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2006

Innovation

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Innovation Lock-In: Unlocking Research And Development Path Dependency In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward Dec 2006

Innovation Lock-In: Unlocking Research And Development Path Dependency In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Innovation within the Australian wine industry is at a crossroads. More specifically, under the influence of fundamental paradigm shifts, the objectives, extension and uptake of R&D within the industry’s current innovation framework are being subjected to rather schizophrenic forces. At one level, industry organizations are directing the R&D agenda from within a national, ‘Brand Australia’ context. At another level, the firms that are being serviced by these organizations are demanding region-specific R&D extension in response to global pressure for differentiation and products at higher price-points. This paper will explore these contradictory forces and the degree to ...


Learning By Suing: Structural Estimates Of Court Errors In Patent Litigation, Alan C. Marco Nov 2006

Learning By Suing: Structural Estimates Of Court Errors In Patent Litigation, Alan C. Marco

Faculty Research and Reports

This paper presents structural estimates of the probability of validity, and the probability of Type I and Type II errors by courts in patent litigation. Patents are modeled as uncertain property rights, and implications of the model are tested using stock market reactions to patent litigation decisions. While court errors are inherently unobservable, the estimation quantifies beliefs about patent validity and court errors in a Bayesian context by relying on observable win rates and stock market reactions.

I estimate that the underlying beliefs about validity average from 0.55 to 0.70 for litigated patents. For a number of different ...


Schumpeter's Creative Destruction: A Review Of The Evidence, Arthur M. Diamond Jr. Oct 2006

Schumpeter's Creative Destruction: A Review Of The Evidence, Arthur M. Diamond Jr.

Economics Faculty Publications

Thoughtful scholars from Adam Smith to Jared Diamond, have asked the same life-and-death question: why do some societies succeed, and others fail, in producing the goods that make life long, healthy and prosperous? Smith's answer was basically that when societies adopt the rules of market capitalism, their economies grow,:and when they do not adopt the rules of market capitalism, their economies do not. Since Smith, other economists have developed more formal models of economic growth. The classic "Solow growth model" emphasized the investment of capital. Romer's "New Growth Theory," includes knowledge as a variable. What is mainly ...


Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education, David Wiley Oct 2006

Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education, David Wiley

All Faculty Publications

With the growth of open source software and other related trends, a culture of openness is advancing from the edges of society to the core of academic culture. In this article I provide an overview of how the expansion of open source software in culture at large has affected the world of education, describe how the greater use of open source software in education has unfolded hand-in-hand with the development of open course content and open access research, and argue that this more comprehensive shift towards "openness" in academic practice is not only a positive trend, but a necessary one ...


Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko Jul 2006

Emerging Interorganizational Structures In The Australian Wine Industry: Implications For Smes, D. K. Aylward, Michael Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper discusses the globalization of the wine industry in terms of such issues as global production, distribution, technology transfer and branding. It also examines the increasing focus on localization and cluster development in light of the industry’s current rationalization. The paper argues that with such reconfiguration, ‘New’ and ‘Old World’ distinctions are blurring and may disappear. Furthermore, as the wine landscape evolves, regional cluster-based interorganizational domains are forming, along with the emergence of regional branding and the decline of a homogeneous Australian level industry. It is contended that these domains are essential in securing an ongoing role for ...


Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr Jan 2006

Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr

Law Faculty Scholarship

Patents, copyrights, trademarks and related interests are known as intellectual property (IP). It has not been long since patents especially were regarded in U.S. courts, and the Supreme Court in particular, as tools of monopolists, and their owners often fared poorly. However, people have come increasingly to view privately funded innovation as critical to national economic well-being and to agree that such innovation cannot occur unless companies that succeed in the marketplace can recoup their research, development and marketing costs. That is a major function of IP, and, particularly within the past dozen years, IP has been seen, both ...


Innovation In Non-Profit And For-Profit Organizations: Visionary, Strategic, And Financial Considerations, Clyde Hull, Brian Lio Jan 2006

Innovation In Non-Profit And For-Profit Organizations: Visionary, Strategic, And Financial Considerations, Clyde Hull, Brian Lio

Articles

Innovation has been widely studied in the context of for-profit organizations. Less attention has been paid in business literature to innovation in non-profit organizations. This paper lays out a model for comparison and then explores the differnce between the two types of organizations. Using these data, predictions are made as to how these differences between the two types of innovative behavior of non-profit organizations and theories are proposed about the methods of innovation most suited to a non-profit organization. A theory model is presented which incorporates differences in vision, in strategic constraints, and in financial constraints.


Product And Service Innovation: Ideas For Future Cross-Disciplinary Research, Ekaterina V. Karniouchina, Liana Victorino, Rohit Verma Jan 2006

Product And Service Innovation: Ideas For Future Cross-Disciplinary Research, Ekaterina V. Karniouchina, Liana Victorino, Rohit Verma

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The second annual Product and Service Innovation Conference was held in February 2005 in Park City, Utah. The conference brought together over 40 distinguished and upcoming scholars from 30 flagship universities all over the United States. The purpose of the conference is to unite leading scholars in the fields of operations management and marketing and to promote an open dialog among different academic fields on the subject of product and service innovation. The conference provides a venue where participants have ample opportunities to learn about advances in innovation research, to leverage each other’s work, and to discuss future ...


Imsa20: Bold Ideas, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy Jan 2006

Imsa20: Bold Ideas, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy

IMSA History

In the mid 1980s, the state of Illinois, recognizing a sharply increased need for highly skilled leaders in mathematics, science and technology, founded the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy®. Twenty years later, the national demand for mathematics, science and technology leaders has never been greater. The National Academies report - Rising Above the Gathering Storm and President Bush's American Competitiveness Initiative - address the growing concern that the United States is losing its competitive advantage as countries abroad invest heavily in the education and training of scientists and engineers. Both initiatives call for increased commitments in scientific research and in mathematics ...


Giving It Away : Free Technology Transfer To The Irish Sme Sector, Peter Kavanagh, Andy Maguire, James J. Casey Jan 2006

Giving It Away : Free Technology Transfer To The Irish Sme Sector, Peter Kavanagh, Andy Maguire, James J. Casey

Articles

One of Europe’s major weaknesses lies in its inferiority in terms of transforming the results of technological research and skills into innovations and competitive advantages. (European Commission, 1995, p. 8.)

Technology transfer is a key aspect of economic development and research administration. These concerns are shared equally between academia and industry on both sides of the Atlantic. As technology is developed at a greater rate, concerns about the technology transfer will heighten. This article focuses on technology transfer in Ireland, particularly in the SME (Small and Medium size Enterprises, under 250 employees) sector. As the main Lisbon Objective has ...


Sme Innovation Within The Australian Wine Industry: A Cluster Analysis, David Aylward, John Glynn Jan 2006

Sme Innovation Within The Australian Wine Industry: A Cluster Analysis, David Aylward, John Glynn

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper assesses core innovation activity among SMEs within different levels of cluster development. The aim of the paper, using empirical data from the Australian wine industry, is to demonstrate that innovation levels and activity intensify as an industry cluster develops. By dividing wine clusters into ‘innovative’ (highly developed) and ‘organised’ (less developed) models, the paper uses selected core indicators of innovation activity to explore levels of integration within each model. This integration is examined in the context of Porter’s theory of ‘competitive advantage’, with implications for SMEs in particular, and lessons for industry clusters in general.


The Road To Innovation: Experiences In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward Jan 2006

The Road To Innovation: Experiences In The Australian Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


The Play Of Power And Politics In Innovation And Hrm, Michael Zanko, Richard Badham, Paul Couchman, Maren Schubert Jan 2006

The Play Of Power And Politics In Innovation And Hrm, Michael Zanko, Richard Badham, Paul Couchman, Maren Schubert

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper analyses the human resource management (HRM) practices involved in the implementation of a process innovation approach to product development (concurrent engineering (CE)) in the Australian subsidiary of a multinational firm engaged in military defence electronics. According to the research literature, almost all aspects of managing product development under a CE approach are linked to people management. Yet in this particular case, other than project team structure, the prescriptive HRM dimensions of CE were conspicuously absent in the implementation process. This absence is explained by the play of power and politics involving stakeholders analysed over an 18 month period ...


Preparing Learners For The Innovation Economy: It's Time To Rethink Almost Everything About Technology Education, Kurt W. Seemann Jan 2006

Preparing Learners For The Innovation Economy: It's Time To Rethink Almost Everything About Technology Education, Kurt W. Seemann

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management

Have you ever noticed that when the economy shows strong growth in wages in manufacturing sectors, the stock value in those sectors often drops, but when jobs are slashed by as many as thousands or that when a company invests in new labour replacing technology in its production, the stock value of the companies involved rises (Chasan, 2006; Isidore, 2005)? Despite all the efforts to produce skilled people in traditional fields, the tide of sustainable employment in those areas, appears to be structurally prohibitive raising basic questions of whether traditional perceptions of Technology in school curriculum remains viable and whether ...


Coordination, Property & Intellectual Property: An Unconventional Approach To Anticompetitive Effects & Downstream Access, F. Scott Kieff Jan 2006

Coordination, Property & Intellectual Property: An Unconventional Approach To Anticompetitive Effects & Downstream Access, F. Scott Kieff

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Countless high profile cases like the recent patent litigation threatening to shut down the BlackBerry® service have long drawn sharp criticism; and in response, most of the intellectual property (IP) literature argues for the use of weaker, or liability rule, enforcement as a tool for solving the problems of anticompetitive effects and downstream access while still providing sufficient rewards to IP creators. This paper takes an unconventional approach under which rewards don't matter much, but coordination does matter a great deal. The paper shows how stronger, or property rule, enforcement facilitates the good type of coordination that increases competition ...


Implications Of Technological Uncertainty On Firm Outsourcing Decisions, David R. King Jan 2006

Implications Of Technological Uncertainty On Firm Outsourcing Decisions, David R. King

Management Faculty Research and Publications

Outsourcing inherently considers what activity needs to reside within a given firm. The difficulty of exchanges between firms in the face of uncertainty affects where work on developing and producing new products is performed. Theory is developed and explored using a case study that explains firm sourcing decisions as a response to uncertainty within the context of industry structure and related transaction costs. Viewing outsourcing broadly results in a better delineation of outsourcing options. Implications for management research and practice are identified.


Patent Buy-Outs For Global Disease Innovations For Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Kevin Outterson Jan 2006

Patent Buy-Outs For Global Disease Innovations For Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

Drug prices are uniquely susceptible to radical price reductions through generic competition. Patented pharmaceuticals may be priced at more than 30 times the marginal cost of production; the excess is the patent rent collected by the drug company while the patent and exclusive marketing periods remain. Patent rents are significant. AIDS drugs which sell for US$10,000 per person per year in the US are sold generically for less than US$200. If patented drugs could be sold at the marginal cost of production, cost effective treatments would become even more attractive, and other interventions would become affordable.

This ...