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Securities Law Commons

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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 181

Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

The Hostile Poison Pill, A. Christine Hurt Dec 2016

The Hostile Poison Pill, A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Mandatory Third Party Compliance Examinations For Investment Advisers: An Sec Waterloo?, Mercer Bullard Dec 2016

Mandatory Third Party Compliance Examinations For Investment Advisers: An Sec Waterloo?, Mercer Bullard

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or Commission) appears to be on the verge of requiring investment advisers to undergo third party examinations. One justification for the rulemaking is that the Commission lacks sufficient resources to examine advisers frequently enough. Another is to create indirectly a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for investments advisers. Both may leave a rulemaking particularly vulnerable to challenge as arbitrary and capricious under the Administrative Procedures Act. This Article considers three novel grounds on which a rulemaking may be successfully challenged. Congress has repeatedly rejected SEC requests to provide additional funding for examinations or to create an ...


The Choice Is (Not) Yours: Why The Sec Must Further Amend Its Rules Of Practice To Increase Fairness In Administrative Proceedings, Madeline Ilibassi Dec 2016

The Choice Is (Not) Yours: Why The Sec Must Further Amend Its Rules Of Practice To Increase Fairness In Administrative Proceedings, Madeline Ilibassi

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) plays an extremely important role within the securities industry—it oversees the financial markets, protects consumers, and maintains market efficiency. One of the most important (and recently one of most criticized) responsibilities of the SEC is its duty to enforce the securities laws and punish violators. During the past two decades, and especially after the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010, the SEC’s Division of Enforcement has grown substantially and has utilized administrative enforcement proceedings at an increasing rate. However; this utilization has been occurring without ...


Dashboard Compliance: Benefit, Threat, Or Both?, James Fanto Dec 2016

Dashboard Compliance: Benefit, Threat, Or Both?, James Fanto

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

This Article poses the basic question that is reflected in its title and that was the subject of the conference where the Article was initially presented: whether technology poses any threats to the mission of compliance and the position of compliance officers, whether it is just another useful tool for them, or whether it is something of both. It begins by explaining the origin of compliance in broker-dealers and investment advisers and its important current position in those firms. It then discusses why compliance officers have always been drawn to technology, particularly to keep up with the business sides of ...


The Role Of Blue Sky Laws After Nsmia And The Jobs Act, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Dec 2016

The Role Of Blue Sky Laws After Nsmia And The Jobs Act, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

State securities laws—in particular, state laws requiring that securities offered by issuers be registered with the states—have been an impediment to the efficient movement of capital to its highest and best use. The pernicious effects of these laws—generally referred to as “blue sky laws”—have been felt most acutely by small businesses, a vital component of our national economy.

It has been difficult to remedy this problem. States and state regulators have been tenacious in protecting their registration authority from federal preemption. The Securities and Exchange Commission, on the other hand, has been reluctant to advocate for ...


The Cybersecurity Threat: Compliance And The Role Of Whistleblowers, Jennifer M. Pacella Dec 2016

The Cybersecurity Threat: Compliance And The Role Of Whistleblowers, Jennifer M. Pacella

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

In today’s technologically dependent world, concerns about cybersecurity, data breaches, and compromised personal information infiltrate the news almost daily. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has recently emerged as a regulator that is keenly focused on cybersecurity, specifically with respect to encouraging disclosures in this arena by regulated entities. Although the SEC has issued non-binding “guidance” to help companies navigate their reporting obligations in this sector, the agency lacks binding cybersecurity disclosure regulations as they pertain generally to public companies. Given that the SEC has already relied on such guidance in threatening enforcement actions, reporting companies are increasingly pressured ...


Preserving Human Agency In Automated Compliance, Onnig H. Dombalagian Dec 2016

Preserving Human Agency In Automated Compliance, Onnig H. Dombalagian

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

As technology transforms financial services, so too must it transform the regulation of financial markets and intermediaries. The imperative of real-time, prophylactic regulation increasingly compels reallocation of regulatory and compliance budgets to surveillance and enforcement technology. At the same time, in light of the well-known weaknesses of automated systems, securities firms (and their regulators) must temper investment in automation with efforts to augment the agency of compliance professionals. This symposium contribution considers how investment in the professional development of compliance personnel can better integrate automated tools within established compliance and supervisory structures and thereby advance regulatory and operational objectives.


The Learned Hand Unformula For Short-Swing Liability, Andrew Chin Dec 2016

The Learned Hand Unformula For Short-Swing Liability, Andrew Chin

Washington Law Review

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 allows for the recovery of short-swing profits realized by certain insiders from trading in a corporation’s stock within a period of less than six months. Three generations of corporate law students have been taught the “lowest-in, highest-out” formula that is intended to maximize the disgorgement of short-swing profits under section 16(b). Arnold Jacobs’s 1987 treatise presented two hypothetical examples where the formula fell short of the intended maximum, but courts, commentators, and practitioners have largely ignored these theoretical challenges to the formula’s validity. This Article identifies ...


Fair Or Foul?: Sec Administrative Proceedings And Prospects For Reform Through Removal Legislation, Joseph A. Grundfest Dec 2016

Fair Or Foul?: Sec Administrative Proceedings And Prospects For Reform Through Removal Legislation, Joseph A. Grundfest

Fordham Law Review

This Article catalogues the long list of criticisms of the Commission’s administrative proceedings. It also evaluates data describing the outcome of litigated matters and finds that, with the exception of insider trading cases, the Commission has an exceptionally high and statistically indistinguishable record of success in administrative and federal court proceedings alike. The data thus seem not to support the view that the Commission has a generalized home-court advantage in administrative proceedings. Nonetheless, the Commission’s virtually unfettered discretion in forum selection decisions, when it can assign cases to a forum that it controls, raises a plethora of institutional ...


Consistently Inconsistent: What Is A Qualifying Investment Under Article 25 Of The Icsid Convention And Why The Debate Must End, Jeremy Marc Exelbert Dec 2016

Consistently Inconsistent: What Is A Qualifying Investment Under Article 25 Of The Icsid Convention And Why The Debate Must End, Jeremy Marc Exelbert

Fordham Law Review

International investment has helped to pave the way for an increasingly globalized world community. Consequently, the International Centre for Settlement of Investor Disputes (ICSID)—existing under the mandate of the World Bank and with the stated purpose of increasing economic development abroad—has become the leading international arbitration mechanism currently available for settling disputes arising out of such investments. It is unsettling, therefore, that the interpretation of “investment” within article 25 of the ICSID Convention (the provision that determines whether an ICSID tribunal may exercise jurisdiction over a dispute) has given rise to a unique interpretive controversy because the ICSID ...


The Learned Hand Unformula For Short-Swing Liability, Andrew Chin Dec 2016

The Learned Hand Unformula For Short-Swing Liability, Andrew Chin

Washington Law Review

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 allows for the recovery of short-swing profits realized by certain insiders from trading in a corporation’s stock within a period of less than six months. Three generations of corporate law students have been taught the “lowest-in, highest-out” formula that is intended to maximize the disgorgement of short-swing profits under section 16(b). Arnold Jacobs’s 1987 treatise presented two hypothetical examples where the formula fell short of the intended maximum, but courts, commentators, and practitioners have largely ignored these theoretical challenges to the formula’s validity. This Article identifies ...


The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera Dec 2016

The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article is concerned with the applicability of sovereign immunity to the so-called sovereign wealth funds (“SWFs”) within the U.S. legal system. While sovereign immunity has existed for at least two centuries, SWFs and the types of investment activities they conduct on behalf of their parent foreign states are a rather recent phenomenon. As a result, the issue of the applicability of the rules on sovereign immunity to the SWFs poses novel legal challenges and difficulties. In a nutshell, this article is intended to answer the following questions: Are SWFs entitled to invoke sovereign immunity before U.S. courts ...


Outside A Black Box: Court And Regulatory Review Of Investment Valuations Of Hard-To-Value Securities, Salvatore Massa Nov 2016

Outside A Black Box: Court And Regulatory Review Of Investment Valuations Of Hard-To-Value Securities, Salvatore Massa

William & Mary Business Law Review

Valuation is a critical function of investment advisers that has significant implications for both clients and advisers. One potential risk associated with valuation is that an investment adviser may abuse its position in valuing portfolio assets to accrue higher management and incentive fees to the detriment of clients. Although the valuation function may be viewed as an objective exercise, adviser valuations become subject to greater levels of discretion for hard-to-value securities, making determinations of adviser abuse less clear. Depending on the transparency of the adviser, the valuation process itself may become a black box to the client. Securities and Exchange ...


Integration Of Securities Offerings: Obstacles To Capital Formation Remain For Small Businesses, Perry E. Wallace, Jr. Nov 2016

Integration Of Securities Offerings: Obstacles To Capital Formation Remain For Small Businesses, Perry E. Wallace, Jr.

Perry Wallace

No abstract provided.


Integration Of Securities Offerings: Obstacles To Capital Formation Remain For Small Businesses, Perry E. Wallace, Jr. Nov 2016

Integration Of Securities Offerings: Obstacles To Capital Formation Remain For Small Businesses, Perry E. Wallace, Jr.

Perry Wallace

No abstract provided.


Crowdfunding Without The Crowd, Darian M. Ibrahim Nov 2016

Crowdfunding Without The Crowd, Darian M. Ibrahim

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery Nov 2016

Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

The social and political problems of wealth inequality in America are severe and getting worse. A surprise is that the U.S. tax system, as is, is a significant cause of these problems, not a cure for them. The tax-law doctrines that allow those who already have financial wealth to live, luxuriously and tax-free, or to pass on their wealth tax-free to heirs, are simple. The applicable legal doctrines have been in place for nearly a century under the income tax, the primary social tool for addressing matters of economic inequality. The analytic pathways to reform are easy to see ...


In Defense Of The Dealers: Why The Sec Should Allow Substituted Compliance With The European Union For Security-Based Swap Dealers, John Welling Nov 2016

In Defense Of The Dealers: Why The Sec Should Allow Substituted Compliance With The European Union For Security-Based Swap Dealers, John Welling

Fordham Law Review

Following the 2008–2009 financial crisis, legislators around the world enacted laws that regulated the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets for the first time. These laws, though necessary, have duplicative requirements that dampen market efficiency. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission is contemplating a “substituted compliance” regime with other jurisdictions. This regime would allow market participants to comply with one jurisdiction’s requirements for certain transactions, rather than the requirements of multiple jurisdictions. This Note argues that the SEC should allow substituted compliance for OTC derivatives, but only for dealers located in the United States and European Union ...


The Mechanisms Of Derivatives Market Efficiency, Dan Awrey Nov 2016

The Mechanisms Of Derivatives Market Efficiency, Dan Awrey

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

These are not your parents' financial markets. A generation ago, the image of Wall Street was one of floor traders and stockbrokers, of opening bells and ticker symbols, of titans of industry and barbarians at the gate. These images reflected the prevailing view in which stock markets stood at the center of the financial universe. The high point of this equity-centric view coincided with the development of a significant body of empirical literature examining the efficient market hypothesis (EMH): the prediction that prices within an efficient stock market will fully incorporate all available information. Over time, this equity-centric view became ...


Investment Treaties Are About Justice, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2016

Investment Treaties Are About Justice, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This Perspective argues that investment law is ripe for a paradigm shift away from pure capital protection. Rather, investment law should be recognized as part of a comprehensive global economic governance system for ensuring justice and the rule of law, in this case in the allocation of investment capital.


Incentivizing Corporate America To Eradicate Transnational Bribery Worldwide: Federal Transparency And Voluntary Disclosure Under The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Peter R. Reilly Oct 2016

Incentivizing Corporate America To Eradicate Transnational Bribery Worldwide: Federal Transparency And Voluntary Disclosure Under The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Peter R. Reilly

Florida Law Review

In 1977, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) discovered that hundreds of U.S. companies had spent hundreds of millions of dollars in bribes to improve business overseas. In response, Congress passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), thereby making it illegal to bribe foreign officials to obtain a business advantage. A major tension has emerged between the federal agencies charged with enforcing the FCPA (i.e., the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the SEC), and the corporate entities trying to stay within the legal and regulatory bounds of the statute. Specifically, while the government appears ...


Two Faces Of Corporate Lobbying: Evidence From The Pharmaceutical Industry, Dongnyoung Kim, Incheol Kim, Omer Unsal Oct 2016

Two Faces Of Corporate Lobbying: Evidence From The Pharmaceutical Industry, Dongnyoung Kim, Incheol Kim, Omer Unsal

Finance Faculty Publications

This paper addresses two side effects of corporate lobbying on firm value in the pharmaceutical industry. Employing corporate lobbying and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval data for the period from 1998 to 2013, we find that lobbying firms have a 67.3 percent higher chance that their new prescription drugs are approved by the FDA than non-lobbying firms. On the 3-day window surrounding FDA approval announcements, lobbying firms yield, on average, a 1.1% higher market reaction than non-lobbying peers. However, we also find that insiders in lobbying firms abnormally purchase their own stocks prior to FDA approvals ...


Will We Ever Close The Gaap?: A Look Into The International Convergence Of Accounting Standards, Melanie Rosin Oct 2016

Will We Ever Close The Gaap?: A Look Into The International Convergence Of Accounting Standards, Melanie Rosin

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This Note examines the trend toward the international convergence of accounting standards and then identifies the factors contributing to the process of this trend as well as the obstacles standard setters face in moving to one high quality, unified set of standards. The Note next identifies the possible outcomes for the future of convergence, including the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the United States, the Securities & Exchange Commission’s (SEC) encouragement of the voluntary of adoption of IFRS by the United States, requiring public companies to comply with both U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U ...


Regulating Secondary Markets In The High Frequency Age: A Principled And Coordinated Approach, Michael Morelli Oct 2016

Regulating Secondary Markets In The High Frequency Age: A Principled And Coordinated Approach, Michael Morelli

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Technological developments in securities markets, most notably high frequency trading, have fundamentally changed the structure and nature of trading over the past 50 years. Policymakers both domestically and abroad now face many new challenges impacting the secondary market’s effectiveness as a generator of economic growth and stability. Faced with these rapid structural changes, many are quick to denounce high frequency trading as opportunistic and parasitic. This article, however, instead argues that while high frequency trading presents certain general risks to secondary market efficiency, liquidity, stability, and integrity, the practice encompasses a wide variety of strategies, many of which can ...


Securities And Financial Regulation In The Second Circuit, Karen Patton Seymour Oct 2016

Securities And Financial Regulation In The Second Circuit, Karen Patton Seymour

Fordham Law Review

The Second Circuit has long been the country’s preeminent court in the field of securities and financial regulation. The reputation of the Second Circuit in the realm of securities has been so great that other courts, including the Supreme Court, often mention by name the particular judges that decided a given Second Circuit precedent to justify their reliance on that decision. Many courts have long looked to its jurisprudence for guidance in deciding novel or complex securities law issues. This article tracks the Second Circuit’s significant role in developing civil enforcement mechanisms for federal securities laws and making ...


Shining The Light A Little Brighter: Should Item 303 Serve As A Basis For Liability Under Rule 10b-5?, Lauren M. Mastronardi Oct 2016

Shining The Light A Little Brighter: Should Item 303 Serve As A Basis For Liability Under Rule 10b-5?, Lauren M. Mastronardi

Fordham Law Review

This Note discusses a securities disclosure issue stemming from a split between the Second Circuit and the Ninth Circuit. The question presented is whether failure to comply with a disclosure requirement created by Item 303 of Regulation S-K can provide a basis for liability under section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5. The Ninth Circuit held that such violation does not provide a basis for liability. Conversely, in Stratte-McClure v. Morgan Stanley, the Second Circuit explicitly disagreed with the Ninth Circuit and concluded that this violation may serve as a basis for liability. This ...


Price Impact Possibilities, Wendy Gerwick Couture Oct 2016

Price Impact Possibilities, Wendy Gerwick Couture

Articles

No abstract provided.


White Collar Crime, Robert J. Anello, Miriam L. Glaser Oct 2016

White Collar Crime, Robert J. Anello, Miriam L. Glaser

Fordham Law Review

This Article will address six different areas of white collar law and procedure: (1) fraud, (2) the Racketeer Influenced & Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), (3) conspiracy, (4) public corruption, (5) white collar practice, and (6) sentencing. Many of the cases profiled in this Article have driven legal and cultural developments far beyond the federal courts, including the cases of Leona Helmsley, one of New York’s most prominent real estate moguls; the “Mafia Commission,” a take-down of the bosses of the Five Families of La Cosa Nostra; and Abscam, a massive sting operation created by the federal government to expose corrupt officials. Of course, the cases and doctrines discussed can only scratch the surface of the vast wealth of jurisprudence and leadership that the Second Circuit has provided in the arena of white collar crime. Even more fascinating material therefore awaits the interested and industrious reader in his or her own research.


Audience Participation: Crowdfunding Large Scale Theatrical Productions Through Regulation A+, Christopher Johnson Oct 2016

Audience Participation: Crowdfunding Large Scale Theatrical Productions Through Regulation A+, Christopher Johnson

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Theatrical financing has been conducted in much the same way for the better part of a century. This method, however, has consistently provided only the shows with access to the deepest of pockets a path to Broadway. The advent of Internet-based crowdfunding provides producers access to a potential source of capital that was previously unavailable. Prior to the promulgation of the SEC regulations regarding Title IV of the JOBS Act, this capital could only be accessed through donation or reward based financing campaigns, but with the introduction of Regulation A+, there is finally a practical method for the widespread solicitation ...


The Sec, Administrative Usurpation, And Insider Trading, Adam C. Pritchard Oct 2016

The Sec, Administrative Usurpation, And Insider Trading, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

The history of insider trading law is a tale of administrative usurpation and legislative acquiescence. Congress has never enacted a prohibition against insider trading, much less defined it. Instead, the SEC has led in defining insider trading, albeit without the formality of rulemaking, and subject to varying degrees of oversight by the courts. The reason why lies in the deference that the Supreme Court gave to the SEC in its formative years. The roots of insider trading law are commonly traced to the SEC’s decision in Cady, Roberts & Co. Cady, Roberts was only made possible, however, by the Supreme ...