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Full-Text Articles in Education

Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li Feb 2019

Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li

Psychology Faculty Publications

A wealth of studies have investigated how to overcome experience-based constraints in creative problem solving. One such experience-based constraint is the tendency for people to view tightly organized visual stimuli as single, unified percepts, even when decomposition of those stimuli into component parts (termed chunk decomposition) would facilitate problem solving. The current study investigates the neural underpinnings of chunk decomposition in creative problem solving by analyzing event-related potentials. In two experiments, participants decomposed Chinese characters into the character’s component elements and then used the base elements to form a new valid character. The action could require decomposing a “tight ...


Next Steps For Training And Education In Professional Psychology: Advancing The Science And Expanding Our Reach, Debora J. Bell, Jennifer L. Callahan, Georita M. Frierson, Theodore R. Burnes, Susan L. Crowley, Stephen R. Mccutcheon Jan 2019

Next Steps For Training And Education In Professional Psychology: Advancing The Science And Expanding Our Reach, Debora J. Bell, Jennifer L. Callahan, Georita M. Frierson, Theodore R. Burnes, Susan L. Crowley, Stephen R. Mccutcheon

Psychology Faculty Publications

As TEPP’s new editorial team begins their term, the authors discuss their vision for the journal as a forum for thoughtful conceptual examination and sound empirical investigation of current issues in health service psychology (HSP) education and training. The editorial team articulates three primary goals for the journal, including (1) engaging the broad training community in sharing its best conceptual and empirical work relevant to the varied levels, settings, and areas of education and training in HSP; (2) advancing the science of education and training through strong empirical research; and (3) expanding our emphasis on the sociocultural context in ...


Does A Brief Mindfulness Training Enhance Heartfulness In Students? Results Of A Pilot Study, Myriam Rudaz, Thomas Ledermann, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Does A Brief Mindfulness Training Enhance Heartfulness In Students? Results Of A Pilot Study, Myriam Rudaz, Thomas Ledermann, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

(1) Background: There is robust evidence that mindfulness trainings enhance mindfulness as operationalized in Western psychology, but evidence about their effect on aspects of heartfulness is sparse. This study seeks to test whether a brief mindfulness training enhances heart qualities, including self-compassion, gratitude, and the generation of feelings of happiness.

(2) Methods: Eighteen students enrolled in a mindfulness training that was offered as part of an interdisciplinary class. The training consisted of five training sessions and four booster sessions of 45 minutes each over the course of nine weeks. Mindfulness was measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (FFMQ-SF ...


Cognitive Load Affects Numerical And Temporal Judgments In Distinct Ways, Karina Hamamouche, Maura Keefe, Kerry E. Jordan, Sara Cordes Oct 2018

Cognitive Load Affects Numerical And Temporal Judgments In Distinct Ways, Karina Hamamouche, Maura Keefe, Kerry E. Jordan, Sara Cordes

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prominent theories suggest that time and number are processed by a single neural locus or a common magnitude system (e.g., Meck and Church, 1983; Walsh, 2003). However, a growing body of literature has identified numerous inconsistencies between temporal and numerical processing, casting doubt on the presence of such a singular system. Findings of distinct temporal and numerical biases in the presence of emotional content (Baker et al., 2013; Young and Cordes, 2013) are particularly relevant to this debate. Specifically, emotional stimuli lead to temporal overestimation, yet identical stimuli result in numerical underestimation. In the current study, we ...


Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi Jun 2018

Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing. Rats were trained to time two durations in a ...


Adding Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Exposure And Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael P. Twohig, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Brooke M. Smith, Laura E. Fabricant, Ryan J. Jacoby, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Lillian Reuman, Shannon M. Blakey, Thomas Ledermann Jun 2018

Adding Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Exposure And Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael P. Twohig, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Brooke M. Smith, Laura E. Fabricant, Ryan J. Jacoby, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Lillian Reuman, Shannon M. Blakey, Thomas Ledermann

Psychology Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to test whether treatment acceptability, exposure engagement, and completion rates could be increased by integrating acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with traditional exposure and response prevention (ERP). 58 adults (68% female) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age = 27, 80% white) engaged in a multisite randomized controlled trial of 16 individual twice-weekly sessions of either ERP or ACT + ERP. Assessors unaware of treatment condition administered assessments of OCD, depression, psychological flexibility, and obsessional beliefs at pretreatment, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up. Treatment acceptability, credibility/expectancy, and exposure engagement were also assessed. Exposure engagement was high ...


The Influence Of A Personal Values Intervention On Cold Pressor-Induced Distress Tolerance, Brooke M. Smith, Jennifer L. Villatte, Clarissa W. Ong, Grayson M. Butcher, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin, S. C. Hayes Jun 2018

The Influence Of A Personal Values Intervention On Cold Pressor-Induced Distress Tolerance, Brooke M. Smith, Jennifer L. Villatte, Clarissa W. Ong, Grayson M. Butcher, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin, S. C. Hayes

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research has demonstrated that values and acceptance interventions can increase distress tolerance, but the individual contribution of each remains unclear. The current study examined the isolated effect of a values intervention on immersion time in a cold pressor. Participants randomized to Values (n = 18) and Control (n = 14) conditions completed two cold pressor tasks, separated by a 30-minute values or control intervention. Immersion time increased 51.06 seconds for participants in the Values condition and decreased by 10.79 seconds for those in the Control condition. Increases in self-reported pain and distress predicted decreases in immersion time for Control, but ...


The Role Of Experiential Avoidance In Problematic Pornography Viewing, Michael E. Levin, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

The Role Of Experiential Avoidance In Problematic Pornography Viewing, Michael E. Levin, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research suggests that online pornography use can have harmful consequences for some individuals, but the psychological processes that contribute to problematic viewing are unclear. This study sought to evaluate the role of experiential avoidance in the negative consequences of online pornography viewing in a small cross sectional survey sample of 91 male college students who reported viewing. Results indicated that viewing pornography for experientially avoidant motivations was related to more frequent viewing and predicted self-reported negative consequences of viewing over and above other motivations (e.g., sexual pleasure, curiosity, excitement seeking). Although more frequent viewing was related to more self-reported ...


Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For A Case Of Scrupulosity-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Eric B. Lee, Clarissa W. Ong, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For A Case Of Scrupulosity-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Eric B. Lee, Clarissa W. Ong, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a modern form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) with growing support for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We present a case wherein a client presented with scrupulosity-related OCD. We briefly review scrupulosity, explain the theory behind ACT, and present a case, the treatment process, and desired outcomes. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is described from an ACT perspective and discussed as an option for people with OCD who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of ERP.


Tailoring Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Skill Coaching In-The-Moment Through Smartphones: Results From A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Rick A. Cruz Jan 2018

Tailoring Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Skill Coaching In-The-Moment Through Smartphones: Results From A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Rick A. Cruz

Psychology Faculty Publications

There is growing evidence for the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions delivered through smartphones, but research has not yet focused on how to optimize such interventions. One benefit of mobile interventions is the ability to adapt content based on in-the-moment variables. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated whether an ACT app that tailored skill coaching based on in-the-moment ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) would be more efficacious than the same app where skill coaching was random or an EMA-only condition. A sample of 69 adults interested in using a self-help app were randomized to one of three app ...


Persistence And Relapse Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability, Ann Galizio, Charles C. J. Frye, Jeremy M. Haynes, Jonathan E. Friedel, Brooke M. Smith, Amy L. Odum Jan 2018

Persistence And Relapse Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability, Ann Galizio, Charles C. J. Frye, Jeremy M. Haynes, Jonathan E. Friedel, Brooke M. Smith, Amy L. Odum

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study examined persistence and relapse of reinforced behavioral variability in pigeons. Pigeons emitted four‐response sequences across two keys. Sequences produced food according to a lag schedule, in which a response sequence was followed by food if it differed from a certain number of previous sequences. In Experiment 1, food was delivered for sequences that satisfied a lag schedule in both components of a multiple schedule. When reinforcement was removed for one component (i.e., extinction), levels of behavioral variability decreased for only that component. In Experiment 2, food was delivered for sequences satisfying a lag schedule in ...


Scaling Out Evidence-Based Interventions Outside The U.S. Mainland: Social Justice Or Trojan Horse?, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Ana A. Baumann, Alejandro Vázquez, Nancy G. Amador-Buenabad, Natalie Franceschi Rivera, Nydia Ortiz-Pons, J. Rubén Parra-Cardona Jan 2018

Scaling Out Evidence-Based Interventions Outside The U.S. Mainland: Social Justice Or Trojan Horse?, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Ana A. Baumann, Alejandro Vázquez, Nancy G. Amador-Buenabad, Natalie Franceschi Rivera, Nydia Ortiz-Pons, J. Rubén Parra-Cardona

Psychology Faculty Publications

Global health disparities continue to widen as professional standards for effectiveness of mental health services provision become more precise and difficult to achieve across varied economic and social contexts. Within the U.S., health disparities are evident in Latinx populations. Globally, the health disparities are also evident in Latin America as compared to the U.S. and other economically affluent nations. The diversification of psychology in content and persons has led to a unique opportunity to build bridges that can help reduce disparities in- and outside of the U.S. mainland. Collaborations can be of great use in addressing health ...


Mindfulness And Acceptance-Based Trainings For Fostering Self-Care And Reducing Stress In Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review, Myriam Rudaz, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin Oct 2017

Mindfulness And Acceptance-Based Trainings For Fostering Self-Care And Reducing Stress In Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review, Myriam Rudaz, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

This review summarizes the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to foster self-care and reduce stress in mental health professionals. Twenty-four quantitative articles from PsycInfo and PubMed were identified that focused on mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological flexibility, stress, burnout, or psychological well-being. All MBSR and MBCT studies lacked active control conditions, but some of the ACT studies and one MSC study included an active control. Most studies support evidence that all training programs tend to improve mindfulness and some also self-compassion. In addition, psychological flexibility was measured in ...


Self-Stigma And Weight Loss: The Impact Of Fear Of Being Stigmatized, Jason Lillis, J. G. Thomas, Michael E. Levin, R. R. Wing Oct 2017

Self-Stigma And Weight Loss: The Impact Of Fear Of Being Stigmatized, Jason Lillis, J. G. Thomas, Michael E. Levin, R. R. Wing

Psychology Faculty Publications

The current study sought to examine whether two facets of weight self-stigma (fear of enacted stigma and self-devaluation) were associated with weight change and treatment engagement for 188 individuals participating in a 3-month online weight loss program. Fear of enacted stigma predicted less weight loss 3-months later after controlling for demographics, eating problems, and psychological symptoms. Self-devaluation did not predict weight loss. Neither weight self-stigma variable predicted engagement in the online program. These results add to the literature indicating the negative effects of weight self-stigma while highlighting the central role of fear of being stigmatized by others in this process.


Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi Oct 2017

Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit ...


Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael E. Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig Sep 2017

Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael E. Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) self-help program for problematic pornography viewing (PV). A sample of 19 adults seeking help for problematic PV were recruited in an open trial. Participants reported adequate program acceptability, although only 45% of those completing post-assessment read at least half of the self-help book. Significant improvements on problematic PV and cognitive fusion were found over the 8-week intervention period, with effects sustaining at 8-week follow-up. Participants who read more improved more on PV problems and psychological inflexibility. Overall, an ACT self-help approach appears feasible and potentially efficacious for ...


Delay Discounting As An Index Of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation Of Future Air Quality And Implications For Public Health, Meredith S. Berry, Norma P. Nickerson, Amy L. Odum Sep 2017

Delay Discounting As An Index Of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation Of Future Air Quality And Implications For Public Health, Meredith S. Berry, Norma P. Nickerson, Amy L. Odum

Psychology Faculty Publications

Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions (e.g., reducing private car use, societal support for clean air initiatives). Delay discounting has been shown to be predictive of real world behavior outside of laboratory settings, and therefore may offer an important framework beyond traditional variables thought to measure sustainable behavior such as importance of an environmental issue, or environmental attitudes/values, although more research ...


The Interaction Of Mindful Awareness And Acceptance In Couples Satisfaction, Jennifer Krafft, Jack Haeger, Michael E. Levin Jul 2017

The Interaction Of Mindful Awareness And Acceptance In Couples Satisfaction, Jennifer Krafft, Jack Haeger, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Past studies indicate that the awareness and acceptance facets of trait mindfulness both independently predict relationship satisfaction. However, this study hypothesized that the combination of awareness and acceptance might be a stronger contributor to relationship functioning than either in isolation. Regression analyses were used to test whether mindful awareness and acceptance interact in predicting couples satisfaction in a sample of dating or married college students (n = 138). Acceptance was positively associated with couples satisfaction, while awareness was unrelated. These two mindfulness facets interacted such that greater awareness was related to poorer satisfaction when acceptance was low, but was unrelated when ...


Evaluating An Adjunctive Mobile App To Enhance Psychological Flexibility In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Benjamin Pierce, Rick Cruz Jul 2017

Evaluating An Adjunctive Mobile App To Enhance Psychological Flexibility In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Benjamin Pierce, Rick Cruz

Psychology Faculty Publications

The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel adjunctive mobile app designed to enhance the acquisition, strengthening, and generalization of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) skills being taught in therapy. A sample of 14 depressed/anxious clients receiving ACT used the ACT Daily app for two weeks in a pre-post, open trial design. Participants reported a high degree of program satisfaction. Clients significantly improved over the two-week period on depression and anxiety symptoms as well as a range of psychological inflexibility measures. Analyses of mobile app data indicated effects of ACT ...


Representational Precision In Visual Cortex Reveals Outcome Encoding And Reward Modulation During Action Preparation, Henk Van Steenbergen, Christopher M. Warren, Simone KüHn, Sanne De Wit, Reinout W. Wiers, Bernhard Hommel Jun 2017

Representational Precision In Visual Cortex Reveals Outcome Encoding And Reward Modulation During Action Preparation, Henk Van Steenbergen, Christopher M. Warren, Simone KüHn, Sanne De Wit, Reinout W. Wiers, Bernhard Hommel

Psychology Faculty Publications

According to ideomotor theory, goal-directed action involves the active perceptual anticipation of actions and their associated effects. We used multivariate analysis of fMRI data to test if preparation of an action promotes precision in the perceptual representation of the action. In addition, we tested how reward magnitude modulates this effect. Finally, we examined how expectation and uncertainty impact neural precision in the motor cortex. In line with our predictions, preparation of a hand or face action increased the precision of neural activation patterns in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform face area (FFA), respectively. The size of this effect ...


Delivering Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Weight Self-Stigma Through Guided Self-Help: Results From An Open Pilot Trial, Michael E. Levin, Sarah Potts, Jack Haeger, Jason Lillis Mar 2017

Delivering Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Weight Self-Stigma Through Guided Self-Help: Results From An Open Pilot Trial, Michael E. Levin, Sarah Potts, Jack Haeger, Jason Lillis

Psychology Faculty Publications

Weight self-stigma is a promising target for innovative interventions seeking to improve outcomes among overweight/obese individuals. Preliminary research suggests acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) may be an effective approach for reducing weight self-stigma, but a guided self-help version of this intervention may improve broad dissemination. This pilot open trial sought to evaluate the potential acceptability and efficacy of a guided self-help ACT intervention, included coaching and a self-help book, with a sample of 13 overweight/obese individuals high in weight self-stigma. Results indicated a high degree of program engagement (77% completed the intervention) and satisfaction. Participants improved on outcomes ...


Do College Students Use Online Self-Help? A Survey Of Intentions And Use Of Mental Health Resources, Michael E. Levin, Krista Stocke, Benjamin Pierce, Crissa Levin Jan 2017

Do College Students Use Online Self-Help? A Survey Of Intentions And Use Of Mental Health Resources, Michael E. Levin, Krista Stocke, Benjamin Pierce, Crissa Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Online self-help may help increase the reach of mental health services for college students, but little research has examined students’ actual interest/use of these resources. An online survey of 389 college students examined intentions and use of online mental health resources as compared with other support options. Findings indicated the highest intentions/use of informal supports (e.g., parents, friends) for mental health problems and lowest intentions/use for online self-help. However, a subset of students showed a preference for online self-help over other forms of support. Participants were also more likely to request online self-help resources (21%) than ...


Perspectives On The Use Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Related Mobile Apps: Results From A Survey Of Students And Professionals, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2016

Perspectives On The Use Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Related Mobile Apps: Results From A Survey Of Students And Professionals, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although mobile apps have proliferated as self-help or adjunctive therapy supports, scant research has explored their implementation among mental health practitioners. Little is known about uses and perceptions of mental health apps among applied practitioners, nor are agreed-upon criteria for evaluating and choosing apps available. The present survey study examined the uses and perceptions of mental health apps among 356 professionals and students familiar with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), as indicated by being a member of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science. The survey found that practitioners are interested in using ACT-related apps, but that use of and familiarity ...


Language Use In Consultation: Can “We” Help Teachers And Students?, Daniel S. Newman, Meaghan C. Guiney, Courteney A. Barrett Mar 2015

Language Use In Consultation: Can “We” Help Teachers And Students?, Daniel S. Newman, Meaghan C. Guiney, Courteney A. Barrett

Psychology Faculty Publications

Analyzing the use of function words such as pronouns in conversation is an increasingly popular approach in social psychology, but has not yet been applied to the study of school-based consultation. The two central purposes of this study were to: (1) examine how language is used by consultants-in-training (CITs) and consultees within a collaborative model of consultation, and (2) to explore the relation between language use and the collaborative relationship, consultee outcomes, and client outcomes. Analyses focused on CITs’ (n = 18) and consultees’ (n = 18) use of pronouns in a problem identification and analysis (PID/PA) session of problem solving ...