitrate-N loss.


Iowa Soybean Association And Iowa State University Cooperative Soybean Cyst Nematode And Corn Rootworm Beetle Survey Results, Tristan Mueller, Clarke Mcgrath Dec 2016

Iowa Soybean Association And Iowa State University Cooperative Soybean Cyst Nematode And Corn Rootworm Beetle Survey Results, Tristan Mueller, Clarke Mcgrath

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In cooperation with industry partners, Iowa Soybean Association and Iowa State University (ISU) conducted soybean cyst nematode and corn rootworm surveys across the state. With nearly every county in the state included in the surveys, the results have been informative.


Understanding The 2016 Yields And Interactions Between Soils, Crops, Climate And Management, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht, Mike Castellano, Ranae Dietzel, Andy Van Loocke, Raziel Ordonez, Javed Iqbal, Laila Puntel, Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Huber Isaiah, Matt Helmers Dec 2016

Understanding The 2016 Yields And Interactions Between Soils, Crops, Climate And Management, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht, Mike Castellano, Ranae Dietzel, Andy Van Loocke, Raziel Ordonez, Javed Iqbal, Laila Puntel, Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Huber Isaiah, Matt Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Several technologies to forecast crop yields and soil nutrient dynamics have emerged over the past years. These include process-based models, statistical models, machine learning, aerial images, or combinations. These technologies are viewed as promising to assist Midwestern agriculture to achieve production and environmental goals, but in general, most of these technologies are in their initial stages of implementation. In June 2016 we launched a web-tool (http://crops.extension.iastate.edu/facts/) that provided real-time information and yield predictions for 20 combinations of crops and management practices. Our project, which is called FACTS (Forecast and Assessment of Cropping sysTemS), takes a ...


Making Sure Planter Technology Accomplishes The Basics, H. Mark Hanna Dec 2016

Making Sure Planter Technology Accomplishes The Basics, H. Mark Hanna

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Checking field conditions to make optimal planter adjustments such as the amount of down force on depth-gauge wheels is required for both automated and manual systems. Operator manuals include the importance of evaluating field conditions and setting adjustments accordingly for factors such as soil moisture, tillage, and texture.


What Happens During Pathogen Infections In Crop Plants?, Steve Whitham Dec 2016

What Happens During Pathogen Infections In Crop Plants?, Steve Whitham

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Plants have sophisticated immune systems that provide protection against most microorganisms. However, pathogens that are able cause disease have the ability to disrupt plant defenses. Recent research has shown that there is extensive communication between plants and microorganisms, and that there are multiple layers to effective disease resistance. This presentation will introduce the audience to concepts in plant disease resistance and the offensive weapons that pathogens use as they attempt to overcome plant defenses.


Value Of Tissue Testing To Improve Phosphorus, Potassium, And Micronutrients Management For Corn And Soybean, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2016

Value Of Tissue Testing To Improve Phosphorus, Potassium, And Micronutrients Management For Corn And Soybean, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil testing is a useful and commonly used diagnostic tool for making phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization decisions. Soil testing for micronutrients also is useful, but its value is more uncertain because of more complex and less understood soil processes that affect their availability for crops.


Long-Term Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Soil, Yield And Economic Returns, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Sotirios Archontoulis Dec 2016

Long-Term Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Soil, Yield And Economic Returns, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Sotirios Archontoulis

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are major annual crops grown in yearly rotation in Iowa. The economic returns of both crops with different tillage systems and crop rotations are highly influenced by regional soil and climate conditions. This study was conducted at seven locations in Iowa from 2003 to 2013 with the objectives to: (i) investigate seasonal variability in corn and soybean yields as affected by tillage and crop rotation, (ii) identify appropriate tillage system for each crop rotation and location, and (iii) evaluate the magnitude of crop rotation effect on the yields and economic ...


Fungicide Selection And Timing To Manage Southern Rust Of Corn, Travis Faske Dec 2016

Fungicide Selection And Timing To Manage Southern Rust Of Corn, Travis Faske

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Foliar corn diseases are among the most important yield-limiting factors that affect commercial corn production in the Mid-South. Southern rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia polysora, which only infects corn and is reintroduced each year from the tropic regions of Central America and the Caribbean. Symptoms consist of small orange pustules that are often first detected on leaves located in the mid- to upper-canopy. As conditions favor disease development initial infections produce spores that are spread to nearby plants and nearby fields resulting in secondary infections and the spread of southern rust.


Verifying Liquid Manure Hydraulic Distribution, Kapil Arora, Daniel Andersen Dec 2016

Verifying Liquid Manure Hydraulic Distribution, Kapil Arora, Daniel Andersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Liquid manure application in Iowa typically takes place in fall after harvest in preparation for the following crop year. Manure is either transported and land applied with tank wagons and/or directly pumped and land applied using a dragline system. Application rate, gallons per acre, is typically controlled by flow control actuators operated by on-board rate controllers which co-process the drive speed, tool-bar width, and the flow meter reading with the operator input of application rate. This system ensures that the desired application rate is achieved for manure application. The manure is supplied to a distribution manifold after it passes ...


Impact Of Nitrogen Application Timing On Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, John P. Lundvall Dec 2016

Impact Of Nitrogen Application Timing On Corn Production, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, John P. Lundvall

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Water quality issues have renewed interest in timing of nitrogen (N) application as a means to improve use efficiency in corn and reduce losses. Improved economic return is also desired as N fertilization is one of the most costly inputs to corn production. Time of fertilizer application is a component of the site-specific 4R nutrient management stewardship programs. In Iowa, the Nutrient Reduction Strategy has a 7% (37% std. dev.) nitrate-N reduction with a 0% (3% std. dev.) corn yield change for sidedress compared to preplant N application (SP 0435A).


What Are Financially Strong Farm Operations Doing Differently?, Alejandro Plastina Dec 2016

What Are Financially Strong Farm Operations Doing Differently?, Alejandro Plastina

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

This article distills the major findings from two studies of recent anonymous farm-level financial information from the Iowa Farm Business Association (IFBA). The first study gauges the extent of financial deterioration among Iowa farms between January 1, 2015 and January 1, 2016 (Plastina, 2016a). The second study identifies the factors associated with the capacity of farms to produce free cash flows to pay for family living expenses, cover depreciation, and re-invest in the farm business (Plastina 2016b).


Herbicide Resistance: Experiences East Of The Mississippi River, Aaron G. Hager Dec 2016

Herbicide Resistance: Experiences East Of The Mississippi River, Aaron G. Hager

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The continual evolution of weed species and populations resistant to herbicides from one or more mechanism-of-action families represents one of the most daunting challenges faced by weed management practitioners. Waterhemp has evolved resistance to more herbicide mechanisms of action than any other Illinois weed species, including resistance to inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS), photosystem II (PSII), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). Not every individual waterhemp plant is r esistant to one or more herbicides, but the majority of field-level waterhemp populations contain one or more types of herbicide resistance. Perhaps even more daunting ...


Extending Field Scale 4r Nutrient Management And Wetland Performance To Watershed Scale Outcomes, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2016

Extending Field Scale 4r Nutrient Management And Wetland Performance To Watershed Scale Outcomes, Matthew J. Helmers

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Much of the U.S. Corn Belt is characterized by relative flat, poorly-drained areas which with extensive subsurface drainage, have become some of the most valuable and productive agricultural land in the world. However, this is not without consequences. Nitrate-N loss from these systems is of particular concern due to its potential adverse impacts on both public health and ecosystem function. In addition to the potential local impacts on receiving waters in the Corn Belt, nitrogen loads from the region are suspected as a primary contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Iowa has long been a leader in ...


Soybean Cyst Nematode: Challenges And Opportunities For Sustained, Profitable Soybean Production, Gregory Tylka Dec 2016

Soybean Cyst Nematode: Challenges And Opportunities For Sustained, Profitable Soybean Production, Gregory Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, continues to be a widespread and damaging pathogen of soybean. The pest has been found in all soybean-producing states except New York and all Iowa counties except Allamakee (Figure 1). Although the nematode has been present in the Midwest for four decades, the situation with SCN continues to evolve.


Reducing Nutrient Loss: Science Shows What Works, Iowa State University Extension And Outreach Dec 2016

Reducing Nutrient Loss: Science Shows What Works, Iowa State University Extension And Outreach

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy is a science and technology-based framework developed to assess and reduce nutrients loss to Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico. The strategy includes efforts to reduce the total loads of nitrogen and phosphorus from both point and nonpoint sources by a combined 45%. The practice-based approach was developed in response to the 2008 Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan that calls for Iowa and other states in the Mississippi River watershed to develop strategies to reduce nutrient loadings to the Gulf of Mexico and ultimately reduce the size of the gulf hypoxic zone.


Automated Soil Sampling Machines Provide Different Results Compared To Hand Sampling, Scott Nelson Dec 2016

Automated Soil Sampling Machines Provide Different Results Compared To Hand Sampling, Scott Nelson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil sampling to characterize levels of soil fertility is one of the foundations of profitable management. Soil fertility below optimum levels reduces yield potential, while soil fertility above optimum levels results in lost opportunity costs, profits and potential environmental degradation. In site specific fertility management, soil testing is especially important as it is the basis upon which variable rate prescriptions are written.


Interaction Of Weather And Field Variability On Profitability In Crop Production, Suzanne Fey, Peter Kyveryga, Jensen Connor Sr., Adam Kiel, David Muth Dec 2016

Interaction Of Weather And Field Variability On Profitability In Crop Production, Suzanne Fey, Peter Kyveryga, Jensen Connor Sr., Adam Kiel, David Muth

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The objective of this study was to quantify the often substantial yet somewhat elusive impact of weather, management, and soil spatial variability on within-field profitability in corn and soybean crop production using profitability indices such as profit (net return) and return-on-investment (ROI). We analyzed yield and cropping system data provided by 42 farmers within Central and North Eastern Iowa from 2007 to 2014. The dataset was comprised of 380 site years from 77 fields. Commercial software was used to calculate spatial net return (profit) in crop production, ROI, and standard deviation in profit over time for individual fields. Iowa State ...


Cenusa: Results And Resources For Perennial Grasses, Chad Hart, Jill Euken Dec 2016

Cenusa: Results And Resources For Perennial Grasses, Chad Hart, Jill Euken

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Five years ago, USDA invested significant resources in a study (CenUSA) to explore the potential for bioproducts, including energy, from perennial grasses. This session reviews the results from CenUSA and connects agricultural producers and advisers to the decision tools, fact sheets, and videos created by CenUSA to inform and promote perennial grass production and bioproduct development.


Quality Issues In The 2016 Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh Dec 2016

Quality Issues In The 2016 Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2016 growing season was generally wet with two distinct temperature patterns; hot early during pollination and cooler later. Most of Iowa had 125% up to 200% of normal rainfall to Labor Day, and yet more after Labor Day. The outlook going forward into winter is continued above average temperature. These conditions produced high yield potential at the start of September, but deteriorating quality after Labor Day. Crop quality is normally established by conditions at the very end of the growing season. The massive rains in the Northern third of Iowa complicated the need to move quickly on deteriorating grain.


How Can Fertilizer And Manure Management Practices Reduce Dissolved Phosphorus Loss From Fields And Improve Water Quality?, Antonio P. Mallarino, Mazhar U. Haq Dec 2016

How Can Fertilizer And Manure Management Practices Reduce Dissolved Phosphorus Loss From Fields And Improve Water Quality?, Antonio P. Mallarino, Mazhar U. Haq

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Phosphorus (P) usually is the nutrient that limits and controls algae growth and eutrophication in freshwater bodies. Public concerns about agriculture impacts on water quality and the likelihood of further government regulation have been increasing.


Resistance Management Plan For Soybean Aphid, Erin Hodgson Dec 2016

Resistance Management Plan For Soybean Aphid, Erin Hodgson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean aphid remains the most important soybean insect pest in Iowa, and management over the last fifteen years has primarily relied on using foliar insecticides. The economic injury level was defined by Ragsdale et al. (2007), and is approximately 675 aphids per plant or 5,560 cumulative aphid days. From that multi-state research, a conservative economic threshold was developed to protect yield: 250 aphids per plant with 80% of the plants infested through the seed set plant growth stage (R5.5). The odds of making a profitable treatment decision are increased with regular scouting and applications made after exceeding the ...


Crop Weather Outlook 2017 And Beyond, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2016

Crop Weather Outlook 2017 And Beyond, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2017 crop year follows two years of the 3rd strongest El Niño event since 1950. Historically, very strong El Niño events have only a 25% chance of being followed by a poor crop year. However, there are other factors in play that point to an increasing risk of adverse crop weather during the coming eight years.