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Stimulus Complexity And Chunk Tightness Interact To Impede Perceptual Restructuring During Problem Solving, Zhonglu Zhang, Christopher M. Warren, Yi Lei, Qiang Xing, Hong Li Jul 2020

Stimulus Complexity And Chunk Tightness Interact To Impede Perceptual Restructuring During Problem Solving, Zhonglu Zhang, Christopher M. Warren, Yi Lei, Qiang Xing, Hong Li

Psychology Faculty Publications

The mutual influence of stimulus complexity and chunk tightness on perceptual restructuring was examined using a chunk decomposition task (CDT). Participants attempted to remove components of Chinese characters in order to produce new, valid characters. Participants had their electroencephalogram recorded while completing a CDT in conditions of low or high stimulus complexity, crossed with two levels of chunk tightness. Tight chunks overlapped spatially whereas loose chunks did not. Both increasing chunk tightness and increasing stimulus complexity impaired performance (lower accuracy, longer reaction times), and these factors interacted such that highly complex, tight chunks produced the worst performance. These factors also ...


Promoting Healthy Decision-Making Via Natural Environment Exposure: Initial Evidence And Future Directions, Meredith S. Berry, Meredith A. Repke, Alexander L. Metcalf, Kerry E. Jordan Jul 2020

Promoting Healthy Decision-Making Via Natural Environment Exposure: Initial Evidence And Future Directions, Meredith S. Berry, Meredith A. Repke, Alexander L. Metcalf, Kerry E. Jordan

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research within psychology and other disciplines has shown that exposure to natural environments holds extensive physiological and psychological benefits. Adding to the health and cognitive benefits of natural environments, evidence suggests that exposure to nature also promotes healthy human decision-making. Unhealthy decision-making (e.g., smoking, non-medical prescription opioid misuse) and disorders associated with lack of impulse control [e.g., tobacco use, opioid use disorder (OUD)], contribute to millions of preventable deaths annually (i.e., 6 million people die each year of tobacco-related illness worldwide, deaths from opioids from 2002 to 2017 have more than quadrupled in the United States alone ...


Natural Categorization: Electrophysiological Responses To Viewing Natural Versus Built Environments, Salif Mahamane, Nick Wan, Alexis Porter, Allison S. Hancock, Justin Campbell, Thomas E. Lyon, Kerry E. Jordan Jun 2020

Natural Categorization: Electrophysiological Responses To Viewing Natural Versus Built Environments, Salif Mahamane, Nick Wan, Alexis Porter, Allison S. Hancock, Justin Campbell, Thomas E. Lyon, Kerry E. Jordan

Psychology Faculty Publications

Environments are unique in terms of structural composition and evoked human experience. Previous studies suggest that natural compared to built environments may increase positive emotions. Humans in natural environments also demonstrate greater performance on attention-based tasks. Few studies have investigated cortical mechanisms underlying these phenomena or probed these differences from a neural perspective. Using a temporally sensitive electrophysiological approach, we employ an event-related, implicit passive viewing task to demonstrate that in humans, a greater late positive potential (LPP) occurs with exposure to built than natural environments, resulting in a faster return of activation to pre-stimulus baseline levels when viewing natural ...


Comparing Effects Of Acceptance Training And Psychoeducation On Hoarding Symptoms, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Feb 2020

Comparing Effects Of Acceptance Training And Psychoeducation On Hoarding Symptoms, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Hoarding symptoms include difficulty letting go of possessions, excessive acquisition, and clutter that precludes use of active living spaces. The current study compared the effects of acceptance training to psychoeducation on hoarding severity in a sample of college students with elevated hoarding symptoms. Participants (N = 47) completed self-report measures at baseline, posttest, and one-week follow-up and an in vivo discarding behavioral task at posttest. There were no differences in self-reported outcomes between conditions over time, suggesting acceptance training was not more effective than psychoeducation. Significant and large effect sizes for hoarding severity and maladaptive hoarding cognitions were found from baseline ...


Acceptability, Feasibility, And Efficacy Potential Of A Multimodal Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Intervention To Address Psychosocial And Advance Care Planning Needs Among Anxious And Depressed Adults With Metastatic Cancer, Joanna J. Arch, Joel N. Fishbein, Michelle C. Ferris, Jill L. Mitchell, Michael E. Levin, Elizabeth T. Slivjak, David J. Andorsky, Jean S. Kutner Jan 2020

Acceptability, Feasibility, And Efficacy Potential Of A Multimodal Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Intervention To Address Psychosocial And Advance Care Planning Needs Among Anxious And Depressed Adults With Metastatic Cancer, Joanna J. Arch, Joel N. Fishbein, Michelle C. Ferris, Jill L. Mitchell, Michael E. Levin, Elizabeth T. Slivjak, David J. Andorsky, Jean S. Kutner

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Adults with metastatic cancer frequently report anxiety and depression symptoms, which may impact health behaviors such as advance care planning (ACP).

Objective: The study leveraged acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), an evidence-based approach for reducing distress and improving health behaviors, and adapted it into a multimodal intervention (M-ACT) designed to address the psychosocial and ACP needs of anxious and depressed adults with metastatic cancer. The study evaluated M-ACT's acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy potential.

Design: The study was designed as a single-arm intervention development and pilot trial.

Setting/Subjects: The trial enrolled 35 anxious or depressed adults with stage ...


Evaluating Acceptance And Commitment Therapy And Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Self-Help Books For College Student Mental Health, Michael E. Levin, Woolee An, Carter Davis, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

Evaluating Acceptance And Commitment Therapy And Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Self-Help Books For College Student Mental Health, Michael E. Levin, Woolee An, Carter Davis, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objectives: Self-help has the potential to improve access to mental health resources for college students. However, solutions are needed to improve sustainable delivery, cost- effectiveness, and to know which resources are most useful. Methods: A sample of 109 college students were randomly assigned to read either an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) or Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) self-help book through the University library website over 8 weeks with assessments at baseline, midtreatment (4-weeks), and posttreatment (8-weeks). Results: The majority of participants reported reading over half of their assigned book and high satisfaction ratings were given for both books. Both conditions ...


Tracking Valued And Avoidant Functions With Health Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Matrix Mobile App, Michael E. Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Seth Seifert, Jason Lillis Jan 2020

Tracking Valued And Avoidant Functions With Health Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Matrix Mobile App, Michael E. Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Seth Seifert, Jason Lillis

Psychology Faculty Publications

This randomized controlled trial evaluated the acceptability and additive effects of self- monitoring avoidant and valued functions of behavior, in the context of self-monitoring physical activity and dietary behavior in a mobile app. The self-monitoring approach was based on the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Matrix. A sample of 102 adults interested in improving their diet and physical activity were randomized to a Health Behavior Tracking app (HBT), HBT plus ACT matrix app (HBT+ACT), or waitlist condition. Online self-report assessments were completed at baseline, mid (2 weeks), and post-intervention (4 weeks). Participants reported high usability, but mixed satisfaction with ...


Pilot Evaluation Of The Stop, Breathe & Think Mindfulness App For Student Clients On A College Counseling Center Waitlist, Michael Levin, Elizabeth T. Hicks, Jennifer Krafft Jan 2020

Pilot Evaluation Of The Stop, Breathe & Think Mindfulness App For Student Clients On A College Counseling Center Waitlist, Michael Levin, Elizabeth T. Hicks, Jennifer Krafft

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objectives: College counseling centers face significant challenges meeting the mental health needs of their students and waitlists are common. Mobile apps offer a promising solution to increase access to resources while students wait for services. Methods: This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a publicly available mindfulness app. Students on a counseling center waitlist (n=23) were randomized to use the app or not, with assessments completed over four weeks. Results: Recruitment over three semesters was slow, leading to an underpowered trial. Participants reported high satisfaction and moderate app usage. Very preliminary support was found for ...


Utilizing Act Daily As A Self-Guided App For Clients Waiting For Services At A College Counseling Center: A Pilot Study, Jack A. Haeger, Carter H. Davis, Michael E. Levin Jan 2020

Utilizing Act Daily As A Self-Guided App For Clients Waiting For Services At A College Counseling Center: A Pilot Study, Jack A. Haeger, Carter H. Davis, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Considering increasing demands for mental health services at college counseling centers (CCCs), there is a need for cost-effective solutions that avoid depleting stressed CCC resources. This study examined if ACT Daily, a mobile application based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), could serve as an effective self-guided intervention.

Participants: 11 individuals on a CCC waitlist suffering from anxiety/depression participated in the study over 2 weeks.

Methods: This study implemented a pre-post, open trial design of ACT Daily. Assessments were completed at baseline and 2-week post assessment.

Results: Results indicated that ACT Daily was acceptable and that participants improved ...


The Empirical Status Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy: A Review Of Meta-Analyses, Andrew T. Gloster, Noemi Walder, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig, Maria Karekla Jan 2020

The Empirical Status Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy: A Review Of Meta-Analyses, Andrew T. Gloster, Noemi Walder, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig, Maria Karekla

Psychology Faculty Publications

The efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been evaluated in many randomized controlled trials investigating a broad range of target conditions. This paper reviews the meta-analytic evidence on ACT. The 20 included meta-analyses reported 100 controlled effect sizes across n = 12,477 participants. Controlled effect sizes were grouped by target conditions and comparison group. Results showed that ACT is efficacious for all conditions examined, including anxiety, depression, substance use, pain, and transdiagnostic groups. Results also showed that ACT was generally superior to inactive controls (e.g. waitlist, placebo), treatment as usual, and most active intervention conditions (excluding CBT ...


Beyond Acceptance And Commitment Therapy: Process-Based Therapy, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

Beyond Acceptance And Commitment Therapy: Process-Based Therapy, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article describes process-based therapy (PBT) as a natural evolution toward more effective and efficient mental healthcare. Using acceptance and commitment therapy as an example of an early prototype of PBT, this paper explicates the broader features of PBT and the shift in mindset researchers and clinicians will need to take to fully embrace PBT with respect to assessment, conceptualization, and intervention. In addition, the paper enumerates challenges to implementing the PBT model and proposes recommendations for circumventing these challenges in the areas of theory development, research methodology, and clinical practice. Finally, we make the argument shifting to PBT is ...


Moderators And Processes Of Change In Traditional Exposure And Response Prevention (Erp) Versus Acceptance And Commitment Therapy-Informed Erp For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Clarissa W. Ong, Shannon M. Blakey, Brooke M. Smith, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

Moderators And Processes Of Change In Traditional Exposure And Response Prevention (Erp) Versus Acceptance And Commitment Therapy-Informed Erp For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Clarissa W. Ong, Shannon M. Blakey, Brooke M. Smith, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study evaluated moderators and processes of change in a randomized controlled trial comparing exposure and response prevention (ERP) delivered from a traditional framework versus ERP from an acceptance and commitment therapy framework (ACT+ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This paper presents baseline, weekly session, posttreatment, and follow-up data from the study. We examined (a) moderation effects of anxiety, depression, psychological inflexibility, and interpretation of intrusions and (b) the role of psychological inflexibility and interpretation of intrusions respectively as processes of change. Participants with less dysfunctional appraisals at pretreatment performed consistently better in ERP relative to ACT+ERP. In ...


Implementing A Web-Based Cognitive Defusion Program To Target Negative Self-Referential Thoughts In College Students: A Pilot Study, Clarie-Ann Henriques Wollach, Leeann Cardaciotto, Michael Levin, Sharon Lee Armstrong Jan 2020

Implementing A Web-Based Cognitive Defusion Program To Target Negative Self-Referential Thoughts In College Students: A Pilot Study, Clarie-Ann Henriques Wollach, Leeann Cardaciotto, Michael Levin, Sharon Lee Armstrong

Psychology Faculty Publications

Cognitive defusion may enhance healthy coping with negative self-referential thoughts amongst college students. However, research is needed to examine how to effectively introduce and teach defusion to this population. The current pilot study tested the usability of and satisfaction with the D-FUSE program, a single-session, web-based program for a mixed sample of undergraduates and its effectiveness in producing improvements in cognitive defusion and self-criticism. In an undergraduate sample (N = 141), the D-FUSE program was found to be usable and satisfactory. Program engagement rendered significant reductions in the believability of and emotional discomfort produced by negative self-referential thoughts. Further improvements to ...


Experiential Avoidance And Negative Affect As Predictors Of Daily Drinking, Jason B. Luoma, Benjamin Pierce, Michael E. Levin Jan 2020

Experiential Avoidance And Negative Affect As Predictors Of Daily Drinking, Jason B. Luoma, Benjamin Pierce, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

People who drink alcohol to cope with negative affect tend to drink more and experience more frequent negative alcohol-related consequences. Experiential avoidance, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise attempt to control unwanted inner experiences, is a largely pathological process that may help account for how negative affect is linked to increased alcohol consumption. However, research to-date has typically used global, trait-like measures, which limit our understanding of the conditions under which experiential avoidance is problematic. The current study tested both between-person (trait) and within-person (daily) variation in experiential avoidance and negative affect as predictors of solitary and social drinking ...


Examining Processes Of Change In An Online Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Dismantling Trial With Distressed College Students, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

Examining Processes Of Change In An Online Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Dismantling Trial With Distressed College Students, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This secondary analysis examined the processes of change from a randomized dismantling trial evaluating the Open (i.e., cognitive defusion, acceptance) and Engaged (i.e., values, committed action) components of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Analyses were conducted with 161 distressed college students randomly assigned to a full online ACT program (Full n=40), online ACT targeting the Open components (Open n=41) or targeting the Engaged components (Engaged n=39), or a waitlist condition (Waitlist n=41). The intervention occurred over six weeks followed by a post-treatment assessment with mental health symptoms as the primary outcome. Consistent with predictions ...


A Randomized Dismantling Trial Of The Open And Engaged Components Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy In An Online Intervention For Distressed College Students, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Elizabeth Tish Hicks, Michael P. Twohig, Benjamin Pierce Jan 2020

A Randomized Dismantling Trial Of The Open And Engaged Components Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy In An Online Intervention For Distressed College Students, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Elizabeth Tish Hicks, Michael P. Twohig, Benjamin Pierce

Psychology Faculty Publications

This dismantling trial compared the effects of a full online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention to the isolated effects of the Open (i.e., acceptance, cognitive defusion) and Engaged (i.e., values, committed action) components of ACT. A sample of 181 distressed college students were randomized to one of four conditions: a 12-session full ACT website (Full), a version targeting the Open components (Open), a version targeting the Engaged components (Engaged), or waitlist. Participants in active conditions were also randomized to receive phone coaching or just email prompts to increase program adherence. All three ACT conditions significantly improved over ...


A Preliminary Investigation Of The Effect Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy On Neural Activation In Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Allison S. Hancock, Tyson S. Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Nicholas Wan, Ronald B. Gillam, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

A Preliminary Investigation Of The Effect Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy On Neural Activation In Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Allison S. Hancock, Tyson S. Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Nicholas Wan, Ronald B. Gillam, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Clinical perfectionism is associated with various cognitive processes including performance monitoring and emotion regulation. This exploratory study analyzed neurological data from a randomized controlled trial for clinical perfectionism that compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to a waitlist control. The objective was to assess the effect of ACT on neural activation. Twenty-nine participants underwent a functional near-infrared spectroscopy assessment during which they completed behavioral tasks designed to elicit error detection and error generation at pre- and posttreatment. The hemodynamic response function (HRF) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and right inferior parietal lobe was analyzed using mixed effects ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Defusion, Self-As-Context, And Distraction Strategies For Getting Rid Of Possessions, Clarissa W. Ong, Carina L. Terry, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

Comparing The Efficacy Of Defusion, Self-As-Context, And Distraction Strategies For Getting Rid Of Possessions, Clarissa W. Ong, Carina L. Terry, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Interventions for hoarding disorder need to target difficulty letting go of items to reduce clutter and improve functioning. The present studies were designed to test the efficacy of brief cognitive interventions for letting go of possessions and self-report outcomes. Participants (N = 67 in Study 1; N = 110 in Study 2) received training on defusion or distraction in Study 1 and defusion, self-as-context, or distraction in Study 2 and completed measures at pre- and postintervention. Study 1 found no differences between defusion and distraction on saving, self-rated discomfort with discarding, or perceived importance of the target belonging. In Study 2, participants ...


A Randomized Trial Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy And Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Self-Help Books For Social Anxiety, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin Jan 2020

A Randomized Trial Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy And Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Self-Help Books For Social Anxiety, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Self-help resources such as books may help meet critical mental health needs in college students, but there is insufficient evidence on whether and how such books work. This randomized trial compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (tCBT) self-help books for social anxiety, a common concern with notable barriers to treatment seeking.

Methods: A sample of college students (n = 102) with social anxiety was randomly assigned to use one of the two self-help books over eight weeks.

Results: Improvements were observed in both conditions across all outcomes (social anxiety, general well-being, and social functioning) as ...


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Perfectionism And Neurological Functioning, Julie M. Petersen, Clarissa W. Ong, Allison Hancock, Ronald B. Gillam, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Perfectionism And Neurological Functioning, Julie M. Petersen, Clarissa W. Ong, Allison Hancock, Ronald B. Gillam, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Clinical perfectionism is the rigid pursuit of high standards, interfering with functioning. Little research has explored neural patterns in clinical perfectionism. The present study explores neural correlates of clinical perfectionism, before and after receiving ten 50-minute, weekly sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), as compared to low-perfectionist controls, in specific cortical structures: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Participants in the perfectionist condition (n = 43) were from a randomized controlled trial evaluating ACT for clinical perfectionism and low-perfectionist controls were undergraduate students (n = 12). Participants completed three tasks (editing a passage ...


A Psychometric Comparison Of Psychological Inflexibility Measures: Discriminant Validity And Item Performance, Clarissa W. Ong, Benjamin G. Pierce, Julie M. Petersen, Jennifer L. Barney, Jeremiah E. Fruge, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2020

A Psychometric Comparison Of Psychological Inflexibility Measures: Discriminant Validity And Item Performance, Clarissa W. Ong, Benjamin G. Pierce, Julie M. Petersen, Jennifer L. Barney, Jeremiah E. Fruge, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychological inflexibility is a rigid behavioral pattern that interferes with engagement in personally meaningful activities; it is the hypothesized root of suffering in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Thus, the quality of its measurement affects the research, theory, and practice of ACT. The current study aimed to evaluate the discriminant validity and item performance of four measures of psychological inflexibility: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire—II (AAQ-II), a revised version of the AAC-II (AAQ-3), the Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (BEAQ), and the Comprehensive assessment of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (CompACT). We analyzed data from community (n = 253), student (n ...


Comparison Of Skin Biomechanics And Skin Color In Puerto Rican And Non-Puerto Rican Women, Yadira Regueira, Jamison D. Fargo, Deborah Tiller, Kathleen Brown, Carla Clements, Barbara Beacham, Emily Brignone, Marilyn S. Sommers Sep 2019

Comparison Of Skin Biomechanics And Skin Color In Puerto Rican And Non-Puerto Rican Women, Yadira Regueira, Jamison D. Fargo, Deborah Tiller, Kathleen Brown, Carla Clements, Barbara Beacham, Emily Brignone, Marilyn S. Sommers

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Skin biomechanics are physical properties that protect the body from injury. Little is known about differences in skin biomechanics in racial/ethnic groups and the role of skin color in these differences. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between skin biomechanics (viscoelasticity, hydration) and skin color, when controlling for demographic and health-related variables in a sample of Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican women.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from 545 women in a longitudinal, observational study of skin injury in Puerto Rico and the United States. Data included measures of skin viscoelasticity ...


The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility And Self-Compassion In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer L. Barney, Tyson Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jun 2019

The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility And Self-Compassion In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer L. Barney, Tyson Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

The current study examined psychological inflexibility and self-compassion as theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of outcomes following acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for clinical perfectionism. Fifty-three participants with clinical perfectionism were randomized to either a 10-session ACT condition or a 14-week waitlist control condition (only 39 completed the post treatment assessment). Outcomes tested include concern over mistakes, doubting of actions, personal standards, quality of life, symptom distress and functional impairment, and valued action. Multilevel modeling analyses showed reduced psychological inflexibility mediated the relationship between condition and higher quality of life and increased self-compassion mediated the relationship between condition and decreased ...


Associations Between Relationship Maintenance Behaviors And Marital Stability In Remarriages, Ron C. Bean, Thomas Ledermann, Brian J. Higginbotham, Renee V. Galliher May 2019

Associations Between Relationship Maintenance Behaviors And Marital Stability In Remarriages, Ron C. Bean, Thomas Ledermann, Brian J. Higginbotham, Renee V. Galliher

Psychology Faculty Publications

Nearly half of adults in the U.S. indicated they had a close step-relative that included stepparents, stepchildren, and other close relationships. The prevalence of stepfamilies is rapidly increasing and represents a population that remains largely understudied. This study explored the roles of socioemotional behaviors (positivity, negativity, and sexual interest) on marital stability for different remarriage constellations (depending on which of the couple, both partners, or neither had previous children). This study uses dyadic relationship data from 879 couples. It was hypothesized that positivity and sexual interest would be inversely related to marital instability, while negativity will be correlated with ...


Baseline Cultural Competence In Physician Assistant Students, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Paula B. Phelps, H. Cathleen Tarp Apr 2019

Baseline Cultural Competence In Physician Assistant Students, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Paula B. Phelps, H. Cathleen Tarp

Psychology Faculty Publications

Purpose

Cultural competence is a critical component in health care services. The relationship between health disparities and prejudice and discrimination is well documented. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior are modifiable through training yet few programs have evidence-based training. No published data has reported on baseline levels of cultural competencies in medical trainees which is necessary for tailoring programs appropriate to the audience. This manuscript fills that gap by reporting on data from three cohorts of first-year Physician Assistant (PA) students (N = 216). We examined students’ baseline levels with special attention to differences in cultural competence constructs across age, gender, and ...


Examining Quadratic Relationships Between Traits And Methods In Two Multitrait-Multimethod Models, Fred A. Hintz, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera Mar 2019

Examining Quadratic Relationships Between Traits And Methods In Two Multitrait-Multimethod Models, Fred A. Hintz, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera

Psychology Faculty Publications

Multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis is one of the most frequently employed methods to examine the validity of psychological measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a commonly used analytic tool for examining MTMM data through the specification of trait and method latent variables. Most contemporary CFA-MTMM models either do not allow estimating correlations between the trait and method factors or they are restricted to linear trait-method relationships. There is no theoretical reason why trait and method relationships should always be linear, and quadratic relationships are frequently proposed in the social sciences. In this article, we present two approaches for examining quadratic relations ...


Neuropsychiatric Symptoms In Patients With Dementia And The Longitudinal Costs Of Informal Care In The Cache County Population, Gail B. Rattinger, Chelsea L. Sanders, Elizabeth Vernon, Sarah Schwartz, Stephanie Behrens, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Joann T. Tschanz Mar 2019

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms In Patients With Dementia And The Longitudinal Costs Of Informal Care In The Cache County Population, Gail B. Rattinger, Chelsea L. Sanders, Elizabeth Vernon, Sarah Schwartz, Stephanie Behrens, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Joann T. Tschanz

Psychology Faculty Publications

Introduction

Severity of dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms contribute to increasing informal care costs. We examined which neuropsychiatric symptoms subdomains (NPS-SD) were associated with informal costs in a population-based sample.

Methods

Dementia progression and informal costs (2015 dollars) were estimated from the Cache County Dementia Progression Study. Overall NPS and specific NPS-SD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE with gamma-distribution/log-link) modeled the relationship between NPS-SDs and informal cost trajectories.

Results

Two hundred eighty participants (52.1% female; age M = 85.67, SD = 5.60) exhibited an adjusted cost increase of 5.6% (P = .005), 6.4 ...


Strategies For Selecting, Managing, And Engaging Undergraduate Coauthors: A Multi-Site Perspective, Jenna L. Scisco, Jennifer A. Mccabe, Albee Therese O. Men-Doza, Marianne Fallon, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez Feb 2019

Strategies For Selecting, Managing, And Engaging Undergraduate Coauthors: A Multi-Site Perspective, Jenna L. Scisco, Jennifer A. Mccabe, Albee Therese O. Men-Doza, Marianne Fallon, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez

Psychology Faculty Publications

In 2018, we delivered a symposium on publishing with undergraduate coauthors in the Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research (Fallon, 2018a; Fallon and Domenech Rodríguez, 2018a,b; Fallon and Scisco, 2018; McCabe and Mendoza, 2018). Based on our collective experience, we identified three common challenges: effectively selecting, managing, and engaging students throughout the publication process. We use our perspectives from different institutions (i.e., small liberal arts colleges, mid-sized regional universities, and a large research university) and evidence from past research to provide strategies to successfully meet these challenges. Ultimately, the actionable strategies we describe could be used by a ...


Applying And Interpreting Mixture Distribution Latent State-Trait Models, Kaylee Litson, Carly Thornhill, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera Feb 2019

Applying And Interpreting Mixture Distribution Latent State-Trait Models, Kaylee Litson, Carly Thornhill, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera

Psychology Faculty Publications

Latent state-trait (LST) models are commonly applied to determine the extent to which observed variables reflect trait-like versus state-like constructs. Mixture distribution LST (M-LST) models relax the assumption of population homogeneity made in traditional LST models, allowing researchers to identify subpopulations (latent classes) with differing trait- and state-like attributes. Applications of M-LST models are scarce, presumably because of the analysis complexity. We present a step-by-step tutorial for evaluating M-LST models based on an application to mother, father, and teacher reports of children’s inattention (n = 811). In the application, we found three latent classes for mother and father reports and ...


Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li Feb 2019

Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li

Psychology Faculty Publications

A wealth of studies have investigated how to overcome experience-based constraints in creative problem solving. One such experience-based constraint is the tendency for people to view tightly organized visual stimuli as single, unified percepts, even when decomposition of those stimuli into component parts (termed chunk decomposition) would facilitate problem solving. The current study investigates the neural underpinnings of chunk decomposition in creative problem solving by analyzing event-related potentials. In two experiments, participants decomposed Chinese characters into the character’s component elements and then used the base elements to form a new valid character. The action could require decomposing a “tight ...