Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 62

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich Apr 2019

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive technique used to measure brain activity. Despite its near ubiquitous presence in neuroscience, very little research has gone into connecting the electrical potentials it measures on the scalp to the underlying network activity which generates those signals. This results in most EEG analyses being more macroscopically focused (e.g. coherence and correlation analyses). Despite the many uses of macroscopically focuses analyses, limiting research to only these analyses neglects the insights which can be gained from studying network and microcircuit architecture. The ability to study these things through non-invasive techniques like EEG depends upon the ability ...


Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein Jul 2018

Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Prior work at Marquette University developed the Marquette Prosthesis, an active transtibial prosthesis that utilized a torsional spring and a four-bar mechanism. The controls for the Marquette Prosthesis implemented a finite state control algorithm to determine the state of gait of the amputee along with two lower level controllers, a PI moment controller to control the moment during stance and a PID position controller to control the position during stance. The Marquette Prosthesis was successful in mimicking the gait profile presented by Winter. However, after completing human subject testing, the Marquette Prosthesis was insufficient in trying to match the gait ...


A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas Jul 2018

A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to validate a 3D musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and assess OpenSim’s ability to determine muscle-length variation during ambulation. An 18 camera motion capture system was used to analyze 20 healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 35. Following data collection, the data was processed through OpenSim and Visual3D. The kinematic output processed through the OpenSim model was then compared to the kinematic output of the validated Visual3D model to validate the OpenSim model. Muscle fiber length data obtained from the same experimental data was compared to control data to assess OpenSim’s ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson Apr 2018

Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Some unilateral transfemoral amputees (TFAs) run in a prosthesis with an articulating prosthetic knee, others choose to run without a knee (prosthetic socket and foot are linked via a straight, non-articulating pylon) to increase stability. Research regarding unilateral TFA running with an unlocked versus locked prosthetic knee (approximately equivalent to the no-knee condition) with respect to energy cost and temporal metrics is limited; no studies have investigated the impact of knee condition on kinematic metrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prosthetic knee of a running-specific prosthesis (RSP) should be unlocked or locked for unilateral TFAs ...


Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry Apr 2018

Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging biomarker technetium-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) exists in two forms, the oxidized, cell-permeable form and the reduced, cell-impermeable form. Recent studies revealed that the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO increases early in rat models of human acute lung injury. Lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is the net result of multiple cellular and vascular processes, many of which can vary with acute illness. Thus, when a change in the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is detected, it is unclear how much of this change is due to alteration in the activity of the targeted cellular process versus alteration of ...


Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly Apr 2018

Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of oxidants or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. The objective of this thesis was to develop a robust protocol for measuring the rate of H2O2 production in isolated perfused rat lungs and to determine the cellular sources of that rate using Amplex Red (AR). For a given lung, AR (25 mM) along with horseradish peroxidase (5 U/ml) and ascorbate oxidase (1U/ml) were added to a perfusate reservoir that was recirculated through the lungs and sampled at 5 ...


Collapsible Silicone Tubes: An In Vitro Model For Tracheal Traction, Kevin D. Garman Oct 2017

Collapsible Silicone Tubes: An In Vitro Model For Tracheal Traction, Kevin D. Garman

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of airway collapse and airflow limitation during sleep. Fragmented sleep and reductions in blood oxygen saturation lead to several comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Longitudinal forces (tracheal traction) acting on the soft tissues surrounding the upper airway have been proposed to play a significant role in stabilizing the airway and preventing collapse. However, the relative contribution of longitudinal forces as compared to other factors that affect airway stability (airway geometry, tissue properties, muscle activity) remains unclear. This in-vitro study aimed to investigate to what extent longitudinal forces can ...


Effects Of Random Oscillations On Balance Control In Healthy Young Adults, Jacob Van Dehy Oct 2017

Effects Of Random Oscillations On Balance Control In Healthy Young Adults, Jacob Van Dehy

Master's Theses (2009 -)

In human walking, balance control is managed through proactive changes in spatio-temporal parameters of stepping [1]. It has been suggested that continuous disruptions to healthy young adult balance cause greater changes to overall variability of these parameters than a shift in the mean stepping parameters [2]. This suggests that walking may be occurring in a more reactive manner, modulating to maintain balance without increasing the mean significantly. Work using continuous oscillations to treadmill walking suggest there is an interplay between the predictability of a signal used to disrupt subject balance and the degree to which compensation occurs [3]. To determine ...


Evaluating Wall Shear Stress Indices To Uncover Stimuli For Restenosis And Malapposition In Stented Coronary Arteries, Ali A. Aleiou Jul 2017

Evaluating Wall Shear Stress Indices To Uncover Stimuli For Restenosis And Malapposition In Stented Coronary Arteries, Ali A. Aleiou

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The cause of coronary artery neointimal thickening leading to restenosis in ~10% of drug-eluting stents is unknown. Although research suggests adverse values of traditional wall shear stress (WSS) indices may contribute, studies to date have not accounted for stent geometry, which dictates local WSS patterns influencing drug concentration. Recently proposed WSS indices such as WSS variability and WSS exposure time (WSSET) may shed further light on restenosis or, the opposite effect, resorption. The objective of this investigation was to locally evaluate traditional and recently proposed post-stenting metrics and their respective impact on restenosis or resorption. This study used de-identified data ...


Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox Apr 2017

Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has been proven to be a valuable tool in clinical applications such as pre-surgical mapping, but there is not yet a functional and usable algorithm that can be used by physicians in a clinical setting to evaluate an individual patient for diseases and aberrant brain connectivity. If a physician wants to evaluate a patient in this way, the rsfMRI data must be looked at “by hand,” i.e. the physician must manually evaluate the data and identify the functional ICN’s and whether they are normal or aberrant. An algorithm that would automate this process ...


Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin Oct 2016

Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are histological changes in the microvasculature of rat skeletal muscle following chronic spinal cord injury both above and below the level of injury. This study is important because microvascular structure likely impacts muscle performance and cardiovascular health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study to investigate microvascular structure within rat skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. We hypothesized structural remodeling would occur in both the myofibers and microvasculature, which would then manifest in differences in myofiber cross sectional area and microvascular diameter, wall thickness, wall to ...


Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger Oct 2016

Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Kinesthesia refers to sensations of limb position and movement, and deficits of upper limb kinesthetic feedback are common after stroke, impairing stroke survivors’ ability to perform the fundamental reaching and stabilization behaviors needed for daily functions like self-feeding. I attempt to mitigate the negative impact of post-stroke kinesthesia deficits by evaluating the utility of vibrotactile sensory substitution to restore closed-loop kinesthetic feedback of the upper limb. As a first step, this study evaluated performance in healthy individuals during fundamental reaching, stabilization, and tracking behaviors while using supplemental vibrotactile feedback encoding either limb state information or goal-aware error information. First, I ...


Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley Oct 2016

Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological condition caused by damage to motor control centers of the brain. This leads to physical and cognitive deficiencies that can reduce an individual’s quality of life. Specifically, motor deficiencies of the upper extremity can make it difficult for an individual to complete everyday tasks, including eating, drinking, getting dressed, or combing their hair. Physical therapy, involving repetitive tasks, has been shown to be effective in training normal motion of the limb by invoking the neuroplasticity of the brain and its ability to adapt in order to facilitate motor learning. Creating a device for ...


Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble Jul 2016

Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to provide stability and foot clearance for patients with weakened or injured musculature. The Dynamic Response AFO (DRAFO) was designed to improve proprioception at heel strike. The design includes a rigid outer shell with a cut out heel and a soft inner lining; it is typically aligned in plantarflexion and may incorporate external heel wedges. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the DRAFO design features and contrast its biomechanical function with that of conventional locked and articulating AFOs. The research hypotheses were: 1) DRAFO-assisted gait parameters (e.g ...


A Principal Component Analysis Investigation Of Drop Landings For Defining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors, Emily Schaefer Apr 2016

A Principal Component Analysis Investigation Of Drop Landings For Defining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors, Emily Schaefer

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been widely investigated through observational video analysis and laboratory based cadaveric, motion capture and computer simulation models. With the greater incidence of injury in the female population, recent emphasis has been placed on understanding ACL injury mechanisms in females. By using our understanding of injury mechanisms and prospective studies, injury prediction methods can be created. Once injury can be reliably predicted, training methods can be implemented to reduce likelihood of injury and avoid devastating consequences. There is a need for a reliable way to reduce motion capture data obtained in a laboratory ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach Oct 2015

Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The needs of an increasingly young and active orthotic patient population has led to advancements in ankle foot orthosis (AFO) design and materials to enable higher function. The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is a custom energy-storing carbon fiber AFO that has demonstrated improved clinical function, allowing patients to return to high-intensity activities such as sports and military service. An improved understanding of AFO mechanical function will aid prescription and fitting, as well as assist in design modifications for different patient populations. This study investigated the mechanical properties of AFOs, specifically structural stiffness, rotational motion, and strut deflection, to discern ...


Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin Oct 2015

Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Gait analysis using smart sensor technology is an important medical diagnostic process and has many applications in rehabilitation, therapy and exercise training. In this thesis, we present a low power wireless smart-shoe system (LPcomS) to analyze different functional postures and characteristics of gait while walking. We have designed and implemented a smart-shoe with a Bluetooth communication module to unobtrusively collect data using smartphone in any environment. With the design of a shoe insole equipped with four pressure sensors, the foot pressure is been collected, and those data are used to obtain accurate gait pattern of a patient. With our proposed ...


Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman Oct 2015

Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of technique training and hockey skate design on hockey skating performance. Fourteen male subjects, aged 12-16 years, with no recent skate treadmill experience completed ten training sessions on a skating treadmill. Instruction emphasized maximizing stride width by pushing laterally with the skate pointed anteriorly. Subjects were randomly placed into one of two experimental groups based on initial skate type: traditional or Easton Mako. After completion of five sessions, skate type was switched so that skate design effects could be assessed. In contrast to a traditional hockey skate design, the Easton ...


Integrating Meal And Exercise Into Personalized Glucoregulation Models: Metabolic Dynamics And Diabetic Athletes, Sofie Schunk Oct 2015

Integrating Meal And Exercise Into Personalized Glucoregulation Models: Metabolic Dynamics And Diabetic Athletes, Sofie Schunk

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Diabetes affects nearly 26 million Americans, according to the American Diabetes Association, with as many as three million Americans who have Type 1 Diabetes (ADA, 2015). Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is autoimmune and characterized by little to no insulin production whereas Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) concerns insulin resistance and inability to use produced insulin. Factors contributing to current diabetes management and regulation include exercise type, daily movement activities, and distinct tissue compartment metabolism, each challenging to model in a robust and comprehensive manner. Past models are highly limited in regard to exercise and varying glucose fluctuations dependent on type, intensity ...


Software Tools And Analysis Methods For The Use Of Electromagnetic Articulography Data In Speech Research, Andrew Kolb Apr 2015

Software Tools And Analysis Methods For The Use Of Electromagnetic Articulography Data In Speech Research, Andrew Kolb

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Recent work with Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) has shown it to be an excellent tool for characterizing speech kinematics. By tracking the position and orientation of sensors placed on the jaws, lips, teeth and tongue as they move in an electromagnetic field, information about movement and coordination of the articulators can be obtained with great time resolution. This technique has far-reaching applications for advancing fields related to speech articulation, including recognition, synthesis, motor learning, and clinical assessments. As more EMA data becomes widely available, a growing need exists for software that performs basic processing and analysis functions. The objective of this ...


Kinematic Analysis Of The Glenohumeral Joint: A Comparison Of Post-Operative Rotator Cuff Repair Patients And Controls, Ryan Richard Inawat Oct 2014

Kinematic Analysis Of The Glenohumeral Joint: A Comparison Of Post-Operative Rotator Cuff Repair Patients And Controls, Ryan Richard Inawat

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Rotator cuff (RC) repair is a standard surgical intervention used to alleviate pain and loss of function in the shoulder due to torn RC tendons, involving re-attachment of the tendon to the humerus. Quantitative evaluation of kinematics following RC repair is possible with video motion analysis techniques, yet is rarely performed. With the purpose of quantifying the effects of RC repair, a Vicon 524 (Oxford, UK) motion analysis system was used to investigate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the glenohumeral (GH) joint and thorax following supraspinatus repair. A validated, 18 marker, inverse dynamics model based on ISB standards was applied to ...


Automated Selection Of The Optimal Cardiac Phase For Single-Beat Coronary Ct Angiography Reconstruction, Daniel Stassi Jul 2014

Automated Selection Of The Optimal Cardiac Phase For Single-Beat Coronary Ct Angiography Reconstruction, Daniel Stassi

Master's Theses (2009 -)

This thesis investigates an automated algorithm for selecting the optimal cardiac phase for CCTA reconstruction. Reconstructing a low-motion cardiac phase improves coronary artery visualization in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) exams. Currently, standard end-systole and/or mid-diastole default phases are prescribed or alternatively, quiescent phases are determined by the user. As manual selection may be time-consuming and standard locations may be suboptimal due to patient variability, an automated method is investigated. An automated algorithm was developed to select the optimal phase based on quantitative image quality (IQ) metrics. For each reconstructed slice at each reconstructed phase, an image quality metric was ...


The Effects Of Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation On Radiation Dose And Image Quality In Computed Tomography Imaging, Diksha Gandhi Jul 2014

The Effects Of Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation On Radiation Dose And Image Quality In Computed Tomography Imaging, Diksha Gandhi

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this thesis was to quantify dose and noise performance of organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) through experimental studies with an anthropomorphic phantom and simulations with a voxelized phantom library. Tube current modulation is a dose reduction technique that modulates radiation dose in angular and/or slice directions based on patient attenuation. ODM technique proposed by GE Healthcare further reduces tube current for anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions. Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms (Rando Alderson Research Laboratories, Stanford, CA) on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE ...


Markerless Analysis Of Upper Extremity Kinematics During Standardized Pediatric Assessment, Jacob R. Rammer Apr 2014

Markerless Analysis Of Upper Extremity Kinematics During Standardized Pediatric Assessment, Jacob R. Rammer

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy experience reduced motor performance in the affected upper extremity and are typically evaluated based on degree of functional impairment using activity-based assessments such as the Shriners Hospitals for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), a validated clinical measure, to describe performance prior to and following rehabilitative or surgical interventions. Evaluations rely on subjective therapist scoring techniques and lack sensitivity to detect change. Objective clinical motion analysis systems are an available but time-consuming and cost-intensive alternative, requiring uncomfortable application of markers to the patient. There is currently no available markerless, low-cost system that quantitatively assesses upper extremity ...


Computational Evaluation Of Shear Stress And Restenosis In Stented Coronary Arteries Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Joshua K. Hughey Apr 2014

Computational Evaluation Of Shear Stress And Restenosis In Stented Coronary Arteries Using Optical Coherence Tomography, Joshua K. Hughey

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The cause of coronary artery neointimal thickness (NT) leading to restenosis in ~10% of drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown, but adverse wall shear stress (WSS) may contribute. Prior studies comparing WSS to restenosis for first generation DES yielded conflicting results, and cited different mechanisms of action for DES agents. Studies to date have not accounted for stent geometry, which dictates local WSS patterns influencing drug concentration. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate current generation stent platforms via their WSS patterns and their respective impact on NT. We prospectively enrolled 19 patients, who were randomized to thin-strut (81μm) 2-link ...


Supraspinal Control Of Unilateral Locomotor Performance: An Fmri Study Using A Custom Pedaling Device, Brett Arand Oct 2013

Supraspinal Control Of Unilateral Locomotor Performance: An Fmri Study Using A Custom Pedaling Device, Brett Arand

Master's Theses (2009 -)

This study aimed to develop a novel unilateral pedaling device, validate its function, and use it in an fMRI study of bilateral vs. unilateral locomotor control. The new device is MRI compatible and allows for conventional coupled bilateral pedaling, along with decoupled unilateral pedaling. It was designed with an assistance mechanism to simulate the presence of the non-contributing leg while pedaling unilaterally. During coupled bilateral pedaling, the two legs work in unison: while one leg is extending in the downstroke, it provides support to lift the other leg back up as it is flexing in the upstroke. The device uses ...


Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang Oct 2013

Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oculomotor control is a subset of sensorimotor control that allows humans to make extremely accurate eye movements for ADL. Impairments to oculomotor control can increase the impact of sensorimotor control deficits, especially in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. Here, a two-dimensional computational control system of saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements was compiled from literature to systematically characterize oculomotor control in eight visually-healthy humans as a precursor to studying the relationship between oculomotor and sensorimotor control in patient populations. Subjects visually tracked a single dot on a 41 x 30.5 cm monitor in a dark room while eye positions were ...


Quantification Of Local Hemodynamic Alterations Caused By Virtual Implantation Of Three Commercially-Available Stents For The Treatment Of Aortic Coarctation, Sung Kwon Oct 2013

Quantification Of Local Hemodynamic Alterations Caused By Virtual Implantation Of Three Commercially-Available Stents For The Treatment Of Aortic Coarctation, Sung Kwon

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of the NumedCP and GenesisXD stents also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance, fluoroscopy and blood pressure (BP) data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood ...


The Effects Of Separating Visual And Motor Workspaces On The Generalization Of Visuomotor Adaptation Across Movement Conditions, Yuming Lei Jul 2013

The Effects Of Separating Visual And Motor Workspaces On The Generalization Of Visuomotor Adaptation Across Movement Conditions, Yuming Lei

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Separating visual and proprioceptive information in terms of workspace locations during reaching movement has been shown to disturb transfer of visuomotor adaptation across the arms. Here, we investigated whether separating visual and motor workspaces would also disturb generalization of visuomotor adaptation across movement conditions within the same arm. In our behavioral study, subjects were divided into four experimental groups (plus three control groups). The first two groups adapted to a visual rotation under a "dissociation" condition in which the targets for reaching movement were presented in midline while their arm performed reaching movement laterally. Following that, they were tested in ...


An Fmri Study On Supra-Spinal Contributions To Upper And Lower Limb Motor Control, Shancheng Bao Jul 2013

An Fmri Study On Supra-Spinal Contributions To Upper And Lower Limb Motor Control, Shancheng Bao

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The differences in the neural mechanisms contributing to upper and lower extremity movement have not been fully elucidated, and this might be a factor that leads to the ineffectiveness of rehabilitation techniques for most stroke survivors. It is unclear whether therapies designed for upper extremities should also be used for the lower extremities, and vice versa. In this study, fMRI was used to examine the supraspinal control of UE and LE movement in both neurologically intact individuals and people with post-stroke hemiparesis. We compared the location, volume, and intensity of brain activity associated with upper and lower extremity pedaling and ...