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Securities Law Commons

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Articles 1 - 30 of 98

Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Information Asymmetry And The Protection Of Investors, Kevin S. Haeberle Nov 2019

Information Asymmetry And The Protection Of Investors, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

To some, the reductions in information asymmetry provided by the main securities-specific disclosure, fraud, and insider-trading laws help ordinary investors in meaningful ways. To others, whatever their larger social value, such reductions do little, if anything for these investors. For decades, these two sides of this investor-protection divide have mostly talked past each other.

This Article builds on economic theory to reveal something striking: The reductions in information asymmetry provided by the core securities laws likely impose a long-overlooked cost on buy-and-hold ordinary investors. More specifically, I explain why there is much reason to believe that the reductions take away ...


Could Distributed Ledger Shares Lead To An Increase In Stockholder-Approved Mergers And Subsequently An Increase In Exercise Of Appraisal Rights?, Alyson Brown Apr 2019

Could Distributed Ledger Shares Lead To An Increase In Stockholder-Approved Mergers And Subsequently An Increase In Exercise Of Appraisal Rights?, Alyson Brown

William & Mary Business Law Review

Blockchain, the distributed ledger technology underlying cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, is poised to revolutionize industries and processes across disciplines. In particular, government agencies and companies are looking for ways to leverage blockchain’s efficiencies to facilitate safe record-keeping. Municipalities are employing blockchain-issued deeds to accurately record property ownership. Progressive legal professionals are employing blockchainissued “smart-contracts” to more accurately record contract terms. Intellectual property attorneys and related government agencies are researching blockchain-issued copyrights and patents.

This Note examines how utilizing blockchain technology in securities trading to maintain accurate stockholder ledgers will allow for current market forces to be reflected in stockholder voting ...


A New Market-Based Approach To Securities Law, Kevin S. Haeberle Oct 2018

A New Market-Based Approach To Securities Law, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

Modern securities regulation has three main areas, each of which is plagued by a core problem. Mandatory disclosure law leaves society with suboptimal disclosure, as the government calls for too little of some information (for example, management analysis of company prospects) and too much of other information (for example, data about trivial executive perks). Securities fraud law (specifically, its central fraud-on-the-market theory of reliance) yields damages at odds with any reasonable theory of compensation and deterrence. And insider trading law fails to achieve its ends because incentives to police illegal trading and tipping by executives are currently weak.

In this ...


Securities Fraud Embedded In The Market Structure Crisis: High-Frequency Traders As Primary Violators, Stanislav Dolgopolov Apr 2018

Securities Fraud Embedded In The Market Structure Crisis: High-Frequency Traders As Primary Violators, Stanislav Dolgopolov

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article analyzes approaches to attaching liability for securities fraud to high-frequency traders as primary violators in connection with the current market structure crisis. One of the manifestations of this crisis pertains to inadequate disclosure of advanced functionalities offered by trading venues, as exemplified by the order type controversy. The Article’s analysis is applied to secret arrangements between trading venues and preferred traders, glitches and gaming, and the reach of the doctrine of market manipulation, and several relevant issues are also viewed from the standpoint of the integrity of the trading process. The Article concludes by arguing for a ...


Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson Apr 2018

Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson

Faculty Publications

It has long been said that market forces alone will result in a problematic under-sharing of information by public companies. Since the 1930s, the main regulatory response to this market failure has come in the form of the massive mandatory-disclosure regime that sits at the foundation of modern securities law. But this regime—especially when viewed along with its speech-chilling antifraud overlay—no doubt leaves society without all the corporate information from which it would benefit. The typical fix offered to the problem has been more of the same: add to the 100-plus-page list of what firms must disclose, often ...


Crowdfunding Signals, Darian M. Ibrahim Nov 2017

Crowdfunding Signals, Darian M. Ibrahim

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Murky Skies Ahead! Analyzing Executive Authority And Future Policies Regarding Corporate Disclosure Of Greenhouse Gases, Chandler Crenshaw Nov 2017

Murky Skies Ahead! Analyzing Executive Authority And Future Policies Regarding Corporate Disclosure Of Greenhouse Gases, Chandler Crenshaw

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Distributed Governance, Carla L. Reyes, Nizan Geslevich Packin, Ben Edwards Sep 2017

Distributed Governance, Carla L. Reyes, Nizan Geslevich Packin, Ben Edwards

William & Mary Law Review Online

Distributed ledger technology disrupts traditional business organizations by introducing new business entities without the directors and officers of traditional corporate entities. Although these emerging entities offer intriguing possibilities, distributed entities may suffer significant collective action problems and expose investors to catastrophic regulatory and governance risks. Our Article examines key considerations for stakeholders and argues that distributed entities must be carefully structured to function effectively. This Article breaks new ground by critically examining distributed entities. We argue that a distributed model is most appropriate when distributed ledger technology solves a unique corporate governance problem. We caution against ignoring the lessons painstakingly ...


Evaluating Stock-Trading Practices And Their Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Kevin S. Haeberle Jul 2017

Evaluating Stock-Trading Practices And Their Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

High-frequency trading, dark pools, and the practices associated with them have come under tremendous scrutiny lately, giving rise to much hot rhetoric. Missing from the discussion, however, is a principled, comprehensive standard for evaluating such practices and the law that governs them. This Article fills that gap by providing a general framework for making serious normative judgments about stock-trading behavior and its regulation. In particular, we argue that such practices and laws should be evaluated with an eye to the secondary trading market's impact on four main aspects of our economy: the use of existing productive capacity, the allocation ...


Discrimination Platforms, Kevin S. Haeberle Jul 2017

Discrimination Platforms, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

Off-exchange trading today has become defined by its opacity. Indeed, the framing of this symposium on What Happens in the Dark: An Exploration of Dark Pools and High Frequency Trading and its goal of "exam[ing] a portion of the modern market that remains largely outside of the public eye"l is much in line with contemporary thinking in policymaking, academic, and industry circles alike. Yet, off-exchange trading through "dark" pools and the like is far more transparent than thought, and exchange trading the opposite. In fact, much trading through off-exchange platforms is even more transparent than that facilitated by ...


Much Ado About Nothing: The Limits Of Liability For Item 303 Omissions And The Circuit Split That Never Was, Brian Currie Apr 2017

Much Ado About Nothing: The Limits Of Liability For Item 303 Omissions And The Circuit Split That Never Was, Brian Currie

William & Mary Business Law Review

The implied private action for violations of SEC Rule 10b-5 has a contentious history. When plaintiffs base such actions on representations of forward-looking information, however, the stakes are even higher. Recently, the federal circuit courts revisited this divisive issue while deciding whether an omission from required disclosure of Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) of financial conditions and results of operations. The apparent disparity between the federal circuit courts has caused great consternation and uncertainty in the corporate legal sphere.

This Note will examine the origins and controversial history of Rule 10b-5 private actions, discuss the treatment of MD ...


Rethinking Corporate Governance For A Bondholder Financed, Systemically Risky World, Steven L. Schwarcz Mar 2017

Rethinking Corporate Governance For A Bondholder Financed, Systemically Risky World, Steven L. Schwarcz

William & Mary Law Review

This Article makes two arguments that, combined, demonstrate an important synergy: first, including bondholders in corporate governance could help to reduce systemic risk because bondholders are more risk averse than shareholders; second, corporate governance should include bondholders because bonds now dwarf equity as a source of corporate financing and bond prices are increasingly tied to firm performance.


What Exactly Is Market Integrity? An Analysis Of One Of The Core Objectives Of Securities Regulation, Janet Austin Feb 2017

What Exactly Is Market Integrity? An Analysis Of One Of The Core Objectives Of Securities Regulation, Janet Austin

William & Mary Business Law Review

One of the main objectives of securities regulation around the world is to protect the integrity or fairness of the markets. This, together with protecting investors, improving the efficiency of markets, and protecting the markets from systemic risk, form the four fundamental goals of securities regulation.

However, what exactly is envisaged by this concept of market integrity or fairness? Are these simply norms of behaviour incapable of further definition? Despite their importance, relatively little attention has been given to these concepts in the literature. Do they, for example, require securities regulators to just work towards eliminating dishonest trading practices such ...


Outside A Black Box: Court And Regulatory Review Of Investment Valuations Of Hard-To-Value Securities, Salvatore Massa Nov 2016

Outside A Black Box: Court And Regulatory Review Of Investment Valuations Of Hard-To-Value Securities, Salvatore Massa

William & Mary Business Law Review

Valuation is a critical function of investment advisers that has significant implications for both clients and advisers. One potential risk associated with valuation is that an investment adviser may abuse its position in valuing portfolio assets to accrue higher management and incentive fees to the detriment of clients. Although the valuation function may be viewed as an objective exercise, adviser valuations become subject to greater levels of discretion for hard-to-value securities, making determinations of adviser abuse less clear. Depending on the transparency of the adviser, the valuation process itself may become a black box to the client. Securities and Exchange ...


Crowdfunding Without The Crowd, Darian M. Ibrahim Nov 2016

Crowdfunding Without The Crowd, Darian M. Ibrahim

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Section 3: Business, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2016

Section 3: Business, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Information-Dissemination Law: The Regulation Of How Market-Moving Information Is Revealed, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson Sep 2016

Information-Dissemination Law: The Regulation Of How Market-Moving Information Is Revealed, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Collateral Damage: The Legal And Regulatory Protections For Customer Margin In The U.S. Derivatives Markets, Christian Chamorro-Courtland Apr 2016

Collateral Damage: The Legal And Regulatory Protections For Customer Margin In The U.S. Derivatives Markets, Christian Chamorro-Courtland

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article provides a detailed analysis ofthe laws and regulations that apply to margin posted by customers entering into futures and cleared swaps contracts in the United States. It describes the types ofmargin accounts used by Futures Commission Merchants (“FCM”) and Central Counterparties (“CCPs”). It analyzes the rights of customers upon the insolvency of their FCM.

First, this Article explains why futures customers currently receive a lower level of protection under the Commodity Exchange Act than that received by cleared swaps customers under the Dodd-Frank Act. On the one hand, futures customers currently share risk as co-owners for margin that ...


Why Now Is The Time To Statutorily Ban Insider Trading Under The Equality Of Access Theory, Bruce W. Klaw Mar 2016

Why Now Is The Time To Statutorily Ban Insider Trading Under The Equality Of Access Theory, Bruce W. Klaw

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article makes the case for a new U.S. statutory provision that defines and prohibits insider trading under an “equality of access” theory. It supports this claim, and contributes to the important public dialogue concerning this prevalent practice, by highlighting the moral and legal gaps in existing U.S. law that result from understanding the harms of trading on the basis of material nonpublic information solely with reference to fiduciary breach or misappropriation, as evidenced by the recent cases of United States v. Newman and United States v. Salman. It weaves legal analysis together with current literature in business ...


Chinese Regulation Of Issuer Earnings Forecasts: Recommendations For An Ex Ante Legal Framework, Chengxi Yao Mar 2016

Chinese Regulation Of Issuer Earnings Forecasts: Recommendations For An Ex Ante Legal Framework, Chengxi Yao

William & Mary Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Superior Supererogation: Why Credit Default Swaps Are Securities Under The Investment Advisers Act Of 1940, J. Tyler Kirk Feb 2015

Superior Supererogation: Why Credit Default Swaps Are Securities Under The Investment Advisers Act Of 1940, J. Tyler Kirk

William & Mary Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Better Go It Alone: An Extension Of Fiduciary Duties For Investment Fund Managers In Securities Class Action Opt-Outs, Brian J. Shea Feb 2015

Better Go It Alone: An Extension Of Fiduciary Duties For Investment Fund Managers In Securities Class Action Opt-Outs, Brian J. Shea

William & Mary Business Law Review

Securities class actions provide a vehicle for plaintiffs to recover billions of dollars in settlement awards. Given the prevalence of institutional investors in the market for publicly traded securities, it is no surprise that large investment funds are often implicated as lead plaintiffs in securities class actions. Despite having recoverable claims in many of these settlements, these investment funds often fail to participate in the action on behalf of their beneficiaries (their investors). Some scholars argue that fund managers have a fiduciary obligation to participate in claim filing and monitoring processes in an effort to recover settlement awards and to ...


Stock-Market Law And The Accuracy Of Public Companies’ Stock Prices, Kevin S. Haeberle Jan 2015

Stock-Market Law And The Accuracy Of Public Companies’ Stock Prices, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

The social benefits of more accurate stock prices—that is, stock-market prices that more accurately reflect the future cash flows that companies are likely to produce—are well established. But it is also thought that market forces alone will lead to only a sub-optimal level of stock-price accuracy—a level that fails to obtain the maximum net social benefits, or wealth, that would result from a higher level. One of the principal aims of federal securities law has therefore been to increase the extent to which the stock prices of the most important companies in our economy (public companies) contain ...


Reconsidering The Institutional Design Of Federal Securities Regulation, Zachary J. Gubler Nov 2014

Reconsidering The Institutional Design Of Federal Securities Regulation, Zachary J. Gubler

William & Mary Law Review

The institutional design literature is interested in the optimality of particular legal institutions, for example, judicial review of agency actions, corporate federalism, and environmental policy. This Article brings such an analysis to bear on federal securities regulation and argues that we could improve upon the current institutional structure. In particular, the Article proposes that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) be given even more decision-making authority than it currently has under the statutory scheme, effectively authorizing the agency to create disclosure rules for any firm that operates in interstate commerce. At the same time, the Article proposes that we place ...


Kickstarter My Heart: Extraordinary Popular Delusions And The Madness Of Crowdfunding Constraints And Bitcoin Bubbles, David Groshoff Apr 2014

Kickstarter My Heart: Extraordinary Popular Delusions And The Madness Of Crowdfunding Constraints And Bitcoin Bubbles, David Groshoff

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article builds on my existing research program that (a) broadly seeks to analyze laws, regulations, instruments, and policy levers that inhibit a market’s ability to recognize an asset’s intrinsic value, whether in terms of financial, social, or human capital, and (b) explores and advances interdisciplinary corporate governance theories by employing a heterodox economic analytic to derive its proposal to the paradox of an unregulated virtual currency market (Bitcoins) and an overly regulated crowdfunding market (Kickstarter).

The Article functions not only as an homage to Charles MacKay’s legendary 1841 book, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of ...


Taking Stock: Insider And Outsider Trading By Congress, Jeanne L. Schroeder Feb 2014

Taking Stock: Insider And Outsider Trading By Congress, Jeanne L. Schroeder

William & Mary Business Law Review

Spring 2012 saw the enactment of the “Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012” or “STOCK Act.” It supposedly repealed an exemption from the federal securities laws that made insider trading by members of Congress “totally legal.” As every securities lawyer knows, however, there never was such an exemption. Representatives and Senators have always been subject to the same rules as the rest of us. It is just that insider-trading law is so incoherent that legal scholars sharply disagreed as to when, or even if, trading by government officials on the basis of material nonpublic information gleaned from their ...


Marketing Of Investment Advisers To Public Pension Plans: Achieving Transparency Through Lobbying Regulations?, Christina M. Sumpio Feb 2014

Marketing Of Investment Advisers To Public Pension Plans: Achieving Transparency Through Lobbying Regulations?, Christina M. Sumpio

William & Mary Business Law Review

In the past decade, public pension plans and their outside investment advisers have been at the center of scandals involving bribery, blatant asset mismanagement, and widespread corruption. In response to this corruption, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and many state legislatures have adopted laws addressing “pay-to-play,” the custom of making political contributions or other payments to state or local officials in return for an opportunity to “play”—invest the public pension fund money. This Note examines certain pay-to-play legislation enacted by state and local governments seeking to regulate investment advisers and public pension plans through the promulgation of ...


The Cost Of Securities Fraud, Urska Velikonja May 2013

The Cost Of Securities Fraud, Urska Velikonja

William & Mary Law Review

Under the dominant account, fraudulent financial reporting by public firms harms the firms' shareholders and, more generally, capital markets. This Article contends that the account is incomplete. In addition to undermining investor confidence, misreporting distorts economic decision making by all firms, both those committing fraud and those not. False information impairs risk assessment by those who provide human or financial capital to fraudulent firms, the firms' suppliers and customers, and thus misdirects capital and labor to subpar projects. Efforts to hide fraud and avoid detection further distort fraudulent firms' business decisions, as well as decisions by their rivals, who mimic ...


Scaling Chinese Walls: Insights From Aftra V. Jpmorgan Chase, Jeffrey Bingham Apr 2013

Scaling Chinese Walls: Insights From Aftra V. Jpmorgan Chase, Jeffrey Bingham

William & Mary Business Law Review

The material non-public information financial services firms receive from clients utilizing commercial banking services may often prove beneficial to the firm’s trust account clients if the information is used in making investment decisions for these trust accounts. Consequently, financial services firms confront two equally dubious options: to utilize the information to benefit the trust account client and break insider trading laws, or to disregard the information and seemingly violate the firm’s fiduciary duty to the trust account client. To successfully defend against either of the above claims, firms should establish and maintain effective Chinese Walls between private and ...


Beyond Morrison: The Effect Of The "Presumption Against Extraterritoriality" And The Transactional Test On Foreign Tender Offers, Vladislava Soshkina Nov 2012

Beyond Morrison: The Effect Of The "Presumption Against Extraterritoriality" And The Transactional Test On Foreign Tender Offers, Vladislava Soshkina

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.