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Full-Text Articles in Education

Professional Learning In Trauma Informed Positive Education: Moving School Communities From Trauma Affected To Trauma Aware, Helen Stokes, Tom Brunzell Dec 2019

Professional Learning In Trauma Informed Positive Education: Moving School Communities From Trauma Affected To Trauma Aware, Helen Stokes, Tom Brunzell

School Leadership Review

In order to assess and then to identify promising approaches for school leadership within rural communities, it can be helpful to reframe struggling schools as trauma-affected schools. Acknowledging the impacts of childhood trauma on students and their learning allows school leaders to undertake professional learning both with and for their schools to become trauma-aware. Embedded within a rural community located in a region contending with intergenerational disadvantage, the findings reported in this study suggest that when school leaders deliberately implemented trauma-aware practice as a whole-school approach for all staff members, there was growth in student academic outcomes. In addition to ...


Emerging Teacher-Leaders For English Learners: A Professional Development Model In Rural Florida, Raisa Ankeny, Nidza Marichal, Maria Coady Dec 2019

Emerging Teacher-Leaders For English Learners: A Professional Development Model In Rural Florida, Raisa Ankeny, Nidza Marichal, Maria Coady

School Leadership Review

This paper describes an ongoing Professional Development (PD) program that aimed to prepare teacher-leaders for rural English learner (EL) students. We delineate the theoretical underpinnings of the PD design and describe the two-year graduate coursework program with onsite coaching in rural schools in detail. We define rurality and the context of ELs in the rural partner school district and describe the PD coursework, which was adapted to meet the local rural educational needs of the participants. At its outset, participants reflected on the overall PD through online discussions, surveys, and focus group interviews. Data revealed that the participants found the ...


Preservice Teachers Knowledge Of Adolescent Suicide, Annette N. Johnson Dec 2019

Preservice Teachers Knowledge Of Adolescent Suicide, Annette N. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teacher preparation programs have a responsibility to prepare future teachers to teach

and mentor students through their academic years. With the rise of suicide in school age children, responsibility has fallen to teachers to better recognize and understand students who may be suicidal. This study sought to answer the question: to what degree does teaching certification, teaching experience, and suicide awareness embedded coursework predict preservice teachers’ knowledge of suicide awareness and prevention? Data from the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire and a demographic survey which asked about participants’ preservice training was sent to universities and colleges in Texas with an undergraduate ...


Understanding Practice: A Pilot To Compare Mathematics Educators’ And Special Educators’ Use Of Purposeful Questions, Mary E. Sheppard, Robert Wieman Oct 2019

Understanding Practice: A Pilot To Compare Mathematics Educators’ And Special Educators’ Use Of Purposeful Questions, Mary E. Sheppard, Robert Wieman

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

Despite calls for alignment, descriptions of best practices from special education and math education researchers continues to diverge. However, there has been little discussion of how special education teacher educators and mathematics teacher educators compare in practice. This paper describes a study in which a range of teacher educators (N=51) were asked to evaluate a series of questions asked in response to a struggling student with a learning disability. The results indicate that teachers from both groups ranked initial assessment questions highly, and questions that lowered the cognitive demand of the task much lower. Differences between math education and ...


Exploring The Experiences Of Male Early Childhood Aspiring Teachers, Tingting Xu Sep 2019

Exploring The Experiences Of Male Early Childhood Aspiring Teachers, Tingting Xu

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

This exploratory study investigated the reasons why males chose early childhood

education and their lived experiences in a teacher education program. Qualitative data

were collected through interviews with twelve male early childhood pre-service

teachers. Results demonstrated that: Participates were passionate about teaching

young children. They were mostly supported by their relatives and friends in their

decision to become an early childhood teacher. They were positive about future career

opportunities but still had an underlying fear of losing job or being seen as sexual

predators. Meanwhile, participates indicated some conflicts might exist between the

field experience and program learning experience. They ...


Exposing Preservice Teachers To Emergent Bilinguals, Deborah J. Williams Ed.D., Jim Ewing Sep 2019

Exposing Preservice Teachers To Emergent Bilinguals, Deborah J. Williams Ed.D., Jim Ewing

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

This study followed a case study design and employed qualitative methods to explore monolingual preservice teachers’ (PSTs) attitudes toward learning to teach emergent bilinguals (EBs) in a dual language school. We sought to support and observe PSTs as they applied strategies learned in methodology courses to students in the field. Three overarching themes emerged from PSTs’ videotaped focus group interviews, weekly reflections, and field notes. Responses that supported Theme 1 suggested PSTs desired to teach EBs for a variety of reasons and Theme 2 supporting responses showed that PSTs confidence levels increased as they interacted with EBs. Responses that supported ...


Understanding Equitable Assessment: How Preservice Teachers Make Meaning Of Disability, Melissa K. Driver Sep 2019

Understanding Equitable Assessment: How Preservice Teachers Make Meaning Of Disability, Melissa K. Driver

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

Disproportionality of historically marginalized populations in special education continues to be a critical concern. The identification of students with disabilities is reliant on valid and reliable assessment that is free of bias. The extent to which this is possible given measurement constraints and an increasingly diverse student population is unclear. How teachers are trained to design, select, administer, score, and interpret assessment data related to the identification of students with disabilities is vastly under-researched considering the significant implications of assessment practices. In this study, six special education preservice teachers engaged in an assessment methods course during their second semester of ...


White Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions And Their Development Of Culturally Relevant Literacy Practices, Lakia M. Scott, Elena Venegas Sep 2019

White Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions And Their Development Of Culturally Relevant Literacy Practices, Lakia M. Scott, Elena Venegas

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

Existent literature purports that providing White teacher candidates with increased exposure to urban schools in order to create culturally competent educators has failed. These findings reflect the notion that teacher ideologies and overall perspectives about working with diverse student groups must be harnessed in a genuine ethic of care and intentionality for students of color. However, few studies have taken the approach of examining the development of culturally relevant pedagogy through context-specific field experiences using content-specific courses. This study examines the perspectives of twenty-five White pre-service teachers from a predominately White, private university regarding their initial perceptions and gained conceptual ...


Effects Of Movement, Growth Mindset And Math Talks On Math Anxiety, Christina J. Peterman, Jim Ewing Sep 2019

Effects Of Movement, Growth Mindset And Math Talks On Math Anxiety, Christina J. Peterman, Jim Ewing

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

Mathematical anxiety is prevalent in our schools. This research provides insight into how mathematical anxiety develops and how it affects students throughout their lives. This study focuses on the mathematical anxiety and mathematical self-concept of five second grade classes at an economically disadvantaged school in rural North Texas. The study looked to see if adding the interventions of movement, mathematical growth mindset and math talks to a classroom would improve the mathematical self-concept of the children in the classrooms which participated. The study contained three classrooms of students who participated in the interventions and two classrooms which were used as ...


Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger Aug 2019

Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have not fully examined how school leaders impact the teaching and learning environment when working toward generating students’ academic success. Balyer (2012) called for more work on understanding the transformational leadership behaviors that create conditions conducive to generating student achievement within educational accountability. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological inquiry is to explore the lived experiences of principals and their perceptions concerning the state accountability system and how it may impact their transformational efforts in ensuring a holistic and quality education for every child. The phenomenological inquiry will yield the opportunity to compare administrators’ in-depth perceptions of the accountability ...


Professional Ethics, Decision-Making, And Interdisciplinary Collaboration: An Exploration Of Teacher Preparation Programs And Practice, Brittany Mccreary Jul 2019

Professional Ethics, Decision-Making, And Interdisciplinary Collaboration: An Exploration Of Teacher Preparation Programs And Practice, Brittany Mccreary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The first purpose of this research was to explore the prevalence, methods of instruction, and perceived value of professional ethics, ethical decision-making, and interdisciplinary collaboration in teacher preparation programs throughout the U.S. These factors were addressed using the Ethics Training and Curriculum Survey (ETCS). Participants for the ETCS included teacher educators (n = 977) from CAEP accredited preparation programs. Survey results suggest that professional ethics is widely addressed throughout CAEP accredited programs, but that instruction in ethical decision-making varies considerably. To connect these findings with practice, a second purpose of this study was to explore how educators make ethical decisions ...


A Mixed Method Study Of Community Development In Online Learning Envirnonments, Rachel Olshine May 2019

A Mixed Method Study Of Community Development In Online Learning Envirnonments, Rachel Olshine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effect of synchronous and asynchronous communication methods on a sense of community development in online learning environments. The researcher surveyed 734 online students at a small private school in East Texas, examining the variables of synchronous and asynchronous communication methods to evaluate the sense of community experienced in online learning environments.

The study used a convergent mixed method using the Classroom Community Scale along with supplemental open-ended questions. A factorial analysis was conducted, resulting in two factors: supportive relationships and a sense of reliance. The responses expressed the use of discussion boards, emails, and self-recorded videos ...


Voices From The Field: Regarding Elementary Teachers, Traci Christine Dorsett Apr 2019

Voices From The Field: Regarding Elementary Teachers, Traci Christine Dorsett

Undergraduate Research Conference

Purpose-to explore what the most important advice new teachers will want to know before entering the field of elementary education.

Research questions: (1) What is the most reoccurring advice given from the teachers surveyed? (2) What were similarities and differences that occurred between teacher candidates and teachers?


The Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation By Teachers And Campus Administrators In A Suburban Texas District, George P. Willey Apr 2019

The Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation By Teachers And Campus Administrators In A Suburban Texas District, George P. Willey

School Leadership Review

The purpose of this research is to examine the perceptions of campus administrators and teachers of the new Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS) in a suburban Texas school district. Historically, teacher evaluation systems have failed to reach the intended outcome of serving as a tool to improve teaching practices. When campus administrators and teachers perceive teacher evaluation as primarily a tool to document poor performers, the growth aspect of the evaluation process is not maximized. This research seeks to identify the perceptions of both campus administrators and teachers on the evaluation system. District leaders will be able to ...


See-I Critical Thinking Framework: Expository Writing In Middle Schools, Bernice Sanchez, Hayley Kazen, Lilia P. Cantu Feb 2019

See-I Critical Thinking Framework: Expository Writing In Middle Schools, Bernice Sanchez, Hayley Kazen, Lilia P. Cantu

MLET: The Journal of Middle Level Education in Texas

A variety of teaching strategies and process approach methods have been implemented as a means of improving student writing across the country. Despite efforts to improve student writing, specifically in secondary education, it has been reported that 70% of students in grades (4-12) are weak writers and additional studies indicate that one third of high school graduates are not prepared for college-level writing courses (Graham & Perin, 2007; Persky et. al. 2003). SEE-I framework facilitates the premise for problem solving and critical thinking strategies situated in the writing process. Flower and Hayes (1977) stress the importance of treating writing as a thinking problem ...


The Development Of The Wise (Writing To Inspire Successful Education) Writing Mentoring Program: A University-School Collaboration, Bradley H. Smith, Michael S. Mathews, Serrae N. Reed, Michelle Q. N. Tran, Caroline Mousa, Mauricio Lozano, Erica S. Rodriguez, Andrew Hamilton, Jonathan T. Mathews Dec 2018

The Development Of The Wise (Writing To Inspire Successful Education) Writing Mentoring Program: A University-School Collaboration, Bradley H. Smith, Michael S. Mathews, Serrae N. Reed, Michelle Q. N. Tran, Caroline Mousa, Mauricio Lozano, Erica S. Rodriguez, Andrew Hamilton, Jonathan T. Mathews

MLET: The Journal of Middle Level Education in Texas

Abstract

This paper describes the development of a service learning writing mentoring program designed to close the achievement gap in writing proficiency for economically disadvantaged seventh grade students. Compared to writing mentoring studies found in the published literature, this program has three distinguishing components. First, it focused on economically disadvantaged middle school students. Second, it provided writing mentoring through a university-school partnership in which college students provided the intervention in collaboration with a seventh-grade teacher. Third, the program used technology to facilitate the mentoring process. Over the course of an academic year, mentors created videos with feedback on 19 writing ...


A Struggle To Bridge The Gap: Promoting African American Males In Teacher Education, Vance Vaughn Nov 2018

A Struggle To Bridge The Gap: Promoting African American Males In Teacher Education, Vance Vaughn

School Leadership Review

After serving 22 years in public education as a classroom teacher, assistant principal, principal, and superintendent, I am in awe over the small number of African American males as public school teachers. My classroom teacher experience was ephemeral as I was promoted to educational administration after five and one-half years. As the only African American male teacher in a high school with over 3,600 students, hundreds of whom were African American male, I was an anomaly in that environment. African American male role models were drastically needed and sought after mainly because campus data reported African American males ranked ...


Strengthening The Campus Leadership Team Through Effective Principal And Counselor Relationships: Implications For Training, Jane H. Macdonald, Stephen A. Armstrong, Robin K. Henson Nov 2018

Strengthening The Campus Leadership Team Through Effective Principal And Counselor Relationships: Implications For Training, Jane H. Macdonald, Stephen A. Armstrong, Robin K. Henson

School Leadership Review

Campuses with successful leadership teams have a better opportunity to meet the ever-increasing and complex needs of the students they serve (Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, & Hann, 2002). These successful campuses are strengthened when they include strong principals and counseling teams with shared mutual trust and understanding that permeates the school climate (DeVoss & Andrews, 2006). A review of the literature revealed a paucity of studies examining the nature of successful principal-counselor relations and the impact of this relationship on student success, effective campus leadership teams, and an effective school climate that promotes learning. Meaningful dialogue and discussion of this critical professional relationship ...


Expectations Of Mentoring: Novice Teachers’ Voices, Rubén Garza, Martha N. Ovando, Alfredo Ramirez Jr. Nov 2018

Expectations Of Mentoring: Novice Teachers’ Voices, Rubén Garza, Martha N. Ovando, Alfredo Ramirez Jr.

School Leadership Review

Mentoring, as an avenue to support and retain new teachers, has received a renewed interest. As Trubowitz suggests, “School systems are finding that beginning teachers who have access to intensive mentoring are less likely to leave teaching” (2004, p. 59). While several factors may cause teachers to leave, alienation has been identified as one of the major forces. According to previous research, teachers experience “a combination of feelings of isolation, normlessness, powerlessness, and meaninglessness” (Benham & O’Brien, 2002, p. 20). Such feelings of isolation are compounded by the current accountability demands and the professional pressure teachers’ experience. Thus, it is imperative to consider alternative strategies aimed at providing the kind of support congruent with beginning teacher’s needs in order to be successful (Breaux & Wong, 2003, p. iii). A goal of such strategies should be the effective socialization of teachers, and providing on-going support for growth, through different approaches including mentoring (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Brennan, Thames, & Roberts, 1999). Although mentoring can be an effective means to enhance teacher efficacy and help beginning teachers (Breaux & Wong, 2003; Delgado, 1999; Yost, 2002), limited research focuses on teachers’ perspectives associated with their own expectations of mentoring, particularly in diverse school settings (Wang ...


Preparation Issues In Educational Leadership, Wesley D. Hickey, Peggy Gill Nov 2018

Preparation Issues In Educational Leadership, Wesley D. Hickey, Peggy Gill

School Leadership Review

Educational leaders have chosen to belong to one of the most important and influential professions. Not only do educators have an important impact on others, but there is a need to have a practical understanding of instruction, curriculum, and psychology. Leaders in all disciplines often relate to previous educational relationships in discussions about important moments in their lives. These relationships matter, and they provide foundational experiences for each of us.


Writing With Discipline: A Call For Avoiding Apa Style Guide Errors In Manuscript Preparation, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Julie P. Combs Nov 2018

Writing With Discipline: A Call For Avoiding Apa Style Guide Errors In Manuscript Preparation, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Julie P. Combs

School Leadership Review

The education community in the United States—as in many countries—is extremely large and diverse. Indeed, as documented by Mosteller, Nave, and Miech (2004),

The United States has more than 3.6 million teachers in elementary and secondary education, more than 100,000 principals, and about 15,000 school districts, each with its own set of district administrators, school board members, and concerned citizens. The parents and family members of the 60 million students in elementary and secondary education represent another constituency, as do the policymakers and legislators in the 50 states (along with the District of Columbia) and ...


Building Capacity For Quality Leadership With English Language Learners, John Leonard, Betty Alford, Neill Armstrong Nov 2018

Building Capacity For Quality Leadership With English Language Learners, John Leonard, Betty Alford, Neill Armstrong

School Leadership Review

Waxman, Téllez, and Walberg (2004) advocated that school leaders must assist staff developers in providing English language learner (ELLs)-related professional development that includes “demonstration of theories of language, sustained coaching, and evaluation programs measuring teacher implementation and impact” (p 2-3). These professional development goals are central to the leader’s purposeful expansion of teachers’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions concerning the unique needs of ELLs and communicating the importance of the effective curricular integration of well-planned and embedded strategies designed to meet the needs of the often marginalized ELL population. School leaders must be willing to provide a systematic program ...


The Changing Face Of The Elementary School Principal, Julie P. Combs, Stacey L. Edmonson Nov 2018

The Changing Face Of The Elementary School Principal, Julie P. Combs, Stacey L. Edmonson

School Leadership Review

Principals in today’s schools have more experience, have more education, and are of a more advanced age than ever before (National Association of Elementary School Principals [NAESP], 2006). Women elementary principals in the nation have increased from 41% to 56%. Likewise, the age of principals at all levels has increased, as did the percentage of principals who had more than 20 years of experience before entering the position (NAESP, 2006). In addition, the number of elementary principals has increased by 7,000 over the past 10 years (NAESP, 2004, 2005); this number grew to 61,000 in 2003-2004 from ...


A Scholar–Practitioner Stance: Practices Of Social Justice And Democracy, Patrick M. Jenlink Nov 2018

A Scholar–Practitioner Stance: Practices Of Social Justice And Democracy, Patrick M. Jenlink

School Leadership Review

Crossing the threshold into a new millennium has been hallmarked by a series of defining events, which have shaped, irrevocably, society and its educational system. These events include the standards and accountability movement, the federal mandate of No Child Left Behind of 2001, the fifty-year anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education and the realization of how far we are from obtaining its promise, and the demographic shifts in population density and racial makeup nationally and particularly in urban centers, to mention a select few of the more profound historical events. Issues of diversity, both inter and intragroup, further illuminate ...


Preparing Aspiring Superintendents To Lead School Improvement: Perceptions Of Graduates For Program Development, Pauline M. Sampson, Betty J. Alford, Ralph L. Marshall Nov 2018

Preparing Aspiring Superintendents To Lead School Improvement: Perceptions Of Graduates For Program Development, Pauline M. Sampson, Betty J. Alford, Ralph L. Marshall

School Leadership Review

Changes in the design and delivery of educational leadership preparation programs are advocated in order to meet the needs of leadership for 21st century schools (Byrd, 2001; Cox, 2002; McKerrow, 1998; Smylie & Bennett, 2005). The changing needs of the 21st century, coupled with accountability standards and more diverse populations of students within school districts, create challenges for leaders who are attempting to increase student achievement (Firestone & Shipps, 2005; Schlechty, 2008). Further, student performance demands have increased at the state and national level because of the No Child Left Behind Act (Wong & Nicotera, 2007). These standards have thus increased the emphasis of the administrator's responsibility to positively impact student achievement (Taylor, 2001). With the graying of the profession and the need for exemplary school superintendents, the preparation of school superintendents who can successfully lead school improvement ...


Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency And Student Achievement, Sue Erwin, Pam Winn, John Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble Nov 2018

Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency And Student Achievement, Sue Erwin, Pam Winn, John Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble

School Leadership Review

Warren and Peel (2005) found that rural schools can effectively develop focused leadership support and training. However, as indicated by Arnold, et al. (2004), the knowledge and skills most critical to effective rural administration have yet to be identified. Targeting specific leadership skills related to student achievement might focus university principal preparation programs and public school district staff development programs on producing more effective rural leadership. Ultimately, this emphasis may improve student achievement and school performance in rural schools.

Because of the importance of developing highly skilled rural school leaders, this study will endeavor to identify the leadership skills of ...


Professional Development Principles For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Beverly J. Irby, Cindy Guerrero, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Fuhui Tong, Linda Rodriguez Nov 2018

Professional Development Principles For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Beverly J. Irby, Cindy Guerrero, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Fuhui Tong, Linda Rodriguez

School Leadership Review

Since effective professional development is logically embedded in the reality of schools and teachers‘ work, it stands to reason that the principal would consider that reality for teachers of English language learners (ELL). Certainly, in general, professional development would incorporate principles of adult learning as reported by Knowles (1980): (1) adult learners need to be self-directed; (2) they display readiness to learn when they have a perceived need; and (3) they desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge. Based on adult learning theory, then, principals would provide teachers of ELLs professional development that addresses a need for self-direction, that ...


Principal Preparation Program Redesign: How Universities May Be Required To Redesign Their Programs, Ralph L. Marshall Nov 2018

Principal Preparation Program Redesign: How Universities May Be Required To Redesign Their Programs, Ralph L. Marshall

School Leadership Review

With the advent of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) there has been a greater emphasis on the quality of those individuals who lead the efforts within each of our school buildings across the country. Even more so than district level leadership, an effort has been made to research the effectiveness and improve the quality of the principals who lead school level reforms that are being promoted by business leaders and mandated by legislatures throughout the country. Legislators at both the national and state levels have encouraged these efforts and have even passed legislation that have increased requirements and promoted a ...


Insight For Teacher Preparation Program Administrators: Enhancing Pre-Service Educators' Lntercultural Sensitivity And Deep Proficiency In Culturally Responsive Teaching Through Short-Term Study Abroad, Gloria Gresham, Paula Griffin, Tracy Hasbun, Vikki Boatman Nov 2018

Insight For Teacher Preparation Program Administrators: Enhancing Pre-Service Educators' Lntercultural Sensitivity And Deep Proficiency In Culturally Responsive Teaching Through Short-Term Study Abroad, Gloria Gresham, Paula Griffin, Tracy Hasbun, Vikki Boatman

School Leadership Review

Teacher preparation program administrators face the issue of expanding curricula to prepare teacher candidates for the diverse population of students they will encounter {Trent, Kea, Oh, 2008). Globalization demands that teacher candidates grasp how to function in a more integrated and interdependent society (McGrew, 2005). According to Smith-Davis (2004) students from non-English speaking countries compose the fastest growing United States K-12 student population, and those identified as limited English proficient were over 10 million in 2004. The United States Census reported in the "New Census Bureau Report" the number of individuals five and older who speak languages other than English ...


Superintendents And Professional Development: Voices From The Field, Juan M. Nino, Mike Boone, Israel Aguilar, Dessynie Edwards Nov 2018

Superintendents And Professional Development: Voices From The Field, Juan M. Nino, Mike Boone, Israel Aguilar, Dessynie Edwards

School Leadership Review

The primary task of the educational leader is to assure high quality learning environments for all students. Research (Gordon, 2004; Sparks, 2007) supports the proposition that effective professional development contributes to instructional improvement by building educator capacity. Much of the research on professional development focuses in principal leadership in improving instruction (Blase & Blase, 2004). But district level administrators, especially the superintendent of schools, also have a role to play in school improvement. Standards for the preparation of school leaders specify competencies for superintendents that include the design and implementation of professional development programs based on sound research, best practices, district-and school-level data, and other contextual information (National Policy Board, 2002). The National Staff Development Council's Standards (2001) also describe a comprehensive set of activities to improve student learning that apply to both campus and district level personnel. But while the research on the instructional leadership role of principals is extensive, comparatively little is said about how superintendents meet their own responsibilities in this area (Dufour, 2000; Hirsch, 2009; Firestone, Manquin, & Martinez, 2005).