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Psychology Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Comparison Of Skin Biomechanics And Skin Color In Puerto Rican And Non-Puerto Rican Women, Yadira Regueira, Jamison D. Fargo, Deborah Tiller, Kathleen Brown, Carla Clements, Barbara Beacham, Emily Brignone, Marilyn S. Sommers Sep 2019

Comparison Of Skin Biomechanics And Skin Color In Puerto Rican And Non-Puerto Rican Women, Yadira Regueira, Jamison D. Fargo, Deborah Tiller, Kathleen Brown, Carla Clements, Barbara Beacham, Emily Brignone, Marilyn S. Sommers

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Skin biomechanics are physical properties that protect the body from injury. Little is known about differences in skin biomechanics in racial/ethnic groups and the role of skin color in these differences. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between skin biomechanics (viscoelasticity, hydration) and skin color, when controlling for demographic and health-related variables in a sample of Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican women.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from 545 women in a longitudinal, observational study of skin injury in Puerto Rico and the United States. Data included measures of skin viscoelasticity ...


The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility And Self-Compassion In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer L. Barney, Tyson Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jun 2019

The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility And Self-Compassion In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer L. Barney, Tyson Barrett, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

The current study examined psychological inflexibility and self-compassion as theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of outcomes following acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for clinical perfectionism. Fifty-three participants with clinical perfectionism were randomized to either a 10-session ACT condition or a 14-week waitlist control condition (only 39 completed the post treatment assessment). Outcomes tested include concern over mistakes, doubting of actions, personal standards, quality of life, symptom distress and functional impairment, and valued action. Multilevel modeling analyses showed reduced psychological inflexibility mediated the relationship between condition and higher quality of life and increased self-compassion mediated the relationship between condition and decreased ...


Baseline Cultural Competence In Physician Assistant Students, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Paula B. Phelps, H. Cathleen Tarp Apr 2019

Baseline Cultural Competence In Physician Assistant Students, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Paula B. Phelps, H. Cathleen Tarp

Psychology Faculty Publications

Purpose

Cultural competence is a critical component in health care services. The relationship between health disparities and prejudice and discrimination is well documented. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior are modifiable through training yet few programs have evidence-based training. No published data has reported on baseline levels of cultural competencies in medical trainees which is necessary for tailoring programs appropriate to the audience. This manuscript fills that gap by reporting on data from three cohorts of first-year Physician Assistant (PA) students (N = 216). We examined students’ baseline levels with special attention to differences in cultural competence constructs across age, gender, and ...


Examining Quadratic Relationships Between Traits And Methods In Two Multitrait-Multimethod Models, Fred A. Hintz, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera Mar 2019

Examining Quadratic Relationships Between Traits And Methods In Two Multitrait-Multimethod Models, Fred A. Hintz, Christian Geiser, G. Leonard Burns, Mateu Servera

Psychology Faculty Publications

Multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis is one of the most frequently employed methods to examine the validity of psychological measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a commonly used analytic tool for examining MTMM data through the specification of trait and method latent variables. Most contemporary CFA-MTMM models either do not allow estimating correlations between the trait and method factors or they are restricted to linear trait-method relationships. There is no theoretical reason why trait and method relationships should always be linear, and quadratic relationships are frequently proposed in the social sciences. In this article, we present two approaches for examining quadratic relations ...


Neuropsychiatric Symptoms In Patients With Dementia And The Longitudinal Costs Of Informal Care In The Cache County Population, Gail B. Rattinger, Chelsea L. Sanders, Elizabeth Vernon, Sarah Schwartz, Stephanie Behrens, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Joann T. Tschanz Mar 2019

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms In Patients With Dementia And The Longitudinal Costs Of Informal Care In The Cache County Population, Gail B. Rattinger, Chelsea L. Sanders, Elizabeth Vernon, Sarah Schwartz, Stephanie Behrens, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Joann T. Tschanz

Psychology Faculty Publications

Introduction

Severity of dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms contribute to increasing informal care costs. We examined which neuropsychiatric symptoms subdomains (NPS-SD) were associated with informal costs in a population-based sample.

Methods

Dementia progression and informal costs (2015 dollars) were estimated from the Cache County Dementia Progression Study. Overall NPS and specific NPS-SD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE with gamma-distribution/log-link) modeled the relationship between NPS-SDs and informal cost trajectories.

Results

Two hundred eighty participants (52.1% female; age M = 85.67, SD = 5.60) exhibited an adjusted cost increase of 5.6% (P = .005), 6.4 ...


Strategies For Selecting, Managing, And Engaging Undergraduate Coauthors: A Multi-Site Perspective, Jenna L. Scisco, Jennifer A. Mccabe, Albee Therese O. Men-Doza, Marianne Fallon, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez Feb 2019

Strategies For Selecting, Managing, And Engaging Undergraduate Coauthors: A Multi-Site Perspective, Jenna L. Scisco, Jennifer A. Mccabe, Albee Therese O. Men-Doza, Marianne Fallon, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez

Psychology Faculty Publications

In 2018, we delivered a symposium on publishing with undergraduate coauthors in the Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research (Fallon, 2018a; Fallon and Domenech Rodríguez, 2018a,b; Fallon and Scisco, 2018; McCabe and Mendoza, 2018). Based on our collective experience, we identified three common challenges: effectively selecting, managing, and engaging students throughout the publication process. We use our perspectives from different institutions (i.e., small liberal arts colleges, mid-sized regional universities, and a large research university) and evidence from past research to provide strategies to successfully meet these challenges. Ultimately, the actionable strategies we describe could be used by a ...


Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li Feb 2019

Identification And Transformation Difficulty In Problem Solving: Electrophysiological Evidence From Chunk Decomposition, Zhonglu Zhang, Yu Luo, Chaolun Wang, Christopher M. Warren, Qi Xia, Qiang Xing, Bihua Cao, Yi Lei, Hong Li

Psychology Faculty Publications

A wealth of studies have investigated how to overcome experience-based constraints in creative problem solving. One such experience-based constraint is the tendency for people to view tightly organized visual stimuli as single, unified percepts, even when decomposition of those stimuli into component parts (termed chunk decomposition) would facilitate problem solving. The current study investigates the neural underpinnings of chunk decomposition in creative problem solving by analyzing event-related potentials. In two experiments, participants decomposed Chinese characters into the character’s component elements and then used the base elements to form a new valid character. The action could require decomposing a “tight ...


Neural Correlates Of Interval Timing Deficits In Schizophrenia, Ariel W. Snowden, Catalin V. Buhusi Jan 2019

Neural Correlates Of Interval Timing Deficits In Schizophrenia, Ariel W. Snowden, Catalin V. Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Previous research has shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit impairments in interval timing. The cause of timing impairments in SZ remains unknown but may be explained by a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal circuits. Although the current literature includes extensive behavioral data on timing impairments, there is limited focus on the neural correlates of timing in SZ. The neuroimaging literature included in the current review reports hypoactivation in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the basal ganglia (BG). Timing deficits and deficits in attention and working memory (WM) in SZ are likely due to a dysfunction of ...


Autoscore: An Open-Source Automated Tool For Scoring Listener Perception Of Speech, Stephanie A. Borrie, Tyson S. Barrett, Sarah E. Yoho Jan 2019

Autoscore: An Open-Source Automated Tool For Scoring Listener Perception Of Speech, Stephanie A. Borrie, Tyson S. Barrett, Sarah E. Yoho

Psychology Faculty Publications

Speech perception studies typically rely on trained research assistants to score orthographic listener transcripts for words correctly identified. While the accuracy of the human scoring protocol has been validated with strong intra- and inter-rater reliability, the process of hand-scoring the transcripts is time-consuming and resource intensive. Here, an open-source computer-based tool for automated scoring of listener transcripts is built (Autoscore) and validated on three different human-scored data sets. Results show that not only is Autoscore highly accurate, achieving approximately 99% accuracy, but extremely efficient. Thus, Autoscore affords a practical research tool, with clinical application, for scoring listener intelligibility of speech.


Newborn And Infant Hearing Screening Facing Globally Growing Numbers Of People Suffering From Disabling Hearing Loss, Katrin Neumann, Shelly Chadha, George Tavartkiladze, Xingkuan Bu, Karl R. White Jan 2019

Newborn And Infant Hearing Screening Facing Globally Growing Numbers Of People Suffering From Disabling Hearing Loss, Katrin Neumann, Shelly Chadha, George Tavartkiladze, Xingkuan Bu, Karl R. White

Psychology Faculty Publications

Recent prevalence estimates indicate that in 2015 almost half a billion people—about 6.8% of the world’s population—had disabling hearing loss and that prevalence numbers will further increase. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently estimates that at least 34 million children under the age of 15 have disabling hearing loss. Based on a 2012 WHO report, approximately 7.5 million of these children were under the age of 5 years. This review article focuses on the importance of high-quality newborn and infant hearing screening (NIHS) programs as one strategy to ameliorate disabling hearing loss as a global ...


Counseling Competencies In Audiology: A Modified Delphi Study, Alex Meibos, Karen F. Muñoz, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2019

Counseling Competencies In Audiology: A Modified Delphi Study, Alex Meibos, Karen F. Muñoz, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Purpose: Counseling practices in audiology play a critical role in helping patients and families understand, accept, and adjust to the dynamic impacts ear related disorders have on their lives. The purpose of this study was to identify what competencies (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes) are important for audiologists to possess to provide effective counseling in practice.

Method: A modified Delphi study design was used to survey a panel of thirty-three professionals with expertise in audiologic counseling from five different countries. In the first survey round, experts were asked to respond to three open-ended prompts. Responses were condensed and revised ...


Next Steps For Training And Education In Professional Psychology: Advancing The Science And Expanding Our Reach, Debora J. Bell, Jennifer L. Callahan, Georita M. Frierson, Theodore R. Burnes, Susan L. Crowley, Stephen R. Mccutcheon Jan 2019

Next Steps For Training And Education In Professional Psychology: Advancing The Science And Expanding Our Reach, Debora J. Bell, Jennifer L. Callahan, Georita M. Frierson, Theodore R. Burnes, Susan L. Crowley, Stephen R. Mccutcheon

Psychology Faculty Publications

As TEPP’s new editorial team begins their term, the authors discuss their vision for the journal as a forum for thoughtful conceptual examination and sound empirical investigation of current issues in health service psychology (HSP) education and training. The editorial team articulates three primary goals for the journal, including (1) engaging the broad training community in sharing its best conceptual and empirical work relevant to the varied levels, settings, and areas of education and training in HSP; (2) advancing the science of education and training through strong empirical research; and (3) expanding our emphasis on the sociocultural context in ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Jennifer Krafft, Carina L. Terry, Tyson S. Barrett, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2019

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Clinical Perfectionism, Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Jennifer Krafft, Carina L. Terry, Tyson S. Barrett, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Clinical perfectionism is characterized by imposing excessively high standards on oneself and experiencing severe distress when standards are not met. It has been found to contribute to the development and maintenance of various clinical presentations including anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and eating disorders. The present study tested the efficacy of ten weekly individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) relative to a waitlist control on clinical perfectionism and global outcomes among 53 individuals with clinical perfectionism. ACT is a process-based therapy that targets maladaptive underlying processes (e.g., rigid adherence to unrealistic high standards) rather than symptom topography (e.g., anxiety ...


Preliminary Evidence Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Death Anxiety In Iranian Clients Diagnosed With Ocd, Mohammad Hassan Davazdahemami, Abolfazl Bayrami, Julie M. Petersen, Michael P. Twohig, Maryam Bakhtiyari, Mohammad Noori, Ali Kheradmand Jan 2019

Preliminary Evidence Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Death Anxiety In Iranian Clients Diagnosed With Ocd, Mohammad Hassan Davazdahemami, Abolfazl Bayrami, Julie M. Petersen, Michael P. Twohig, Maryam Bakhtiyari, Mohammad Noori, Ali Kheradmand

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study investigated the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on death anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with eight adult females in Iran. The ACT protocol was conducted in 8 weekly solo sessions (45 minutes each). The results were analyzed by visual analysis method and improvement percentage. ACT resulted in decreases in death anxiety (60-80%) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (51-60%), thereby indicating promise for ACT as a treatment for OCD and death anxiety.


Assessing The Effects Of Motivative Augmentals, Pay-For-Performance, And Implicit Verbal Responding On Cooperation, Sharlet D. Rafacz, Ramona A. Houmanfar, Gregory S. Smith, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Assessing The Effects Of Motivative Augmentals, Pay-For-Performance, And Implicit Verbal Responding On Cooperation, Sharlet D. Rafacz, Ramona A. Houmanfar, Gregory S. Smith, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Motivative augmentals are rules or statements that temporarily change the effectiveness of a consequence, similar to establishing operations for nonverbal consequences (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). Many communications by an organization's leadership may function as such and alter the function of stimuli in the workplace, which in turn may influence employee behaviors (Houmanfar & Rodrigues, 2012). There is a lack of experimental research regarding this, however, particularly under different organizational pay systems (i.e., financial contingencies), which have been repeatedly shown to influence performance (e.g., Gupta & Shaw, 1998; Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw, & Denny, 1980). The current study sought to compare the two by measuring the effect of motivational statements on individual versus cooperative responding under two different pay-for-performance contingencies in an organizational analogue. Stimuli for the motivational statements were selected utilizing an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) with one group of participants, and these statements were then tested under piece-rate and profit-share conditions with a second group of participants in a counterbalanced reversal design. Results ...


Measuring Psychological Inflexibility In Adult And Child Hearing Loss., Clarissa W. Ong, J. J. Whicker, Karen F. Munoz, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2019

Measuring Psychological Inflexibility In Adult And Child Hearing Loss., Clarissa W. Ong, J. J. Whicker, Karen F. Munoz, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Hearing loss is a chronic condition that impacts functioning among individuals with hearing loss and caregivers of children with hearing loss. Even though treatments for hearing loss can alleviate functional impairment, psychological factors like psychological inflexibility may interfere with treatment engagement and adherence, undermining the benefits of treatment. Measuring psychological inflexibility may inform care providers’ case conceptualization, improving the quality and precision of audiological interventions. Thus, the current study aimed to develop and validate measures of psychological inflexibility in hearing loss for adults and caregivers of children with hearing loss.

Design: Participants were invited to complete an online survey ...


Does A Brief Mindfulness Training Enhance Heartfulness In Students? Results Of A Pilot Study, Myriam Rudaz, Thomas Ledermann, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Does A Brief Mindfulness Training Enhance Heartfulness In Students? Results Of A Pilot Study, Myriam Rudaz, Thomas Ledermann, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

(1) Background: There is robust evidence that mindfulness trainings enhance mindfulness as operationalized in Western psychology, but evidence about their effect on aspects of heartfulness is sparse. This study seeks to test whether a brief mindfulness training enhances heart qualities, including self-compassion, gratitude, and the generation of feelings of happiness.

(2) Methods: Eighteen students enrolled in a mindfulness training that was offered as part of an interdisciplinary class. The training consisted of five training sessions and four booster sessions of 45 minutes each over the course of nine weeks. Mindfulness was measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (FFMQ-SF ...


Psychological Inflexibility Predicts Suicidality Over Time In College Students, Jennifer Krafft, E. Tish Hicks, Sallie A. Mack, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Psychological Inflexibility Predicts Suicidality Over Time In College Students, Jennifer Krafft, E. Tish Hicks, Sallie A. Mack, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective:

It is essential to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted to reduce suicidal ideation (SI) and behavior in college students. Psychological inflexibility, a pattern of responding to internal experiences in a literal and rigid way, and attempting to control those experiences even when it interferes with valued living, could theoretically lead to SI or increase its intensity.

Method:

Psychological inflexibility and its component processes were tested as a predictor of SI in a longitudinal survey of college students (n = 603, age M = 20.62, 68.9% female, and 94.0% White) in a series of cross-sectional and ...


Longitudinal Effects Of A 2-Year Meditation And Buddhism Program On Well-Being, Quality Of Life, And Valued Living, Brooke M. Smith, Clarissa W. Ong, Tyson S. Barrett, Ellen J. Bluett, Timothy A. Slocum, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2019

Longitudinal Effects Of A 2-Year Meditation And Buddhism Program On Well-Being, Quality Of Life, And Valued Living, Brooke M. Smith, Clarissa W. Ong, Tyson S. Barrett, Ellen J. Bluett, Timothy A. Slocum, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objectives: Most research on mindfulness and meditation has focused on structured therapeutic interventions, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, or meditation retreats. Such programs have received moderate empirical support for improving psychological outcomes in clinical and nonclinical populations, but there remains a paucity of research on intensive or long-term mindfulness or meditation programs for experienced practitioners, especially those that incorporate Buddhist teachings. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a long-term integrated mindfulness/meditation and Buddhism program, Dharma in Daily Life (DIDL).

Methods: Well-being, quality of life, valued living, and theorized processes of change were measured ...


Starting Off On The Right Foot In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Jennifer L. Barney, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Starting Off On The Right Foot In Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Jennifer L. Barney, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper describes the initial phase of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The paper begins with a review of ACT’s theoretical orientation. Basic empirical support for ACT and its model is covered. A case description follows that highlights the initial phases of ACT. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for starting therapy using ACT.

Clinical impact statement:

Question: The goal of this paper is to present the manner in which ACT is initiated. Findings: There are specific theoretical elements of ACT that suggest certain approaches be taken at the beginning of therapy. Meaning: Before starting ACT with a new ...


Evaluating The Open And Engaged Components Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy In An Online Self-Guided Website: Results From A Pilot Trial, Julie M. Petersen, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

Evaluating The Open And Engaged Components Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy In An Online Self-Guided Website: Results From A Pilot Trial, Julie M. Petersen, Jennifer Krafft, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Online acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is promising for treating a range of psychological problems. Component research can further clarify which components are needed for optimal outcomes in what contexts. Online platforms provide a highly controlled format for such research. In this pilot trial, 55 adults were randomized to: ACT-Open (i.e., acceptance, defusion components), ACT-Engaged (i.e., values, committed action), or ACT-Combined (i.e., acceptance, defusion, values, committed action). Each condition was 12 sessions over six weeks, with assessments at baseline, posttreatment, and four-week follow-up. ACT-Open, ACT-Engaged, and ACT-Combined all significantly improved from pre- to post-treatment on mental health ...


An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Investigating The Function Of Hoarding, Jennifer Krafft, Clarissa W. Ong, Rick A. Cruz, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2019

An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Investigating The Function Of Hoarding, Jennifer Krafft, Clarissa W. Ong, Rick A. Cruz, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study examined the function of hoarding behaviors and the relations between hoarding and a series of cognitive and affective processes in the moment using ecological momentary assessment. A matched-groups design was used to compare college students with higher hoarding symptoms (n = 31) and matched controls (n = 29). The two groups did not differ in what function they reported acquiring served, and positive automatic reinforcement was the most commonly reported function in both groups. Engaging in hoarding-relevant behaviors did not predict change in positive or negative affect when controlling for previous affect. Emotional reactivity and experiential avoidance in the moment ...


A Review Of Aaq Variants And Other Context-Specific Measures Of Psychological Flexibility, Clarissa Ong, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2019

A Review Of Aaq Variants And Other Context-Specific Measures Of Psychological Flexibility, Clarissa Ong, Eric B. Lee, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychological flexibility refers to a way of interacting with internal experiences and the external environment that advances one toward chosen values whereas psychological inflexibility reflects rigid adherence to ineffective responses such that valued living is compromised. Psychological flexibility is a critical variable of interest in acceptance and commitment therapy, thus, accurate assessment of this construct is pertinent to professionals in the field. Numerous measures of psychological flexibility for specific conditions exist and the psychometric validation of each of these measures varies in breadth and depth. To orient professionals to the scope of available measures as well as their psychometric properties ...


The Potential Benefits Of Flexibility For Dissemination And Implementation: Acceptance And Commitment Therapy As An Example, Michael E. Levin, Brooke M. Smith, Gregory S. Smith Jan 2019

The Potential Benefits Of Flexibility For Dissemination And Implementation: Acceptance And Commitment Therapy As An Example, Michael E. Levin, Brooke M. Smith, Gregory S. Smith

Psychology Faculty Publications

Our commentary on the article by Fixsen and Blase (2018) highlights some of the converging and diverging strategies between the Teaching-Family Model (TFM) and the dissemination and implementation of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). We focus primarily on the potential benefits of flexibility in areas including theory, methodology, and intervention protocols. Examples include the use of middle level terms, randomized controlled trial methods, protocols focused more on function than specific topography, and an open, collaborative approach to dissemination. We also note how this broader set of strategies can be made coherent and progressive through a careful connection back to contextual ...


The Neuromodulatory And Hormonal Effects Of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation As Evidenced By Salivary Alpha Amylase, Salivary Cortisol, Pupil Diameter, And The P3 Event-Related Potential, Christopher M. Warren, Klodiana D. Tona, L. Ouwerkerk, Jeroen Van Paridon, Fenna Poletiek, Henk Van Steenbergen, Jos A. Bosch, Sander Nieuwenhuis Dec 2018

The Neuromodulatory And Hormonal Effects Of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation As Evidenced By Salivary Alpha Amylase, Salivary Cortisol, Pupil Diameter, And The P3 Event-Related Potential, Christopher M. Warren, Klodiana D. Tona, L. Ouwerkerk, Jeroen Van Paridon, Fenna Poletiek, Henk Van Steenbergen, Jos A. Bosch, Sander Nieuwenhuis

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a new, non-invasive technique being investigated as an intervention for a variety of clinical disorders, including epilepsy and depression. It is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by increasing central norepinephrine (NE) activity, but the evidence supporting this notion is limited.

Objective

In order to test for an impact of tVNS on psychophysiological and hormonal indices of noradrenergic function, we applied tVNS in concert with assessment of salivary alpha amylase (SAA) and cortisol, pupil size, and electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings.

Methods

Across three experiments, we applied real and sham tVNS to 61 healthy participants ...


Research Mentoring And Scientist Identity: Insights From Undergraduates And Their Mentors, Rachael D. Robnett, Paul A. Nelson, Eileen L. Zurbriggen, Faye J. Crosby, Martin M. Chemers Nov 2018

Research Mentoring And Scientist Identity: Insights From Undergraduates And Their Mentors, Rachael D. Robnett, Paul A. Nelson, Eileen L. Zurbriggen, Faye J. Crosby, Martin M. Chemers

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background Mentored research apprenticeships are a common feature of academic outreach programs that aim to promote diversity in science fields. The current study tests for links between three forms of mentoring (instrumental, socioemotional, and negative) and the degree to which undergraduates psychologically identify with science. Participants were 66 undergraduate-mentor dyads who worked together in a research apprenticeship. The undergraduate sample was predominantly composed of women, first-generation college students, and members of ethnic groups that are historically underrepresented in science. Results Findings illustrated that undergraduates who reported receiving more instrumental and socioemotional mentoring were higher in scientist identity. Further, mentors who ...


Chronic Health Conditions Among Us Veterans Discharged From Military Service For Misconduct, Emily Brignone, Jamison D. Fargo, Rebecca K. Blais, Adi V. Gundlapalli Oct 2018

Chronic Health Conditions Among Us Veterans Discharged From Military Service For Misconduct, Emily Brignone, Jamison D. Fargo, Rebecca K. Blais, Adi V. Gundlapalli

Psychology Faculty Publications

Veterans who are discharged from military service due to misconduct are vulnerable to negative health-related outcomes, including homelessness, incarceration, and suicide. We used national data from the Veterans Health Administration for 218,608 veterans of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan that took place after the events of September 11, 2001, to compare clinical diagnoses between routinely-discharged (n = 203,174) and misconduct-discharged (n = 15,433) veterans. Misconduct-discharged veterans had significantly higher risk for all mental health conditions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range, 2.5–8.0) and several behaviorally linked chronic health conditions (AOR range, 1.2–5.9). Misconduct-discharged veterans ...


Cognitive Load Affects Numerical And Temporal Judgments In Distinct Ways, Karina Hamamouche, Maura Keefe, Kerry E. Jordan, Sara Cordes Oct 2018

Cognitive Load Affects Numerical And Temporal Judgments In Distinct Ways, Karina Hamamouche, Maura Keefe, Kerry E. Jordan, Sara Cordes

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prominent theories suggest that time and number are processed by a single neural locus or a common magnitude system (e.g., Meck and Church, 1983; Walsh, 2003). However, a growing body of literature has identified numerous inconsistencies between temporal and numerical processing, casting doubt on the presence of such a singular system. Findings of distinct temporal and numerical biases in the presence of emotional content (Baker et al., 2013; Young and Cordes, 2013) are particularly relevant to this debate. Specifically, emotional stimuli lead to temporal overestimation, yet identical stimuli result in numerical underestimation. In the current study, we ...


Comparing Cognitive Fusion And Cognitive Reappraisal As Predictors Of College Student Mental Health, Jennifer Krafft, Jack A. Haeger, Michael E. Levin Sep 2018

Comparing Cognitive Fusion And Cognitive Reappraisal As Predictors Of College Student Mental Health, Jennifer Krafft, Jack A. Haeger, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral interventions target different cognitive processes to promote mental health, including cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal. Determining the relative impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on a range of student mental health concerns could help interventions target psychopathological cognitive processes more effectively. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on mental health and functioning outcomes. A series of hierarchical regression models tested the effects of cognitive fusion and reappraisal in a sample of college students (n = 339). When controlling for reappraisal and baseline symptoms, fusion predicted distress, depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, hostility ...


Motivation For Sport Participation And Eating Disorder Risk Among Female Collegiate Athletes, Kendra J. Homan, Susan Lynn Crowley, Leslie A. Sim Sep 2018

Motivation For Sport Participation And Eating Disorder Risk Among Female Collegiate Athletes, Kendra J. Homan, Susan Lynn Crowley, Leslie A. Sim

Psychology Faculty Publications

In light of conflicting research regarding eating disorder risk and sports participation, the current study examined the relationship between specific aspects of sports participation (i.e., level of competition, leanness requirements, and physical/cardiovascular intensity level), an individual’s motivation for sports participation, and eating disorder symptomatology/risk. Participants included 319 female collegiate athletes (Mage = 19.88; SD = 1.62) representing a variety of sports and competition levels. Multilevel modeling found that level of competition, receiving a scholarship, age, and years of collegiate sport played did not predict eating disorder risk. In the final model, there was a significant ...