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Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

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Full-Text Articles in Applied Mechanics

Design Of Parallel Robot For Dental Articulation And Its Optimization, Abulimiti Delimulati Aug 2018

Design Of Parallel Robot For Dental Articulation And Its Optimization, Abulimiti Delimulati

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A dental articulator is a mechanical device used to simulate the relative position and motion between the upper and lower jaw when constructing and testing dental prostheses. Typically, it can be adjusted to approximate patient-specific jaw kinematics in order to analogue the static relationship and specific motions of a patient’s mandible to maxilla. However, the use of dental articulators is essentially a trial-and-error method in order to fine-tune fit and function of a dental prosthesis. Some of the most advanced current dental articulators can reproduce the position and the motion passively; furthermore, dentists need special training for measuring patients ...


Anchoring And Stiffening Techniques For Portable Concrete Barriers, Surajkumar Bhakta Nov 2017

Anchoring And Stiffening Techniques For Portable Concrete Barriers, Surajkumar Bhakta

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Portable concrete barrier (PCB) systems are utilized on federal and state highways in circumstances such as placing adjacent to vertical drop-offs and in construction zones. PCB systems are most commonly used in a free-standing configuration, which are known to have relatively large deflections when impacted. Large deflections are undesirable when dealing with limited space. In order to allow PCBs to be used in space restricted locations, seven PCB anchoring and stiffening techniques were tested and evaluated as per Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) testing standards. Results will allow the New Jersey Department of Transportation to update guidance for their ...


Cam-Based Pose-Independent Counterweighting For Partial Body-Weight Support In Rehabilitation, Ashish Shinde Oct 2017

Cam-Based Pose-Independent Counterweighting For Partial Body-Weight Support In Rehabilitation, Ashish Shinde

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This thesis presents the design and testing of a body weight support system for gait training in a two-dimensional workspace. Extension of the system to a three-dimensional workspace is not within the scope of this thesis.

Gait dysfunctions are changes in normal walking patterns, often related to a disease or abnormality in different areas of the body. There are numerous body weight support (BWS) systems present in the market which are applied to rehabilitation scenarios in mobility recovery like in gait training. But most of these BWE systems are costly and generally are stationary devices. A major drawback of such ...


Development Of The End-Effector Of A Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulator For Automated Crop Sensing, Iman Salafian Aug 2017

Development Of The End-Effector Of A Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulator For Automated Crop Sensing, Iman Salafian

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A four cable-driven parallel manipulator (4CDPM), consisting of sophisticated spectrometers and imagers, is under development for use in acquiring phenotypic and environmental data over an acre-sized maize field. This thesis presents the design, controls, and testing of two sub-systems in a 4CDPM: a Center of Mass Balance System (CMBS) and a Drop-Down System (DDS).

One of the factors that influences stability is the center of mass (COM) position of the end effector. An offset in COM can cause a pendulum effect or an undesired tilt angle. A center of mass balancing system is presented in this thesis to minimize the ...


Design And Experimentation Of Cable-Driven Platform Stabilization And Control Systems, Matthew Newman Aug 2017

Design And Experimentation Of Cable-Driven Platform Stabilization And Control Systems, Matthew Newman

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Agricultural researchers are constantly attempting to generate crops superior to those currently in use by the world. Whether this means creating crops with greater yield, crops that are more resilient to disease, or crops that can tolerate harsh environments with fewer failures, test plots of these experimental crops must be studied in real-world environments with minimal invasion to determine how they will perform in full-scale agricultural settings. To monitor these crops without interfering on their natural growth, a noninvasive sensor system has been implemented. This system, instituted by the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at the University of ...


Peridynamic Models For Fatigue And Fracture In Isotropic And In Polycrystalline Materials, Guanfeng Zhang May 2017

Peridynamic Models For Fatigue And Fracture In Isotropic And In Polycrystalline Materials, Guanfeng Zhang

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

To improve design and reliability, extensive efforts has been devoted to understanding damage and failure of materials and structures using numerical simulation, as a complement of theory and experiment. In this thesis, peridynamics is adopted to study fatigue and dynamic failure problems.

Fatigue is a major failure mode in engineering structures. Predicting fracture/failure under cyclic loading is a challenging problem. Classical model cannot directly be applied to problems with discontinuities. A peridynamic model is adopted in this work because of important advantages of peridynamics in allowing autonomous crack initiation and propagation. A recently proposed peridynamic fatigue crack model is ...


Oxidation Of Ti2Alc In High Temperature Steam Environment, Ziyad M. Smoqi Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Ti2Alc In High Temperature Steam Environment, Ziyad M. Smoqi

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

High temperature oxidation of fuel cladding materials, during the loss of coolant accident (LOCA), is of utmost importance for next-generation nuclear energy systems. Ti2AlC is a promising candidate material for nuclear applications due to its outstanding properties such as thermal stability at high temperatures, oxidation resistance in air, thermal shock resistance, low neutron absorption cross-section, and the resistance to irradiation-induced amorphization. In this research, high temperature steam oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate the oxidation resistance of Ti2AlC in LOCA conditions. After oxidation in 100% steam at 600 and 800˚C, the oxidation kinetics followed a ...


Using Controlled Curing In A Custom Stereolithography-Based 3d Printing Machine To Obtain Graded Property Variations, Evan S. Schwahn May 2015

Using Controlled Curing In A Custom Stereolithography-Based 3d Printing Machine To Obtain Graded Property Variations, Evan S. Schwahn

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In an effort to construct materially graded parts, a strategy was studied that is based on varying ratios of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in a manner that can be adapted to 3D printing. Using IPNs has the benefit of allowing access to a broad range of property variation. The strategy used involves controlled partial curing of the first network, followed by washing of that network to remove uncured components, then swelling of the structure with a second polymer component and curing.

This method was utilized to control final IPN properties by controlling the extent of crosslinking of the initial network ...


Influence Of Spatial Variations Of Railroad Track Stiffness And Material Inclusions On Fatigue Life, Celestin Nkundineza Jan 2015

Influence Of Spatial Variations Of Railroad Track Stiffness And Material Inclusions On Fatigue Life, Celestin Nkundineza

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Railroad transportation is very important for economic growth and effective maintenance is one critical factor for its economic sustainability. The high repetitive forces from a moving railcar induce cyclic stresses that lead to rail bending and potential deterioration due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Previous research for prediction of fatigue life has been done under the assumptions of a uniform track bed and a homogeneous rail. However the spatial variation of the track stiffness is expected to increase the maximum stresses in the rail and, therefore, accelerate the fatigue process. The research described in this dissertation is focused on ...


Towards A Sustainable Modular Robot System For Planetary Exploration, S. G. M. Hossain Apr 2014

Towards A Sustainable Modular Robot System For Planetary Exploration, S. G. M. Hossain

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual ...


Experimental Study On The Effect Of Air Flow On Soap Bubble Formation, John M. Davidson Dec 2013

Experimental Study On The Effect Of Air Flow On Soap Bubble Formation, John M. Davidson

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Soap bubbles are a common interfacial fluid dynamics phenomenon having applications such as buoyant hollow spherical fillers and flow visualization of large scale airflows. In contrast to the dynamics of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, the dynamics of soap bubbles has not been well documented, possibly because soap bubbles have gas-liquid-gas interfaces. Having the thin-liquid-film interface seems to alter the characteristics of the bubble/drop creation process. Thus, the main objective of this study is to experimentally examine how airflow develops and interacts with the soap liquid film as the film stretches and finally collapses to ...


The Mechanics Of Intracranial Loading During Blast And Blunt Impacts – Experimental And Numerical Studies, Veera Selvan Kuppuswamy Aug 2013

The Mechanics Of Intracranial Loading During Blast And Blunt Impacts – Experimental And Numerical Studies, Veera Selvan Kuppuswamy

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Head injuries in an explosion occur as a result of a sudden pressure changes (e.g. shock-blast) in the atmosphere (primary injury), high velocity impacts of debris (secondary injury) and people being thrown against the solid objects (tertiary injury) in the field. In this thesis, experimental and numerical approaches are used to delineate the intracranial loading mechanics of both primary (blast) and tertiary injuries (blunt).

The blast induced head injuries are simulated using a fluid-filled cylinder. This simplified model represents the head-brain complex and the model is subjected to a blast with the Friedlander waveform type of loading. We measured ...


Relaxation Of Shear-Induced Precursors In Isotactic Polypropylene And Random Propylene-Ethylene Copolymers, Benjamin Schammé Aug 2013

Relaxation Of Shear-Induced Precursors In Isotactic Polypropylene And Random Propylene-Ethylene Copolymers, Benjamin Schammé

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Flow induced crystallization (FIC) has a large impact on kinetics and morphology of semicrystalline polymers, and can therefore drastically change final properties such as dimensional and thermal stability, modulus and strength. Processing of polymers usually involves flow, so it is important to understand the mechanism of FIC. It is known that oriented precursors formed during flow are the key to FIC but they are not yet well understood. In this study, flow induced precursors are investigated by examining their relaxation, and the effect of comonomer is probed.

Using a commercial isotactic polypropylene and random propylene-ethylene copolymers, a fiber pull-out technique ...


Measurement And Description Of Dynamics Required For In Vivo Surgical Robotics Via Kinematic Methods, Jacob G. Greenburg Aug 2013

Measurement And Description Of Dynamics Required For In Vivo Surgical Robotics Via Kinematic Methods, Jacob G. Greenburg

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

With the goal of improved recovery times and reduced trauma to the patient there has been a substantial shift in the medical community’s demand for minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques. With the standardization of MIS becoming more commonplace in the medical field there are still many improvements that are desired. Traditional, manual methods of these surgeries require multiple incisions on the abdomen for the tools and instruments to be inserted. The more recent demand has been to localize the incisions into what is being referred to as a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site (LESS) surgery. Furthermore, the manual instruments that are commonly ...


Development Of A Controllable Polymer System Using Interpenetrating Networks, Emilie Bobo Aug 2013

Development Of A Controllable Polymer System Using Interpenetrating Networks, Emilie Bobo

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

My research partners and I have studied the possibility of building a material system with controllable properties using two interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). This study is part of a project to build a rapid prototyping system that allows for the printing of objects with predefined spatial distribution of properties, with the goal that property distributions are controlled though interactions at the molecular level.

One can change the properties of an IPN by adjusting the ratio of interpenetrating networks present in a given cured mixture. This is similar to how one obtains different shades of the color green by gradually changing ...


Design Of A Compliant Underactuated Robotic Finger With Coordinated Stiffness, Etienne Dessauw Aug 2013

Design Of A Compliant Underactuated Robotic Finger With Coordinated Stiffness, Etienne Dessauw

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The concept of underactuation has been previously developed in the robotic field for grasping applications. For these anthropomorphic grippers, the minimization of the number of input signals, or in other words underactuation, is the most expected characteristic. This method has become very popular in recent decades. Indeed, by minimizing the number of input signals, it minimizes the complexity of the system’s control and at the same time avoids increased weight and cost. The inconvenience of such a technique is that the design of this type of system remains a difficult task if the behavior of the underactuated set of ...


Interface Properties Of Bio-Based Composites Of Polylactic Acid And Bamboo Fibers, Quentin Viel Aug 2013

Interface Properties Of Bio-Based Composites Of Polylactic Acid And Bamboo Fibers, Quentin Viel

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Environmental impact plays an ever-increasing role in the industrial production of materials, and because of its importance, the scientific community is examining a wide variety of new materials that are more environmentally friendly. Bioplastics are characterized by the fact that the usual petrochemical resins (polypropylene, polyethylene etc.) are replaced by bio-sourced resins and the reinforcements (glass fibers, carbon fibers etc.) are replaced by natural fibers (bamboo, flax, cotton, etc.). Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer that is increasingly used in biomedical applications and in packaging. Additionally, bamboo is a promising source of fibers that could be used as reinforcement ...


Design Of Experimental Methods To Test The Performance Of Pads And Helmets Under Blast Loading Conditions, Kurtis Palu May 2013

Design Of Experimental Methods To Test The Performance Of Pads And Helmets Under Blast Loading Conditions, Kurtis Palu

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become a primary weapon in conflicts against US and allied forces. Improvements in body armor and medicine have increased the survivability of such events. These factors have caused an increase in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) induced by primary blast waves. Injury mechanisms caused from primary blast waves are not clearly understood or defined. How primary blast waves interact with materials or between narrow gaps found between helmet pads is not known. Two novel test fixtures were developed to provide a basic understanding of these two issues.

The first fixture ...


A Conductivity Testing System Coupled With A Tensile Testing Machine To Measure The Surface Properties Of Polymer Specimens, Nguyen T. Nguyen May 2012

A Conductivity Testing System Coupled With A Tensile Testing Machine To Measure The Surface Properties Of Polymer Specimens, Nguyen T. Nguyen

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Polymers play an essential role in our everyday life due to their employment in a widespread range of applications. Polymers are used in industries such as space, biomedical, electronics, etc. in which their electrical and mechanical properties are major aspects which need to be investigated prior to implementation. When subjected to mechanical stimulations, polymers may exhibit changes in electrical conductivity which can vary locally within the specimens, especially in those of conducting polymers. In mechanical investigations a tensile testing machine is used to understand polymers’ strength, elasticity or other mechanical properties. In electrical analysis, using a four-point probe to examine ...


Stochastic Optimal Control In Nonlinear Systems, Celestin Nkundineza Sep 2010

Stochastic Optimal Control In Nonlinear Systems, Celestin Nkundineza

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Stochastic control is an important area of research in engineering systems that undergo disturbances. Controlling individual states in such systems is critical. The present investigation is concerned with the application of the stochastic optimal control strategy developed by To (2010) and its implementation as well as providing computed results of linear and nonlinear systems under stationary and nonstationary random excitations. In the strategy the feedback matrix is designed based on the achievement of the objectives for individual states in the system through the application of the Lyapunov equation for the system. Each diagonal element in the gain or associated gain ...