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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Change Process And The Implementation Of High School Jostens Renaissance Programs: A Multiple Case Study, Gregory G. English May 2019

The Change Process And The Implementation Of High School Jostens Renaissance Programs: A Multiple Case Study, Gregory G. English

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Motivated by the growing body of research relating to the impact school climate has on student achievement, attendance, behavior, and mental well-being, many educators have implemented initiatives and programs aimed at school climate improvement. Jostens Renaissance is one such program and was the program of focus for this study. Though Jostens has numerous publications and media sources to facilitate the sharing of ideas, there is very little information available regarding the implementation of Renaissance.

The primary purpose of this study was to identify factors that facilitated change in the process of implementing high school Jostens Renaissance programs in order to ...


Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart Dec 2018

Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examined African-American high school seniors’ perceptions of culturally responsive teaching in one public high school within a large urban public-school district in the southeastern region of the United States. It begins with a brief historical overview on the plight of African-Americans in the US public education system and how public school educators have failed to leverage Afrocultural learning orientations as an asset to educate and increase the academic achievement of African-American students in classrooms. The Philosophical Aspects of Cultural Difference Framework (Nichols, 1986, 1995) will guide this dissertation study. The latter part of the dissertation reveals that a ...


School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs Aug 2018

School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...


A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller May 2018

A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is now a strong presence of virtual schools in the United States serving K-12 students, along with increased opportunities for brick-and-mortar students to take virtual courses (Ash, 2011; Luo, Hibbard, Franklin, & Moore, 2017). Research into the human impact of virtual education is not keeping pace (Gulosino & Miron, 2017; Rice et al., 2014). This study focused on the experiences and insights of virtual teachers in terms of their relationships with learners as well as on potential changes in their sense of professional identity as they moved from one setting to the other. During a series of three individual, semi-structured interviews, five teachers described their teaching first as brick-and-mortar high school teachers and then as teachers in virtual ...


"It Teaches Them To Have A Conversation In The Real World" : An Analysis Of How Identity Performances Shape Classroom Discussions., Ashley Lauren Shelton Arnold Dec 2017

"It Teaches Them To Have A Conversation In The Real World" : An Analysis Of How Identity Performances Shape Classroom Discussions., Ashley Lauren Shelton Arnold

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although discussion has long played a role in classroom learning, recent focus on moving discussion away from the evaluative and toward the dialogic is key to understanding how discussion can be driven by multiple, shared understandings. Adopting a sociocultural perspective, this dissertation explores the ways in which identity performances shape one teacher and his students’ participation in classroom discussions. The theoretical framework guiding this study draws on the relationship between discourse and identities construction, with further attention given to improvisations of identities, figured worlds, and the ways in which power shapes discourse. This dissertation argues that performed identities shape the ...


Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov May 2017

Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to identify and describe the pedagogical practices and classroom management strategies of consistently effective and successful teachers as evidenced by teacher perceptions and observations.

Four middle school teachers from two middle schools within the same school district were selected to participate in the study. The teachers were selected based on their effectiveness identified by their supervisor. The teachers were interviewed about their own perceptions as to what effective pedagogical practices are, based on their teaching experience. The teachers were also observed in their classrooms.

The key findings of the study indicated the importance of stablishing classroom procedures ...


Instructional Teacher Job Resources And Student Achievement In Mathematics., Amy Stokes-Levine May 2017

Instructional Teacher Job Resources And Student Achievement In Mathematics., Amy Stokes-Levine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research shows that teachers who are supported with job resources are more engaged regardless of the level of demands (Klusmann et al., 2008). Additionally, teachers who are engaged with their work are less likely to report their intention to leave the teaching profession (Klassen et al., 2012), which is particularly important for mathematics teachers who are in high demand (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond, & Carver-Thomas, 2016). Supporting employees with job resources is a commonly accepted practice in many professional fields (e.g., Christian, Garza, & Slaughter, 2011), yet is not a common practice in education (e.g., Bidwell, 2013; Gewertz, 2014; Layton, 2015; Rentner & Kober, 2014a). Current research on teacher work engagement and job resources has focused on big ideas like access to information and supervisory support (e.g., Hakanen, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2006). However, a more specific set ...


A Formative Process Evaluation Study Of Teacher Usage Of A Learning Management System In A K-12 Public School, Victoria Franzese Jan 2017

A Formative Process Evaluation Study Of Teacher Usage Of A Learning Management System In A K-12 Public School, Victoria Franzese

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore teacher perceptions, concerns, and integration of a Learning Management System (LMS) in a K-12 public school. With more educational institutions adopting LMSs, it is imperative to examine teachers' concerns regarding the tool as teachers have an important role in how effectively an innovation—such as an LMS—is implemented (Lochner, Conrad, & Graham, 2015). Ultimately, adoption of an innovation can be successful if teachers have an understanding of the components leading to the innovation's success, such as the innovation's value in enhancing both the curriculum and the students' learning experiences (Lochner et al., 2015). This study used the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a main framework to not only measure implementation of the LMS, but to also increase the likelihood of the LMS effecting positive change in schools (George, Hall, & Stiegelbauer, 2006). The framework's Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) was used with participants to determine teachers' concerns. The sample population for this study consisted of secondary teachers at a public high school in central Florida in 2017. Out of the 125 teachers employed at the school, a total of 36 (n = 36) participated in the online survey. Three of the teachers surveyed then participated in interviews to provide additional insight. Data was analyzed and organized into five main topics: (a) Stages of Concern Profile; (b) teacher concerns; (c) benefits of the LMS; (d) barriers to the LMS; and (e) teacher needs. An analysis of the survey data revealed that the study's survey participants, on average, had the highest concerns at Stage 0 (Unconcerned), Stage ...


Discussion In Middle And High School Earth Science Classrooms And Its Impact On Students' Abilities To Construct Evidence-Based Arguments In Their Written Work, Rachel Martin Aug 2016

Discussion In Middle And High School Earth Science Classrooms And Its Impact On Students' Abilities To Construct Evidence-Based Arguments In Their Written Work, Rachel Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Middle and high school teachers who participate in the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP) noted persistent problems in their classrooms, including low levels of student engagement and gaps in how students use evidence. To address these problems, this study was designed in collaboration with MainePSP teachers in a design-based implementation research process as teachers aimed to better connect classroom discussion and written argumentation. Though scientific writing makes use of argumentation to support ideas, it is often the sharing of ideas that makes an argument stronger.

Two teachers collected data from their seventh and ninth grade Earth Science classrooms at schools ...


Ireach Blended Learning Model And Reading Lexile Growth Of Freshmen In Maryville City Schools, Whitney Ann Schmidt Aug 2016

Ireach Blended Learning Model And Reading Lexile Growth Of Freshmen In Maryville City Schools, Whitney Ann Schmidt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Maryville City School system has implemented the first year of the iReach blended learning model for which all students in the school district have access to either a laptop or an iPad to support their learning every day. The availability of research on the impact of iReach is limited because the blended learning instructional model is relatively new and has not yet been subjected to numerous research studies. The purpose of this ex post facto quasi-experimental quantitative study was to compare student reading Lexile growth data collected through the use of the Reading Comprehension Assessment before and after iReach ...


The Reading Intervention Program Making Connections Intervention And Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Scores In One East Tennessee School District, Jami H. Corwin Aug 2016

The Reading Intervention Program Making Connections Intervention And Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Scores In One East Tennessee School District, Jami H. Corwin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between the reading intervention program Making Connections Intervention (MCI) and pre-intervention and post- intervention Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading scaled scores in one East Tennessee school district. Participants included 99 Tennessee students in grade levels six through nine who received reading intervention instruction through MCI and were frequently monitored following the requirements stipulated in the Tennessee Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTI2) Framework. This study assessed pre- and post-intervention data specific to gender, special education classification, Title I classification, and instructor classification through a series of t-tests. Findings ...


High School Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy In Teaching Literacy Across The Curriculum In Tennessee First Core Region 1 High Schools, Ashley N. Keys Aug 2016

High School Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy In Teaching Literacy Across The Curriculum In Tennessee First Core Region 1 High Schools, Ashley N. Keys

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

At the high school level teachers are often departmentalized by their content area and do not teach subjects outside of their specialties. Common Core State Standards (CCSS) introduced literacy standards across the curriculum requiring reading and writing instruction in all courses. The adoption not only affected traditional literacy teachers but also science, math, social studies, and career and technical education teachers who may have had little or no training or experience in teaching literacy to adolescents. These teachers, because of little training or experience in teaching literacy, may feel unprepared for the CCSS literacy shifts or inadequate in delivering literacy ...


Online Education: The Relationship Between The Perceptions Of Online High School Teachers Compared To Traditional Classroom Teachers Regarding The Visual Arts, Karen A. Fine Aug 2016

Online Education: The Relationship Between The Perceptions Of Online High School Teachers Compared To Traditional Classroom Teachers Regarding The Visual Arts, Karen A. Fine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The incorporation of the arts as an academic subject in the high school distance education delivery method is being reinvented as something new. Most of the current research is focused on college courses. Online high school curricula are most often placed in research studies as an afterthought. Perceptions of faculty members from high schools with traditional instructional delivery models as well as public online schools concerning online education as it relates to the arts in 5 different areas was the focus of this research; mentor, delivery method, satisfaction, student learning, and curriculum. Examining the perceptions of teachers gives a blueprint ...


Inconsistent Conceptions Of Acceleration Contributing To Formative Assessment Limitations, Gregory D. Kranich May 2016

Inconsistent Conceptions Of Acceleration Contributing To Formative Assessment Limitations, Gregory D. Kranich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority in light of measures indicating marginal student interest and success in the United States. Just as evidence is integral to policy decisions, so too do teachers depend on evidence to inform instructional choices. Classroom assessment remains a touchstone means of gathering such evidence as indicators of students’ progress, and increasingly, teachers are designing, implementing, and interpreting assessments in collaboration with one another.

In rural Maine, the work of the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP) has enabled science educators to come together as a supportive professional community. We focused ...


Understanding Through Narrative Inquiry : Storying A National Writing Project Initiative., Amy Renee Vujaklija May 2016

Understanding Through Narrative Inquiry : Storying A National Writing Project Initiative., Amy Renee Vujaklija

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This narrative inquiry study informed the understanding of a professional development planning process within the National Writing Project Assignments Matter initiative sponsored by the Literacy Design Collaborative. Because little has been written about teacher-leaders in the roles of planning professional development for colleagues, this narrative inquiry used the three dimensions of situation, continuity, and interaction (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000; Dewey, 1938) to explore interviews, large and small group meeting recordings, and email communications among leadership team members during an initiative to plan professional development. Qualitative data analysis included coding of attributes, process, in vivo, and patterns (Saldaña, 2013). Pattern coding became the foundation ...


The Source And Impact Of Student Engagement For Black Students In An Urban High School, Deshawn Sims Jan 2016

The Source And Impact Of Student Engagement For Black Students In An Urban High School, Deshawn Sims

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The achievement of Black students has repeatedly met only the lowest standards of performance on standardized assessments, which begs the question; do American schools have the capacity to educate Black children? The purpose of this action research manuscript dissertation was to explore the teacher behaviors and instructional strategies that developed a culture of high achievement among Black students as measured by student engagement and discourse, immediately before and after desegregation, and in classrooms today. The examination of popular theories concerning the education of Black people in the early 1900's and narratives of individuals who attended segregated schools, provided a ...


High School Educators’ Perceptions Of Their Schools’ Conduciveness To English Language Learners’ Success, Jill Winiger May 2015

High School Educators’ Perceptions Of Their Schools’ Conduciveness To English Language Learners’ Success, Jill Winiger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of administrators, guidance counselors, and classroom teachers in the high schools of Northeast Tennessee regarding their schools’ academics, climate, culture, parent engagement, and their English Language Learners’ school experiences. The researcher sought to ascertain if significant differences exist between the perceptions of different groups of educational professionals in the school, with those groups to include school administrators, guidance counselors, and classroom teachers. Data were analyzed from 50 survey questions with 42 of those questions measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 questions as multiple choice, and 3 questions as open-ended ...


Move, Interact, And Connect Personally Barter Theatre’S Project Real Gets Implicit In Order To Learn, Megan E. Atkinson May 2015

Move, Interact, And Connect Personally Barter Theatre’S Project Real Gets Implicit In Order To Learn, Megan E. Atkinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Body movement, hands-on activity, embodiment, social interaction, emotions, and self-reflection allow teaching artists of Barter’s Theatre’s Project REAL to conduct a lesson with an implicit learning experience as the focus. Barter Theatre’s Project REAL exists as a theatre for education program that collaborates with regular classroom teachers on delivering the curriculum through specific theatre exercises in order to connect the material personally to the students’ lives. Theatre tools provide a human experience that enhances learning for the student by use of kinesthetic movement, social learning, emotions and interpersonal skills. To understand the effects of Barter Theatre’s ...


Predicting Registered Health Information Administrator Examination Scores, James Condon Jan 2013

Predicting Registered Health Information Administrator Examination Scores, James Condon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among candidates for the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination that may have characterized the likelihood of acquiring professional certification upon graduation from accredited health information administration education programs. The research was conducted using data acquired from accredited health information administration education programs located across the United States. A total of 197 former student records were obtained and used in the statistical analyses; 118 were employed in correlation analysis and to develop a Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination success prediction model and to establish a 95% Approximate Prediction ...


The Cultural Studies Of Science Education, Karen D. Chassereau Jan 2013

The Cultural Studies Of Science Education, Karen D. Chassereau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an age of accountability, the demands and constraints placed on science teachers seem insurmountable. Teachers are challenged to provide students with authentic scientific experiences, yet the need to prepare students for high-stakes tests remains. The problem of attrition and job stress in the field of science teaching is growing. As pressures rise, it becomes necessary to understand what the culture of science education is like from the perspective of the science teacher. This study sought to define the culture of science education and determine how this culture informs teacher practice in the secondary science classroom. This qualitative case study ...


High School Administrators' Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Professional Development, Rodney J. Williams Jan 2012

High School Administrators' Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Professional Development, Rodney J. Williams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The importance of professional development has been emphasized in recent legislation and accountability acts. As Georgia competes for Race to the Top Funds, high school administrators are being required to attend various professional development activities. These may address the new teacher evaluation system, common core, and techniques on how to close the gap between high-achieving students and students with a learning disability. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to understand high school administrators’ perceptions of the effectiveness of professional development. This qualitative study used a case study design with purposive sampling. Participants included twelve high school administrators currently ...


Lost In Transition : A Grade Nine Transition Program Using Articulation Activities., Denise Allen May 2011

Lost In Transition : A Grade Nine Transition Program Using Articulation Activities., Denise Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a set of structured articulation activities on the transition of students from grade eight to grade nine. Data were collected by retrieval from the state data collection system. This study was time-interrupted series with a treatment (implementation) group and two comparison groups analyzed using the MANCOVA approach. The study relied on the literature review of three vital concepts: organizational learning; high reliability organizations; and effective schools. Descriptive data were gathered through the state-wide Infinite Campus program. The study is quasi-experimental design with a quantitative analysis. The outcome data were ...


Understanding And Implementing Classroom Discussions Of Literature: A Case Study Of One High School Teacher's Beliefs And Practices Concerning Classroom Discussions, Tanya Neva Baker Aug 2008

Understanding And Implementing Classroom Discussions Of Literature: A Case Study Of One High School Teacher's Beliefs And Practices Concerning Classroom Discussions, Tanya Neva Baker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Classroom discussion of literature is often lauded as a powerful pedagogical tool in the high school English classroom. Researchers have shown that student talk in the classroom is a powerful teaching strategy. Many teachers express a belief in classroom discussions as a means of teaching literature. At the same time, relatively few teachers actually use classroom discussions of literature in their teaching. Research has identified that student talk in the classroom is a powerful pedagogical tool, and also that such discussions are difficult for many classroom teachers to enact. Little research has explored why teachers might have this disconnect. Teachers ...


Students' Epistemological Beliefs Of Mathematics When Taught Using Traditional Versus Reform Curricula In Rural Maine High Schools, Glenn T. Colby Jan 2007

Students' Epistemological Beliefs Of Mathematics When Taught Using Traditional Versus Reform Curricula In Rural Maine High Schools, Glenn T. Colby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study compared students’ epistemological beliefs of mathematics after completing 3 years of a reform-oriented curriculum developed by the Core-Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP) versus a more traditional curriculum developed by Glencoe Mathematics. The Conceptions of Mathematics Inventory (CMI; Grouws, Howald, & Colangelo, 1996) was administered to 11th-grade students in four rural Maine high schools (n=102) to measure student beliefs of mathematics. CPMP was used as the primary textbook series in 2 of the schools, while the other 2 schools used Glencoe Mathematics. A variation of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP; Piburn & Sawada, 2000) and teacher questionnaires were used to characterize the level of reform-oriented instruction occurring in each of the schools. The results indicated that the students who were taught using the traditional curriculum combined with reform-oriented teaching practices expressed the most positive beliefs of mathematics, while the students who were taught using the reform-oriented curriculum expressed less healthy beliefs ...


The Effect Of Direct Experience On Generating Insight Into And Deepening Understanding Of Academic Topics Studied By High School Seniors In The Field, Lowell W. Libby Jan 2001

The Effect Of Direct Experience On Generating Insight Into And Deepening Understanding Of Academic Topics Studied By High School Seniors In The Field, Lowell W. Libby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Progressive educators have long criticized many traditional teaching methods at the secondary level as intellectually stultifying and irrelevant. The current wave of progressive secondary school reform, including in Maine, seeks to improve learning for all students by actively engaging them in the learning experience. The focus, however, is primarily on classroom practices, with little written about the potential importance to academic study of one practice - field-based learning - which has an established record for engaging students actively in learning. The reasons for this omission are varied, including a lack of understanding of field-based learning at the secondary level. This comparative case ...


Collective Efficacy And Collaborative Climate In Maine High Schools, Sarah Mackenzie Jan 2000

Collective Efficacy And Collaborative Climate In Maine High Schools, Sarah Mackenzie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School reformers contend that a collaborative climate is conducive to effective schools. Collective efficacy is logically connected to collaborative climate and has the potential to enhance understanding of the psychosocial aspects of schools as organizations. This study's purpose was to examine the relationships among teacher efficacy, collective efficacy, and collaborative climate and to determine how, if at all, these three indicators of teacher and school effectiveness were statistically linked. I The study involved surveying 21 high schools. Teachers (n = 384) responded to a 40-item instrument consisting of variables related to their individual and collective efficacy, sense of collegiality, beliefs ...


The Nature, Scope, And Consequences Of Drug And Alcohol Use Of Students Enrolled At Three Southern Appalachian Community Colleges, Jewel D. Morgan Dec 1998

The Nature, Scope, And Consequences Of Drug And Alcohol Use Of Students Enrolled At Three Southern Appalachian Community Colleges, Jewel D. Morgan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the nature, scope, and consequences of drug and alcohol use by students enrolled at three southern Appalachian community colleges: Mountain Empire Community College (MECC) in Virginia, Northeast State Technical Community College (NSTCC) in Tennessee, and Southwestern Community College (SCC) in North Carolina. An additional purpose was to use this information to formulate recommendations for new and improved preventive substance-abuse programs. The design for this study was descriptive research. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CORE) was selected as the appropriate instrument for use in this study. The 23-item questionnaire was designed ...


High School Block Scheduling As A Stimulus: A Multiple-Site Case Study, William H. Phelps Aug 1998

High School Block Scheduling As A Stimulus: A Multiple-Site Case Study, William H. Phelps

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that have been used for implementing the alternative scheduling plan of block scheduling in high schools. The study attempted to discover what professional development activities were used for the change, if teachers altered instruction, and what additional staff development was needed. The qualitative method of case study research was selected for the study. The investigator chose five public high schools, representing city and county systems and different professional development budgets and types of instructional support. Central office administrators who were responsible for the implementation of block scheduling, principals, and a ...


Block Scheduling: From Possibility To Reality?, Frederic M. Muse Dec 1997

Block Scheduling: From Possibility To Reality?, Frederic M. Muse

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines teacher practices and student learning as perceived by teachers within public high schools that have implemented block scheduling. Comparisons are made between the possibilities advanced by block scheduling advocates and the actual results as interpreted from the data gathered. Comparisons are made between teaching and learning with the traditional schedule and the manner in which it takes place with block scheduling. Open-ended questionnaires were developed for use with voluntary participants who had worked with traditional scheduling and now taught with some form of block scheduling. Participants recorded observations based solely upon personal perceptions of experiences with students ...


The Relationship Of Experience, Education, And Tennessee Career Ladder Status To Teachers' Perceptions Of Staff Development Needs In Block Scheduled Programs, Rita S. Mullins May 1997

The Relationship Of Experience, Education, And Tennessee Career Ladder Status To Teachers' Perceptions Of Staff Development Needs In Block Scheduled Programs, Rita S. Mullins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem related to this study was to develop a clearer understanding of the staff development needs of high school classroom teachers implementing block scheduled programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if teachers' perceptions of staff development needs differed when teaching experience, education (highest degree earned), and Tennessee Career Ladder status were considered. Four levels of each independent variable were analyzed by six categories of perceptions, the dependent variables. The categories were: (a) Planning, (b) Knowledge, (c) Satisfaction with staff development, (d) Adult learning strategies, (e) Level of involvement, and (f) Impact on student testing and grades ...