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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Taxonomic Classification Of Diplazium Molokaiense, A Fern Endemic To Hawaii, Using Molecular And Morphological Characters, Sarah Jaksich Mar 2019

Taxonomic Classification Of Diplazium Molokaiense, A Fern Endemic To Hawaii, Using Molecular And Morphological Characters, Sarah Jaksich

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Diplazium molokaiense is an endangered fern species endemic to Hawaii. There are only an estimated 61 individuals left in the wild. Taxonomic classification of this species is an important element to its conservation. Using the following morphological characters: sori size and shape, scale size and shape, and frond shape, D. molokaiense was preliminarily placed into the Diplazium genus. Six regions (rbcL, matK, atpA, atpB, trnLF, and rps4-trnS) of the chloroplast genome were amplified and sequenced using Sanger-sequencing. Sequences for outgroup taxa and 20 Diplazium species were downloaded from GenBank and used to infer a phylogeny. Our data provide evidence for ...


How The Foot Modulates Its Mechanics During Uphill And Downhill Walking, Jeffrey M. Patterson, Kota Z. Takahashi Mar 2019

How The Foot Modulates Its Mechanics During Uphill And Downhill Walking, Jeffrey M. Patterson, Kota Z. Takahashi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The foot's biomechanical role in walking on sloped surfaces is currently unclear. While previous biomechanics studies have examined the hip, knee, and ankle, the foot is oversimplified as a rigid-body segment. This oversimplification overshadows its complex structure and function. In this project, we use an innovative multi-segment foot model to explore how the foot adapts its mechanics to incline and decline walking. Preliminary results have revealed that the foot is capable of adapting its mechanical work profile to both incline and decline walking. Specifically, the foot can increase its positive work output (i.e., increased energy generation) during inclined ...


The Effects Of Swimming Training On Arterial Stiffness, Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Endurance In Postmenopausal Women With Stage 2 Hypertension, Steven Scott Mar 2019

The Effects Of Swimming Training On Arterial Stiffness, Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Endurance In Postmenopausal Women With Stage 2 Hypertension, Steven Scott

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Objective:

Aging is associated with progressive decreases in arterial health and function as well as overall fitness. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of aging on vasculature and fitness components by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a swimming (SWM) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV), blood pressure (BP), wave reflection (AIx), muscle strength and aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension.

Methods:

Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either a SWM (n=52) or non-exercising control group (n=48) for ...


Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong Mar 2019

Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Individuals of the same species often display differences in correlated suites of behaviors which are made conspicuous when challenges – stressful, fear-inducing, etc. – are presented. In many species, a specific suite of behaviors (risk-aversion, aggression, exploration, learning, and memory) characterize an alternative set of stress coping styles (proactive and reactive). Such behaviors are regulated in the brain by specific neurotransmitters along with proteins that regulate them. One neurotransmitter regulator protein, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) shows higher baseline whole-brain expression in proactive relative to reactive animals. However, it is not known whether its expression is a cause or a consequence of the stress coping ...


The Time Of Slip Onset During Stance Influences The Characteristics Of The Unconstrained Perturbation, Corbin Rasmussen, Nathaniel Hunt Mar 2019

The Time Of Slip Onset During Stance Influences The Characteristics Of The Unconstrained Perturbation, Corbin Rasmussen, Nathaniel Hunt

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Falls pose a significant health hazard, resulting in devastating injuries like broken wrists, fractured hips, and traumatic brain injuries that exceed $50 billion in U.S. medical costs. To address these risks, biomechanists have subjected individuals to simulated slips in order to study the factors that lead to falls. These studies have focused on slips that happen immediately after heel-strike and are unnaturally restricted by the methods used to cause the slip. Therefore, the effects of unconstrained slips that occur throughout stance phase are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between the timing of slip onset ...


Subthreshold Vibration Influences The Posture And Gait Of Transtibial Amputees, Charles Sloan Mar 2019

Subthreshold Vibration Influences The Posture And Gait Of Transtibial Amputees, Charles Sloan

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Unilateral transtibial amputees lose the afferent pathways of the limb when amputation occurs. The addition of vibration has shown to increase sensation on the applied limb. This study looks into how the addition of subthreshold vibration affects amputee gait and posture. Vibration applied to the residual limb was shown to have worked in posture, but not in gait.


Influence Of Hip Abductor Fatigue On Acl Loading During Single-Leg Landing, Namwoong Kim Mar 2019

Influence Of Hip Abductor Fatigue On Acl Loading During Single-Leg Landing, Namwoong Kim

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

A musculoskeletal simulation study is necessary to identify the cause-effect relationship between hip abductor weakness and ACL loading during athletic events such as landing and jumping. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of weakness of hip abductors on lower extremity kinematics and ACL loading during single-leg landings. We hypothesized that hip abductor weakness would alter lower extremity joint kinematics. We also hypothesized that hip abductor weakness would increase ACL loading during single-leg landings. This study was a combination of a human experiment and a musculoskeletal modeling simulation. Ten healthy participants performed single-leg landing from a height ...


Healthy Living Toolkit, Kristen K. Hicks-Roof Feb 2019

Healthy Living Toolkit, Kristen K. Hicks-Roof

Showcase of Faculty Scholarly & Creative Activity

I partnered with Florida Medical Association to produce the Healthy Living Toolkit for physicians and their patients across Florida. You can download this toolkit here: https://fmahealthyliving.com/


Minque: An R Package For Analyzing Various Linear Mixed Models, Jixiang Wu Feb 2019

Minque: An R Package For Analyzing Various Linear Mixed Models, Jixiang Wu

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Linear mixed model (LMM) approaches offer much more flexibility comparing ANOVA (analysis of variance) based methods. There are three commonly used LMM approaches: maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, and minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation. These three approaches, however, sometimes could also lead low testing power compared to ANOVA methods. Integration of resampling techniques like jackknife could help improve testing power based on both our simulation studies. In this presentation, I will introduce a R package, minque, which integrates LMM approaches and resampling techniques and demonstrate the use of this packages in various linear mixed model analyses.


Global Sustainability That Respects Cultural Diversity & Individual Health Needs, Meriterese Racanelli Feb 2019

Global Sustainability That Respects Cultural Diversity & Individual Health Needs, Meriterese Racanelli

Sustainability Seminar Series

The USA Centers for Disease Control and National Institutes of Health have classified excessive sodium consumption, high blood pressure and diabetes as national health epidemics across various ethnic cultures. The United Nations and other countries classify these as Global Epidemics. Interestingly,some ways to help fix this national and global health crisis can be found in the balance of sustainable environmentally-friendly agriculture, green technologies, and cultural competencies. Learn how sustainability studies, research, and jobs can still respect an individual’s ethnic heritage, culture, and nutritional health needs, while improving the community health at large... from local to global. Sustainability can ...


Upcoming Events [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell Jan 2019

Upcoming Events [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

No abstract provided.


Uk Research Spotlight [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell Jan 2019

Uk Research Spotlight [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

  • Simplifying Grain Drill Calibration J.M. Buckman, H. Adams, and C.D. Teutsch
  • Performance of Stockers Grazing Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures K.M. Mercier, C.D. Teutsch, S.R. Smith, E.L. Ritchey, K.H. Burdine, and E.S. Vanzant
  • Nitrogen Application on Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures K.M. Mercier, C.D. Teutsch, S.R. Smith, E.L. Ritchey, K.H. Burdine, and E.S. Vanzant
  • Cultivar X Aphicide Interactions C.D. Teutsch, R.T. Villanueva, Z.J. Vilora, G.L Olson, and S.R. Smith
  • Using Summer Annuals to Transform Forage Systems in Western Kentucky H. Adams ...


Grazing Myths That Impact Profitability [Slides], Gregory S. Halich Jan 2019

Grazing Myths That Impact Profitability [Slides], Gregory S. Halich

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

No abstract provided.


Grazing Myths That Reduce Profitability, Gregory S. Halich Jan 2019

Grazing Myths That Reduce Profitability, Gregory S. Halich

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Many cattle farms have moved to rotational grazing in the past decade, and there are significant benefits associated with this grazing technique. However, one thing that I have noticed is that costs are not always accounted for when it comes to recommended rotational grazing practices. If you ignore costs, partially or fully, you will invariably do too much of whatever you are considering. In this light, I will highlight four grazing recommendations (myths) that many folks are often taking to extremes related to rotational grazing, and one additional myth (generic to grazing style) that is reducing the overall profitability of ...


Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Edward N. Ballard Jan 2019

Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Edward N. Ballard

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Feed costs represent the major cost in most livestock production systems. A completed analysis of 225 Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) Beef Cow Records on herds in Illinois and Iowa showed that feed cost was the overriding factor determining profitability, explaining over 57 percent of the herd-to-herd variation.


Estimating Pasture Forage Mass From Pasture Height, Ed Rayburn, John Lozier Jan 2019

Estimating Pasture Forage Mass From Pasture Height, Ed Rayburn, John Lozier

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

How do you decide when to move animals to new pasture? How long can they feed on a pasture before they should be moved again? The short answer is, "It depends." It depends on the number and size of animals, pasture size, production goals, available alternative pastures, and the forage mass present in the pasture. In order to practice pasture budgeting, you need an estimate of forage mass measured as pounds of forage dry matter/acre.


A Falling Plate Meter For Estimating Pasture Forage Mass, Ed Rayburn, John Lozier Jan 2019

A Falling Plate Meter For Estimating Pasture Forage Mass, Ed Rayburn, John Lozier

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

It is often helpful to have a reliable estimate of forage on offer to grazing livestock. Research has shown that there is a high correlation between forage height and dry matter yield. This correlation is improved when bulk height is determined by depressing the forage with a weighted plate. This weight plate technique referred to as a weighted disk meter, appears to improve the estimate of pasture yield. Different designs of weighted disk meters are called rising plate meters and falling plate meters depending on how measurements are taken. The weighted disk meter described here is a falling plate meter ...


Profitability At Eldon Farms: Guiding Principles, John Genho Jan 2019

Profitability At Eldon Farms: Guiding Principles, John Genho

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Eldon Farms is a 7,000-acre farm in the Northern Piedmont of Virginia. Over the past 15 years, we have adopted a grazing program based on three principles. While the specifics of each operation are different, I believe these principles can be applied across a host of situations.


2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning, Christopher D. Teutsch Jan 2019

2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning, Christopher D. Teutsch

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based ...


Forages At Kca Foreword [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell Jan 2019

Forages At Kca Foreword [2019], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe, Rehanon Pampell

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

No abstract provided.


Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou Jan 2019

Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou

Yale Day of Data

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Even with treatment, GBM patients have a median survival rate of less than 15 months and a five-year survival rate of 2%. Poor therapeutic outcomes may be attributed to the presence of a subpopulation of cells within tumors, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. CSCs are capable of tumor initiation, sustained self-renewal, and differentiation into terminal cell types. These terminally differentiated cells make up the bulk of the tumor and are sensitive to GBM therapies. Therefore, CSC-directed therapies ...


Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-Hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang Jan 2019

Gene Co-Expression Networks Analysis Reveal Novel Molecular Endotypes In Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Jen-Hwa Chu, Wenlan Zang

Yale Day of Data

Rationale:Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that predisposes to early onset pulmonary emphysema and airways obstruction. The exact mechanism through which AATD leads to lung disease is incompletely understood.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of AAT genotype and augmentation therapy on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome, while examining the link between gene expression profiles, and clinical features of AATD.

Methods: We performed RNA-Seq on RNA extracted from BAL and PBMC on samples obtained from 89 AATD patients enrolled in the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study. Differential gene ...


Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan Jan 2019

Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan

Yale Day of Data

Whole transcriptome wide gene expression profiles in the sputum and circulation from 100 asthma patients were measured using the Affymetrix HuGene 1.0ST arrays. Unsupervised clustering analysis based on pathways from KEGG were used to identify TEA clusters of patients from the sputum gene expression profiles. The identified TEA clusters have significantly different pre-bronchodilator FEV1, bronchodilator responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide levels, history of hospitalization for asthma and history of intubation. Evaluation of TEA clusters in children from Asthma BRIDGE cohort confirmed the identified differences in intubation and hospitalization. Furthermore, evaluation of the TH2 gene signatures suggested a much lower prevalence ...


A Novel Pathway-Based Distance Score Enhances Assessment Of Disease Heterogeneity In Gene Expression, Yunqing Liu, Xiting Yan Jan 2019

A Novel Pathway-Based Distance Score Enhances Assessment Of Disease Heterogeneity In Gene Expression, Yunqing Liu, Xiting Yan

Yale Day of Data

Distance-based unsupervised clustering of gene expression data is commonly used to identify heterogeneity in biologic samples. However, high noise levels in gene expression data and the relatively high correlation between genes are often encountered, so traditional distances such as Euclidean distance may not be effective at discriminating the biological differences between samples. In this study, we developed a novel computational method to assess the biological differences based on pathways by assuming that ontologically defined biological pathways in biologically similar samples have similar behavior. Application of this distance score results in more accurate, robust, and biologically meaningful clustering results in both ...


Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard Jan 2019

Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard

Yale Day of Data

In the biological sciences, image analysis software are used to detect, segment or classify a variety of features encountered in living matter. However, the algorithms that accomplish these tasks are often designed for a specific dataset, making them hardly portable to accomplish the same tasks on images of different biological structures. Recently, convolutional neural networks have been used to perform complex image analysis on a multitude of datasets. While applications of these networks abound in the technology industry and computer science, use cases are not as common in the academic sciences. Motivated by the generalizability of neural networks, we aim ...


A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar Jan 2019

A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp Jan 2019

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson Dec 2018

Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

Engagement and Service-Learning Summit: Reciprocal and Sustainable Partnerships


Prenylation In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens, Noela Botaka, Susana Perez-Martinez, Liang Bao, Parul Singh, Mark Running Nov 2018

Prenylation In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens, Noela Botaka, Susana Perez-Martinez, Liang Bao, Parul Singh, Mark Running

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that involves the addition of lipid groups to the end of a target protein and is necessary for protein activity. Prenylation has important roles in the cell: targeting and localizing proteins to subcellular compartments and promoting protein-protein interactions. Recently, we have found Protein Prenyltransferase Alpha Subunit-like (PPAL), which shares structural similarities to known prenylation enzymes. However, the biochemical function of PPAL is still unknown. PPAL is present in a single copy in other plants examined to date but is present in two copies in moss. Knockouts in our lab of either PpPAL1 or PpPAL2 ...


A Crispr Platform For Rapid And Inducible Genome Editing In Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells, Lloyd Bartley Nov 2018

A Crispr Platform For Rapid And Inducible Genome Editing In Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells, Lloyd Bartley

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. High mortality rate associated with NSCLC is partially attributed to the limited understanding of NSCLC as well as ineffective therapeutic treatments. The initiation and progression of NSCLC involves genetic changes leading to alterations in the control of tissue development and homeostatic maintenance. Better knowledge about these genetic abnormalities is imperative for developing new chemotherapeutic drugs for NSCLC. Recent research demonstrates that the expression of paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a lactonase/arylesterase with anti-oxidant properties, are markedly enhanced in ...