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2007

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Metal Modulation Epitaxy Growth For Extremely High Hole Concentrations Above 10(19) Cm(-3) In Gan, Gon Namkoong, Elaissa Trybus, Kyung Keun Lee, Michael Moseley, W. Alan Doolittle, David C. Look Dec 2007

Metal Modulation Epitaxy Growth For Extremely High Hole Concentrations Above 10(19) Cm(-3) In Gan, Gon Namkoong, Elaissa Trybus, Kyung Keun Lee, Michael Moseley, W. Alan Doolittle, David C. Look

Applied Research Center Publications

The free hole carriers in GaN have been limited to concentrations in the low 1018 cm−3 range due to the deep activation energy, lower solubility, and compensation from defects, therefore, limiting doping efficiency to about 1%. Herein, we report an enhanced doping efficiency up to ~10% in GaN by a periodic doping, metal modulation epitaxy growth technique. The hole concentrations grown by periodically modulating Ga atoms and Mg dopants were over ~1.5 x 1019 cm−3.

© 2008 American Institute of Physics.


Temperature Dependence Of A Macrobending Edge Filter Based On A High-Bend Loss Fiber, Pengfei Wang, Ginu Rajan, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell Dec 2007

Temperature Dependence Of A Macrobending Edge Filter Based On A High-Bend Loss Fiber, Pengfei Wang, Ginu Rajan, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell

Articles

The temperature dependence of a macrobending bare fiber based edge filter is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The fiber used is a high bend loss fiber, type 1060XP. The experimental results show a good agreement with the proposed theoretical model over a temperature range from 0 to 80oC. It is shown that the strong temperature dependence of a high-bend loss fiber has a significant influence on the performance of a fiber edge filter used in a wavelength measurement application. However it is also concluded that such a temperature dependent performance can be beneficially utilized in a fiber temperature sensing application.


Interactive Visualization Of Information Hierarchies And Applications On The Web, Confesor Santiago Iii Dec 2007

Interactive Visualization Of Information Hierarchies And Applications On The Web, Confesor Santiago Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The visualization of information hierarchies is concerned with the presentation of abstract hierarchical information about relationships between various entities. It has many applications in diverse domains such as software engineering, information systems, biology, and chemistry. Information hierarchies are typically modeled by an abstract tree, where vertices are entities and edges represent relationships between entities. The aim of visualizing tree drawings is to automatically produce drawings of trees which clearly reflect the relationships of the information hierarchy.

This thesis is primarily concerned with problems related to the automatic generation of area-efficient grid drawings of trees, interactively visualizing information hierarchies, and applying ...


Optimization Of Optical Computed Tomography Techniques For The Synthesis Of Particle Aggregate Models, Patrick Anthony Giordano Jr. Dec 2007

Optimization Of Optical Computed Tomography Techniques For The Synthesis Of Particle Aggregate Models, Patrick Anthony Giordano Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

The characterization of 3-D shapes of particles in geomaterial aggregate mixtures is important for understanding the micro-mechanics of granular materials. Also, numerical synthesis of 3-D particle shapes from their corresponding shape descriptors is required for developing discrete element models (DEMs) that can be used to predict particle contact-forces, and ultimately the shear strength of the aggregate mixture.

Previous work has shown that Fourier-based 3-D shape descriptors can be constructed for aggregate mixtures, using a statistical combination of 2-D projections. Furthermore, optical tomography methods using the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm has proved capable of synthesizing 3-D shapes from 2-D projections ...


Soft Ground Improvement By Vacuum-Assisted Preloading, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Buddhima Indraratna Dec 2007

Soft Ground Improvement By Vacuum-Assisted Preloading, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Buddhima Indraratna

Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive)

This paper describes the behaviour of soft soil foundation stabilized with vacuum-assisted preloading at the New Bangkok International Airport, Thailand. An analytical solution considering the variation of soil permeability and compressibility and a finite element analysis based on an equivalent plane strain model developed by the authors are employed to investigate the performance of the test embankment. The converted equivalent plane strain parameters are incorporated in the finite element code ABAQUS. The associated settlement, excess pore pressure and lateral movement are predicted and compared with the available field measurement. The data indicate that the efficiency of the prefabricated vertical drains ...


Odometry Correction Of A Mobile Robot Using A Range-Finding Laser, Thomas Epton Dec 2007

Odometry Correction Of A Mobile Robot Using A Range-Finding Laser, Thomas Epton

All Theses

Two methods for improving odometry using a pan-tilt range-finding laser is considered. The first method is a one-dimensional model that uses the laser with a sliding platform. The laser is used to determine how far the platform has moved along a rail. The second method is a two-dimensional model that mounts the laser to a mobile robot. In this model, the laser is used to improve the odometry of the robot. Our results show that the one-dimensional model proves our basic geometry is correct, while the two-dimensional model improves the odometry, but does not completely correct it.


Algorithme D’Elaboration D’Un Reseau Electrique A Gestion Optimale D’Ecoulement Des Puissances, Tarek Mesbah Dec 2007

Algorithme D’Elaboration D’Un Reseau Electrique A Gestion Optimale D’Ecoulement Des Puissances, Tarek Mesbah

Boukhemis Chetate

Un des baromètres (indicateurs du niveau d’évolution ) de développement d’un pays, est sa consommation en énergie électrique ; dont tout industrie et mode de vie des résidents en dépend. Partant sur ce point capital nous avons organisé la thèse afin de gérer le parc énergétique national d’une manière rationnelle. Cette étude peut servir dans la compréhension et l’analyse approfondie de l’état de la stabilité de notre réseau électrique, qui a montré sa fragilité après l’incident vécu le 03/02/2003, qui a prouvé l’urgence de prendre en charge toutes les insuffisances enregistrées pour éviter ...


Architecture Design And Performance Analysis Of Practical Buffered-Crossbar Packet Switches, Ziqian Dong Dec 2007

Architecture Design And Performance Analysis Of Practical Buffered-Crossbar Packet Switches, Ziqian Dong

Dissertations

Combined input crosspoint buffered (CICB) packet switches were introduced to relax inputoutput arbitration timing and provide high throughput under admissible traffic. However, the amount of memory required in the crossbar of an N x N switch is N2x k x L, where k is the crosspoint buffer size and needs to be of size RTT in cells, L is the packet size. RTT is the round-trip time which is defined by the distance between line cards and switch fabric. When the switch size is large or RTT is not negligible, the memory amount required makes the implementation costly ...


Optimized Scheduling Of Highway Work Zones, Yimin Tang Dec 2007

Optimized Scheduling Of Highway Work Zones, Yimin Tang

Dissertations

Highway maintenance activities usually require lane closures and disrupt traffic operations. Because of budget constraints, project deadlines, and the resulting traffic impact, the objective of this dissertation is to improve the efficiencies of traffic operation and maintenance work, and minimize the total project cost (i.e., agency cost and road user cost) by optimizing work zone schedules.

This dissertation focuses on the maintenance projects on multiple-lane highways. The objective total cost function is formulated while considering a discrete maintenance time-cost function and time-dependent traffic diversions. However, the work zone scheduling problem is a combinatorial optimization problem and difficult to solve ...


Propagation And Scattering Of Beam Waves In Vegetation Using Scalar Transport Theory, Michael Yu-Chi Wu Dec 2007

Propagation And Scattering Of Beam Waves In Vegetation Using Scalar Transport Theory, Michael Yu-Chi Wu

Dissertations

Vegetation is a very complex propagation medium, and multiple scattering effects play a significant role in the propagation of microwave and millimeter (mm)-wave signals through foliage. At frequencies above 1 GHz,both the coherent and incoherent field components have to be taken into account and vegetation has to be modeled as a random medium of discrete scatterers having a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Multiscattering can be studied effectively by using transport theory. In prior studies, theories have been developed for microwave and mm-wave propagation in vegetation using transport theory for continuous wave and pulsed signals. In this ...


Multiclass Intermodal Network Model : The Use Of Combined Model On System Evaluations, Yi Deng Dec 2007

Multiclass Intermodal Network Model : The Use Of Combined Model On System Evaluations, Yi Deng

Dissertations

United States transportation policy has generally addressed the negative economic and social effects of the standpoint of individual transportation modes and local government involvement. Therefore, there has been an increased focus on the development of intermodal transportation. Integrating the modes and using each of them to its best advantage are strategies to optimize the existing resources and to create new capabilities.

According to the literature review performed in this research, the research in intermodal transportation system evaluation is far from mature. Most transportation performance measurements are focused on one mode rather than a whole network. In practice, the data necessary ...


Design And Analysis Of Scalable Scheduling Schemes For High-Speed Input-Queued Packet Switches, Chuan-Bi Lin Dec 2007

Design And Analysis Of Scalable Scheduling Schemes For High-Speed Input-Queued Packet Switches, Chuan-Bi Lin

Dissertations

Single-stage input-queued (IQ) switches are attractive for implementation of high performance routers because they require no speedup in the used memory. It has been shown that IQ switches can provide 100% throughput under admissible traffic when using either maximum-weight matching schemes or iterative maximal-weight matching schemes with a significant speedup. These different approaches require either high computation complexity or high memory costs that can make them infeasible. Therefore, there is a need for low-complexity and fast matching schemes that provide high throughput under several admissible traffic patterns, without recurring to speedup nor multiple iterations. In this thesis. the concept of ...


Brain Segmentation Using Endogenous Contrast Mechanism Using Breath Holding Fmri Signal For Tissue Characterization, Samata Mukesh Kakkad Dec 2007

Brain Segmentation Using Endogenous Contrast Mechanism Using Breath Holding Fmri Signal For Tissue Characterization, Samata Mukesh Kakkad

Theses

MRL has fast become the modality of choice for the analysis of the complexity of the human brain. MRJ is a non-invasive method and gives high spatial resolution maps of the brain with soft tissue contrast. Conventional MRI technique modified to be used to image the functionality at high temporal resolution is known as fMRI. In fMRI the BOLD signal we measure is the hemodynamic response to neuronal and vascular changes at rest or in response to a stimulus where the various tissue types will have a different response.

While fMRI has been traditionally been used to detect and identify ...


Using Wavelet And Template Analysis To Classify Hand Postures In Unsupervised Daily Activities, Soha Hassan Saleh Dec 2007

Using Wavelet And Template Analysis To Classify Hand Postures In Unsupervised Daily Activities, Soha Hassan Saleh

Theses

This project's goal was to identify determinants that characterize different types of activities an individual do in daily life, knowing the quality of hand function is essential to plan more effective rehabilitation therapies and treatments for upper limb movement disorders. The first part of the project was Jebsen-Taylor study where healthy individuals and individuals with brain injury performed seven activities classified as precision grasp, cylindrical grasp, and palmar grasp while metacarpal joint angles were measured in real time. The data from those seven activities was used to determine parameters that characterize each type of activity and which might be ...


Multi Well Uni-Axial Stretch Injury Device, Mridusmita Choudhury Dec 2007

Multi Well Uni-Axial Stretch Injury Device, Mridusmita Choudhury

Theses

Most diffuse brain injury is the result of uni-axial stretch of brain axons in traumatic brain injury. Traumatic injury to axons throughout the brain and is believed to be a major cause for coma, and other complications. Diffuse axonal injury is mostly multi-focal and appears throughout the deep cortical and sub-cortical regions.

Several models have tried to replicate this phenomenon. Previous models, like the Penn model, have lower throughput as they conduct experiments on one well at a time, and it has lower reproducibility as well. The other problem with these models is that they are not very user friendly ...


Design Of Gait Rehabilitation System, Andriy Pletenetskyy Dec 2007

Design Of Gait Rehabilitation System, Andriy Pletenetskyy

Theses

This thesis describes the conceptual design of an innovative robotic rehabilitation machine whose purpose is to help in the recovery of people with motor function disabilities. The machine is smaller, simpler and cheaper than current solutions on the market yet it delivers same functionality.

The conceptual development of the gait rehabilitation system also features a human model with average anthropometric dimensions that allows better visualization and understanding of the actual machine operation. The human model is kinematically coupled to the machine and the whole assembly presents a complex mechanism that closely simulates gait training session.

Three-dimensional modeling and analysis techniques ...


Retransmission Strategies For Moving Networks Over Ricean Fading Channels, Alex Ruiz Lee Dec 2007

Retransmission Strategies For Moving Networks Over Ricean Fading Channels, Alex Ruiz Lee

Theses

The problem of designing retransmission protocols based on Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) for moving networks over Ricean fading channels has been considered. The scenario of interest consists of one receiver traveling at a given speed while connected to a wireless network based on OFDM (e.g., WiMax) through several base stations located along the path. Five different retransmission protocols that combine HARQ with handover between adjacent base stations are considered. Their performance in terms of number of retransmissions per packet via numerical simulations, considering both frequency selective and nonselective channels are presented. The results obtained show the relevant advantage ...


Proactive Methods For Measurement Of Available Bandwidth And Link Capacity, Khondaker Musfakus Salehin Dec 2007

Proactive Methods For Measurement Of Available Bandwidth And Link Capacity, Khondaker Musfakus Salehin

Theses

With the continuous expansion of network infrastructure and deployment of applications sensitive to Quality-of-Service, network measurement plays a major role in both network planning and management. Accurate measurement of various network parameters, e.g., available bandwidth, link capacity, delay, packet loss and jitter, provides a positive impact for effective traffic engineering, Quality-of-Service (QoS) routing, optimization of end-to-end transport performance, and link capacity planning. For network measurement, there exists several proactive estimation tools based on either probe-gap model or probe-rate model that estimate path related attributes. Most of these tools that have been implemented can measure tight-link capacity (smallest available bandwidth ...


Ultra-Fine Particle Formation Using Principle Of Rapid Expansion Of Supercritical Solutions`, Miraj Minesh Sheth Dec 2007

Ultra-Fine Particle Formation Using Principle Of Rapid Expansion Of Supercritical Solutions`, Miraj Minesh Sheth

Theses

There are indications in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries that the reduction in size of a crystalline particle can lead to better performance of the drug compound, particularly for water insoluble drugs, in the final dosage form. Many particle formation techniques have been investigated in recent years by researchers to obtain desired particulate sizes and size distributions. Supercritical fluid technologies have been successfully investigated for particle formation due to its unique gas/liquid properties in the supereritical state. In this report, results of particle formation using the principles of Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS) have been documented.

In the ...


Dexamethasone- And Age-Sensitive Genes In Neonatal Small Intestine, Carla Cerqueira Dec 2007

Dexamethasone- And Age-Sensitive Genes In Neonatal Small Intestine, Carla Cerqueira

Theses

Regulation of GLUT5 is dependent on the presence of its substrate, fructose, but it is also correlated with the developmental (aging) process of the intestine. To identify fructose-responsive genes whose expression also changes with age, intestines of 10 and 20 d old pups were perfused, by Ferraris et al., with fructose and then compared by microarray analysis. From this, a gene clustering analysis revealed that some age- and fructose-specific genes are regulated by corticosterones, which normally increase in pups ≥ 14 d old. Subsequent work indicated that priming the gut with Dexamethasone (Dex, a glucocorticoid analog) allowed fructose to precociously stimulate ...


The Use Of Instrumented Measures To Describe Lower Extremity Joint Mechanics, Steven Thomas Kaufman Dec 2007

The Use Of Instrumented Measures To Describe Lower Extremity Joint Mechanics, Steven Thomas Kaufman

Theses

Currently, various biomechanical assessments are used in clinical settings that offer diagnostic information about the studied joint. These assessments, however, are based on the judgment and experience of the therapist conducting the test and have a high degree of inter and intra rater variability, decreasing the strength of the observation. A set of instrumented measures consisting of a force/torque sensor and an angle sensor was created to quantitatively assess the mechanics of the lower extremity joints as a possible solution to the low repeatability of commonly used clinical tests.

It was shown through the use of instrumentation that the ...


Penetration Force Measurements In The Central Nervous System With Silicon Electrodes, Ashwini Arun Nikam Dec 2007

Penetration Force Measurements In The Central Nervous System With Silicon Electrodes, Ashwini Arun Nikam

Theses

One of the major challenges in neural engineering is the tissue damage that occurs during insertion of microelectrodes into the central nervous system. The damage occurs as a result of the dimpling effect that is due to the insertion force. A method which can reduce the penetration force can also reduce dimpling and the resulting tissue damage.

There are two objectives in this thesis. One is to measure the penetration force with Michigan electrodes, which are silicon based electrodes. The second is to reduce the penetration force by using mechanical vibrations.

First, the penetration force was measured in the rat ...


Magnetically Assisted Impaction Mixing Of Nanosize Particles, James V. Scicolone Dec 2007

Magnetically Assisted Impaction Mixing Of Nanosize Particles, James V. Scicolone

Theses

Magnetically assisted impaction mixing (MAIM) is a novel dry mixing technique, which can be used to mix nanoparticles. Mixing of nanoparticles is usually conducted in solvent-based mixing techniques. The solvents used in these techniques are usually organic, which can be expensive and harmful to the environment. MAIM creates homogeneous nanoparticle mixtures while eliminating conditioning and drying steps associated with wet mixing techniques. To create the best mixing quality of nanoparticles, MAIM was optimized by studying the effects of magnet-to-sample ratio, time, magnet size, and constituents of the mixture. The results were then compared with other well-known mixing techniques.

To characterize ...


Two Factor Authentication And Authorization In Ubiquitous Mobile Computing, Qing Zhu Dec 2007

Two Factor Authentication And Authorization In Ubiquitous Mobile Computing, Qing Zhu

Theses

Handheld devices, such as mobile phones, PDAs and others, have become an integrated part of our lives. They are perfectly suitable to become the first real-life platforms for mobile computing applications. A lightweight holistic authentication and authorization scheme is presented for this typical wireless scenario. It is shown that either SIM or Kerberos authentication has its limitations. A two-factor authentication method SIM-based Kerberos authentication is developed to implement the Secure Single Sign-on function with LDAP protocol realization for authorization and mobile directory services. Performance analysis and power consumption analyses for this protocol are presented as well. Our results show that ...


The Extraction Of Type 1 Collagen And The Fabrication Of Multi-Filament Embedded Hydrogels For Guided Nerve Regeneration, Mevan Lakmal Siriwardane Dec 2007

The Extraction Of Type 1 Collagen And The Fabrication Of Multi-Filament Embedded Hydrogels For Guided Nerve Regeneration, Mevan Lakmal Siriwardane

Theses

Each year, there are approximately 11,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States [2]. There have been some success in pre-clinical studies to induce axonal generation, but the reconnection of axons over large distances remains the greatest challenge. Since the development of nerve conduit to facilitate general axonal regeneration, the primary focus has changed to directing the regeneration of axons while also promoting their outgrowth over very extensive lesions to ensure functional recovery of transected nerves during in vitro experiments by using natural materials such as type I collagen, which is the largest constituent of ...


Mixing Of Nanoparticles In A Stirred Tank In High Pressure Carbon Dioxide, Nitin Aggarwal Dec 2007

Mixing Of Nanoparticles In A Stirred Tank In High Pressure Carbon Dioxide, Nitin Aggarwal

Theses

Mixing of nanoparticles of different compositions offers wide opportunities in manufacturing new nanocomposite materials with unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, due to large cohesive forces between nanoparticles, they often form large micron-sized agglomerates, thus losing their main advantage of small size and high surface area. Therefore, breaking of these agglomerates is necessary prior to mixing. One of the techniques to achieve deagglomeration and mixing of nanoparticles is based on rapid depressurization/expansion of supercritical suspensions. where the suspension of initially premixed agglomerates in supercritical CO2 pass through the nozzle undergoing deagglomeration as a result of rapid ...


Kerberos Phone Secure Messenger, Nabeel Al-Saber Dec 2007

Kerberos Phone Secure Messenger, Nabeel Al-Saber

Theses

Security is becoming vital in today's open insecure Internet. While popular Internet enabled mobile devices are spreading widely, the security of such platforms is not maturely addressed. This research extends the popular Kerberos authentication protocol to run on mobile phones and builds a novel Kerberos Secure Phone Messenger (KSPM) on top of the protocol. Moreover, the Kerberos network authentication protocol provides user authentication and message privacy with the convenience of secret key cryptography. Such an advantage in mobile phones helps reduce the computational burden and power consumption if compared with public key cryptography. KSPM achieves high standards in terms ...


Cortical Location Of Saccadic And Vergence Oculomotor Learning Using Fmri, Yelda Alkan Dec 2007

Cortical Location Of Saccadic And Vergence Oculomotor Learning Using Fmri, Yelda Alkan

Theses

Motor learning is critical to the survival of a species and changes throughout life via neuroplasticity. The brain receives most of its information about the external world via the visual system. Eye movements are used to direct the visual information of interest to the fovea, the area of the retina which has the highest density of photoreceptors, and the largest amount of cortical area. This research will study how two of the five eye movement systems utilize oculomotor learning. Saccadic eye movements are used to quickly shift the fovea to objects using conjugate movements typically used during reading. The vergence ...


Design Of Three-Dimensional Axon Stretch Growth Device, Fayekah Assanah Dec 2007

Design Of Three-Dimensional Axon Stretch Growth Device, Fayekah Assanah

Theses

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) causes destruction and degeneration of axons in the white matter of the spinal cord, resulting in functional loss and paralysis. A successful treatment of SCI requires axons to regenerate across damaged regions. Current studies focus on identifying mechanisms to promote axon regeneration in lesions and have yet to be successful in preventing nerve degeneration due to scar tissue formation. Establishing axonal bridges over long distances of SCI lesions remains a challenge, resulting in poor functional recovery. Instead of relying on promoting axon regeneration into lesions, Pfister et al. has developed a transplantable nervous tissue construct spanned ...


Ignition Of Metal Powder By Electrostatic Discharge Stimulation, Ervin Beloni Dec 2007

Ignition Of Metal Powder By Electrostatic Discharge Stimulation, Ervin Beloni

Theses

Energetic formulations with metal fuel additives are extensively used in propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics, and incendiaries. Currently, replacement of regular metal powders with nanocomposite metal-based materials is being considered. Such nanocomposite reactive materials are capable of very high reaction rates while maintaining the high combustion enthalpies characteristic of metals. However, such novel reactive nano-materials are often highly sensitive to impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge, making them difficult to handle. In particular, their high electrostatic discharge sensitivity (ESD) was reported. While ESD testing is very common and standardized, the mechanisms of powder ignition by electric spark remain unclear. This project is aimed ...