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2006

Innovation

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Innovation Lock-In: Unlocking Research And Development Path Dependency In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward Dec 2006

Innovation Lock-In: Unlocking Research And Development Path Dependency In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Innovation within the Australian wine industry is at a crossroads. More specifically, under the influence of fundamental paradigm shifts, the objectives, extension and uptake of R&D within the industry’s current innovation framework are being subjected to rather schizophrenic forces. At one level, industry organizations are directing the R&D agenda from within a national, ‘Brand Australia’ context. At another level, the firms that are being serviced by these organizations are demanding region-specific R&D extension in response to global pressure for differentiation and products at higher price-points. This paper will explore these contradictory forces and the degree to ...


Learning By Suing: Structural Estimates Of Court Errors In Patent Litigation, Alan C. Marco Nov 2006

Learning By Suing: Structural Estimates Of Court Errors In Patent Litigation, Alan C. Marco

Faculty Research and Reports

This paper presents structural estimates of the probability of validity, and the probability of Type I and Type II errors by courts in patent litigation. Patents are modeled as uncertain property rights, and implications of the model are tested using stock market reactions to patent litigation decisions. While court errors are inherently unobservable, the estimation quantifies beliefs about patent validity and court errors in a Bayesian context by relying on observable win rates and stock market reactions.

I estimate that the underlying beliefs about validity average from 0.55 to 0.70 for litigated patents. For a number of different ...


Schumpeter's Creative Destruction: A Review Of The Evidence, Arthur M. Diamond Jr. Oct 2006

Schumpeter's Creative Destruction: A Review Of The Evidence, Arthur M. Diamond Jr.

Economics Faculty Publications

Thoughtful scholars from Adam Smith to Jared Diamond, have asked the same life-and-death question: why do some societies succeed, and others fail, in producing the goods that make life long, healthy and prosperous? Smith's answer was basically that when societies adopt the rules of market capitalism, their economies grow,:and when they do not adopt the rules of market capitalism, their economies do not. Since Smith, other economists have developed more formal models of economic growth. The classic "Solow growth model" emphasized the investment of capital. Romer's "New Growth Theory," includes knowledge as a variable. What is mainly ...


Why Pharmaceutical Firms Support Patent Trolls: The Disparate Impact Of Ebay V. Mercexchange On Innovation, Jeremiah S. Helm Oct 2006

Why Pharmaceutical Firms Support Patent Trolls: The Disparate Impact Of Ebay V. Mercexchange On Innovation, Jeremiah S. Helm

Michigan Technology Law Review

Before the unanimous decision in eBay v. MercExchange, patent holders were almost always granted an injunction against an infringer. In fact, the Federal Circuit, in deciding eBay, noted that, upon a finding of infringement, an injunction would issue unless there were extraordinary circumstances. The Court, in a brief opinion, disagreed with the Federal Circuit and explained that the injunction issue in a patent case must be analyzed under the traditional four-factor test.[...] Is the four-factor test fairer or better than the Federal Circuit's near-automatic injunction rule? It is certainly more difficult to administer a factor test as compared to ...


Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education, David Wiley Oct 2006

Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education, David Wiley

All Faculty Publications

With the growth of open source software and other related trends, a culture of openness is advancing from the edges of society to the core of academic culture. In this article I provide an overview of how the expansion of open source software in culture at large has affected the world of education, describe how the greater use of open source software in education has unfolded hand-in-hand with the development of open course content and open access research, and argue that this more comprehensive shift towards "openness" in academic practice is not only a positive trend, but a necessary one ...


Intellectual Property And Marketing, Darius Noshir Lakdawalla, Tomas J. Philipson, Y. Richard Wang Sep 2006

Intellectual Property And Marketing, Darius Noshir Lakdawalla, Tomas J. Philipson, Y. Richard Wang

Darius N. Lakdawalla

Patent protection spurs innovation by raising the rewards for research, but it usually results in less desirable allocations after the innovation has been discovered. In effect, patents reward inventors with inefficient monopoly power. However, previous analysis of intellectual property has focused only on the costs patents impose by restricting price-competition. We analyze the potentially important but overlooked role played by competition on dimensions other than price. Compared to a patent monopoly, competitive firms may engage in inefficient levels of non-price competition-such as marketing-when these activities confer benefits on competitors. Patent monopolies may thus price less efficiently, but market more efficiently ...


The Revised 40 Principles For Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra Jul 2006

The Revised 40 Principles For Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Applying 40 Principles is one of the earliest and most popular techniques of TRIZ. There are no controversies on application of 40 principles by any of the TRIZ schools. Although they are fundamentally sound, there is some difficulty in applying those in software related problems. As they were originally developed for mechanical or technical problems, the meaning of many terms like 'thermal', 'aerodynamic', 'hydrodynamic', 'ultrasonic', 'infrared', 'temperature', 'liquid', 'gas' etc. are embarrassing in a software context.

This article reviews the 40 principles in the context of software industry and rephrases the principles and their applications to make them suitable for ...


Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko Jul 2006

Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper discusses the globalization of the wine industry in terms of such issues as global production, distribution, technology transfer and branding. It also examines the increasing focus on localization and cluster development in light of the industry’s current rationalization. The paper argues that with such reconfiguration, ‘New’ and ‘Old World’ distinctions are blurring and may disappear. Furthermore, as the wine landscape evolves, regional cluster-based interorganizational domains are forming, along with the emergence of regional branding and the decline of a homogeneous Australian level industry. It is contended that these domains are essential in securing an ongoing role for ...


New Venture Innovation In Dynamic Markets, Alexander Mckelvie, Johan Wiklund Jun 2006

New Venture Innovation In Dynamic Markets, Alexander Mckelvie, Johan Wiklund

Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research

The important relationship between knowledge and innovation is well established in the literature. However, little is known about how new ventures’ acquisition, assimilation, transformation, and exploitation of knowledge (i.e., their absorptive capacity) affects innovation. We examine the role of the individual components of absorptive capacity on innovation on a sample of new firms in the Swedish telecom, IT, media, and entertainment sectors. Our results suggest that the direct effects of the components of absorptive capacity on innovation are more complex than previously anticipated or articulated in the literature. We also find that while the four components of absorptive capacity ...


Why Did Silicon Valley Grow Up Around Stanford University Rather Than Around Uc Berkeley? (Summary), Stephen B. Adams Jun 2006

Why Did Silicon Valley Grow Up Around Stanford University Rather Than Around Uc Berkeley? (Summary), Stephen B. Adams

Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research

What makes one research university a more effective anchor of an entrepreneurial high-tech region than another? Those who seek to understand how entrepreneurial high-tech regions come into being need to understand the historical factors and critical paths that have led to success. Therefore, this paper explores why Silicon Valley grew up around Stanford University after World War II rather than around UC Berkeley.


Evolution Of User Interfaces For The Visually Impaired- Part 2, Umakant Mishra Jun 2006

Evolution Of User Interfaces For The Visually Impaired- Part 2, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Physically or mentally challenged people cannot use a computer in the same way a normal people can. For example, a person with disability in hands cannot use a standard keyboard or mouse efficiently. People having hearing problem, visual challenge etc. cannot interact with a computer like a normal person. So it is necessary to specially design the computers, interfacing devices and software interfaces, which can be used by the physically challenged people.

This article analyses the types of visual disabilities, different assistive technologies for different visual disabilities, guidelines for developing user interfaces for the visually impaired, software products available for ...


Patentability Of Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra Jun 2006

Patentability Of Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Software is very expensive to develop but very inexpensive to copy. Just by copying a software you create an exact duplicate of the original software and all with the same functionality. There is no difference between the original (which is bought) and the copy (pirated). The worse is when the source code is copied. The copier can even claim to have developed the software where the credit of the developer might go. The software developers use various methods to protect their source code such as copyright, trade secrets etc. but each having limitations. The developers are keen on finding legal ...


Strategic Behaviors And Competition: Intangibles, Intellectual Property And Innovation, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa May 2006

Strategic Behaviors And Competition: Intangibles, Intellectual Property And Innovation, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

Intangibles such as intellectual property rights are an increasingly important source of value for businesses today. This increasing importance has significance for the uses of intangibles by companies and the mechanisms and behaviors by which companies extract value from intangibles. The manners in which holders of intellectual property rights wield such rights can play an important role in shaping the effective functioning of intellectual property frameworks. Although intellectual property rights may serve as important tools of innovation, empirical evidence shows that in many industries intellectual property protection is not a primary means by which innovation is protected. Moreover, increasingly pervasive ...


Can A Triz Software Help You Inventing?, Umakant Mishra May 2006

Can A Triz Software Help You Inventing?, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

A software on TRIZ and/or Innovation can certainly supplement human brain and memory in order to speed up an innovation job. There are various TRIZ and Innovation software available in market. Some are too complex to use, some deal with only limited number of TRIZ techniques and some are having good features of innovation without much emphasis on TRIZ. An obvious task remains to evaluate them and find which software can help you best in inventing.

This article does not recommend or reject any TRIZ software per se. It only describes the expected features of a good TRIZ software ...


Evolution Of User Interfaces For The Visually Impaired- Part- 1, Umakant Mishra May 2006

Evolution Of User Interfaces For The Visually Impaired- Part- 1, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Physically or mentally challenged people cannot use a computer in the same way a normal people can. For example, a person with disability in hands cannot use a standard keyboard or mouse efficiently. People having hearing problem, visual challenge etc. cannot interact with a computer like a normal person. So it is necessary to specially design the computers, interfacing devices and software interfaces, which can be used by the physically challenged people.

There are many special devices like mouse, keyboard, pointers, and touch screens etc. to assist the visually challenged users. It is a challenge for the inventors and manufacturers ...


Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss May 2006

Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss

Michigan Law Review

The Patent Act was last revised in 1952. The hydrogen bomb was exploded that year, vividly demonstrating the power of the nucleus; in the ensuing postwar period, the Next Big Thing was clearly the molecule. Novel compounds were synthesized in the hopes of finding new medicines; solid-state devices exploited the special characteristics of germanium and other semiconductors; as investments in polymer chemistry soared, advice to the college graduate soon boiled down to "one word ... just one word[:] ... Plastics." Over the next half-century, things changed dramatically. "Better living through chemistry" has begun to sound dated (if not sinister). Genomics and computer ...


Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-3, Umakant Mishra Apr 2006

Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-3, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

This article analyses 15 patents on Menu System from a TRIZ perspective to find out their IFRs and Contradictions. The previous two parts of this article analysed ten patents on the menu interfaces. This part analyses five more patents from TRIZ perspective and draws out the conclusion that the TRIZ process and methodology is perfectly applicable to software inventions.


The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky Mar 2006

The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky

ExpressO

The patent system is at an inherent tension with contemporary practices of innovation. American patent doctrine reveres the lone inventor who, through the marshalling of extraordinary insight and experimental toil, conceives a novel invention. As a reward, the inventor is given the right to profit from his contribution through personal commercial exploitation. While this perspective may have reflected the practice of the mechanical arts at the time of the nation’s founding, it no longer reflects contemporary industrial research and development, where innovation is an increasingly networked process.

This disconnect is evidenced by the fact that contemporary patent doctrine has ...


Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-2, Umakant Mishra Mar 2006

Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-2, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The first part of the article analyzed five patents on menu interfaces. This part analyses five more patents from TRIZ perspective to find out their IFRs, Contradictions and which Inventive Principles have been applied to achieve those solutions.


Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-1, Umakant Mishra Feb 2006

Inventions On Menu Interfacing For Gui Applications, A Triz Based Analysis, Part-1, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

During last two decades, the computer menu system has been improved from a text based multiple choice to highly adaptive, self organized menu system. This has been possible by hundreds of inventions. This article analyses 15 patents on Menu System from a TRIZ perspective to find out their IFRs and Contradictions. Besides we will also see what Inventive Principles have been applied to achieve those solutions.


Three Tests Of Patentability, Umakant Mishra Feb 2006

Three Tests Of Patentability, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

United States patent law prescribes three major criteria of patentability, viz, novelty, usefulness and non-obviousness. These "three tests of patentability" are fundamentals behind issue of any patent from USPTO. It is important to know these fundamentals for any person who intends to work on patents.


Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr Jan 2006

Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr

Law Faculty Scholarship

Patents, copyrights, trademarks and related interests are known as intellectual property (IP). It has not been long since patents especially were regarded in U.S. courts, and the Supreme Court in particular, as tools of monopolists, and their owners often fared poorly. However, people have come increasingly to view privately funded innovation as critical to national economic well-being and to agree that such innovation cannot occur unless companies that succeed in the marketplace can recoup their research, development and marketing costs. That is a major function of IP, and, particularly within the past dozen years, IP has been seen, both ...


Role Of Design Service Firms In Product Innovation, Rajagopal Venkatraman Jan 2006

Role Of Design Service Firms In Product Innovation, Rajagopal Venkatraman

Masters Theses (All Theses, All Years)

This thesis examines how the services of design firms, which belong to the category of service sector called Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS), contribute to the innovation in the product firms. In this study, I have examined the role played by the design firm IDEO, in the product innovation of a start-up technology firm, a matured technology firm and a matured consumer product firm. The services provided by IDEO satisfy different needs of the product firms in their product innovation. The services of the design firm is useful in showcasing the technology to attract more funding for the startup technology ...


Innovation In Non-Profit And For-Profit Organizations: Visionary, Strategic, And Financial Considerations, Clyde Hull, Brian Lio Jan 2006

Innovation In Non-Profit And For-Profit Organizations: Visionary, Strategic, And Financial Considerations, Clyde Hull, Brian Lio

Articles

Innovation has been widely studied in the context of for-profit organizations. Less attention has been paid in business literature to innovation in non-profit organizations. This paper lays out a model for comparison and then explores the differnce between the two types of organizations. Using these data, predictions are made as to how these differences between the two types of innovative behavior of non-profit organizations and theories are proposed about the methods of innovation most suited to a non-profit organization. A theory model is presented which incorporates differences in vision, in strategic constraints, and in financial constraints.


Product And Service Innovation: Ideas For Future Cross-Disciplinary Research, Ekaterina V. Karniouchina, Liana Victorino, Rohit Verma Jan 2006

Product And Service Innovation: Ideas For Future Cross-Disciplinary Research, Ekaterina V. Karniouchina, Liana Victorino, Rohit Verma

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The second annual Product and Service Innovation Conference was held in February 2005 in Park City, Utah. The conference brought together over 40 distinguished and upcoming scholars from 30 flagship universities all over the United States. The purpose of the conference is to unite leading scholars in the fields of operations management and marketing and to promote an open dialog among different academic fields on the subject of product and service innovation. The conference provides a venue where participants have ample opportunities to learn about advances in innovation research, to leverage each other’s work, and to discuss future ...


The Effects Of Personal Innovativeness , Perceived Risk , And Computer Self -Efficacy On Online Purchasing Intent, Randall J. Boyle, Cynthia P. Ruppel Jan 2006

The Effects Of Personal Innovativeness , Perceived Risk , And Computer Self -Efficacy On Online Purchasing Intent, Randall J. Boyle, Cynthia P. Ruppel

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

The rapid growth of e-commerce makes it important for the success of companies to understand both the factors that facilitate and are barriers to these transactions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between perceived Internet risk, personal innovativeness and computer/web self-efficacy, and online purchases intentions as three of these factors. Results indicate that perceived Internet risk, personal innovativeness and computer/web self-efficacy are all strongly related to online purchasing intentions. There is also a strong relationship between computer self- efficacy and personal innovativeness, two of the values-compatibility variables related to intention to purchase on-line ...


Government Assistance To And Policy Toward Innovation, Kelly H. Carnes Jan 2006

Government Assistance To And Policy Toward Innovation, Kelly H. Carnes

Canada-United States Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A National Perspective Toward Innovation, James P. Mcllroy Jan 2006

A National Perspective Toward Innovation, James P. Mcllroy

Canada-United States Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Importance Of Innovation In The World Context, Kent T. Hughes Jan 2006

The Importance Of Innovation In The World Context, Kent T. Hughes

Canada-United States Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Discussion Following The Remarks Of David Crane And Kent T. Hughes, Discussion Jan 2006

Discussion Following The Remarks Of David Crane And Kent T. Hughes, Discussion

Canada-United States Law Journal

No abstract provided.