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Why Pharmaceutical Firms Support Patent Trolls: The Disparate Impact Of Ebay V. Mercexchange On Innovation, Jeremiah S. Helm Oct 2006

Why Pharmaceutical Firms Support Patent Trolls: The Disparate Impact Of Ebay V. Mercexchange On Innovation, Jeremiah S. Helm

Michigan Technology Law Review

Before the unanimous decision in eBay v. MercExchange, patent holders were almost always granted an injunction against an infringer. In fact, the Federal Circuit, in deciding eBay, noted that, upon a finding of infringement, an injunction would issue unless there were extraordinary circumstances. The Court, in a brief opinion, disagreed with the Federal Circuit and explained that the injunction issue in a patent case must be analyzed under the traditional four-factor test.[...] Is the four-factor test fairer or better than the Federal Circuit's near-automatic injunction rule? It is certainly more difficult to administer a factor test as compared to ...


Patentability Of Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra Jun 2006

Patentability Of Software Inventions, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Software is very expensive to develop but very inexpensive to copy. Just by copying a software you create an exact duplicate of the original software and all with the same functionality. There is no difference between the original (which is bought) and the copy (pirated). The worse is when the source code is copied. The copier can even claim to have developed the software where the credit of the developer might go. The software developers use various methods to protect their source code such as copyright, trade secrets etc. but each having limitations. The developers are keen on finding legal ...


Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss May 2006

Pathological Patenting: The Pto As Cause Or Cure, Rochelle Dreyfuss

Michigan Law Review

The Patent Act was last revised in 1952. The hydrogen bomb was exploded that year, vividly demonstrating the power of the nucleus; in the ensuing postwar period, the Next Big Thing was clearly the molecule. Novel compounds were synthesized in the hopes of finding new medicines; solid-state devices exploited the special characteristics of germanium and other semiconductors; as investments in polymer chemistry soared, advice to the college graduate soon boiled down to "one word ... just one word[:] ... Plastics." Over the next half-century, things changed dramatically. "Better living through chemistry" has begun to sound dated (if not sinister). Genomics and computer ...


The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky Mar 2006

The Role Of Patents In Fostering Open Innovation, John Dubiansky

ExpressO

The patent system is at an inherent tension with contemporary practices of innovation. American patent doctrine reveres the lone inventor who, through the marshalling of extraordinary insight and experimental toil, conceives a novel invention. As a reward, the inventor is given the right to profit from his contribution through personal commercial exploitation. While this perspective may have reflected the practice of the mechanical arts at the time of the nation’s founding, it no longer reflects contemporary industrial research and development, where innovation is an increasingly networked process.

This disconnect is evidenced by the fact that contemporary patent doctrine has ...


Three Tests Of Patentability, Umakant Mishra Feb 2006

Three Tests Of Patentability, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

United States patent law prescribes three major criteria of patentability, viz, novelty, usefulness and non-obviousness. These "three tests of patentability" are fundamentals behind issue of any patent from USPTO. It is important to know these fundamentals for any person who intends to work on patents.


Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr Jan 2006

Intellectual Property: The Practical And Legal Fundamentals, Thomas G. Field Jr

Law Faculty Scholarship

Patents, copyrights, trademarks and related interests are known as intellectual property (IP). It has not been long since patents especially were regarded in U.S. courts, and the Supreme Court in particular, as tools of monopolists, and their owners often fared poorly. However, people have come increasingly to view privately funded innovation as critical to national economic well-being and to agree that such innovation cannot occur unless companies that succeed in the marketplace can recoup their research, development and marketing costs. That is a major function of IP, and, particularly within the past dozen years, IP has been seen, both ...


Accepting Exceptions?: A Comparative Approach To Experimental Use In U.S. And German Patent Law, Peter Ruess Jan 2006

Accepting Exceptions?: A Comparative Approach To Experimental Use In U.S. And German Patent Law, Peter Ruess

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

Experimental use is a keystone of research and innovation for some and obstacle in using a patent for others. In a genuine international field such as patent law, monitoring recent developments is best done in a comparative way. Particularly, the decision Merck v. Integra of the US Supreme Court and the new EU law, give reason to explore this field in more detail.


Patent Buy-Outs For Global Disease Innovations For Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Kevin Outterson Jan 2006

Patent Buy-Outs For Global Disease Innovations For Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Kevin Outterson

Faculty Scholarship

Drug prices are uniquely susceptible to radical price reductions through generic competition. Patented pharmaceuticals may be priced at more than 30 times the marginal cost of production; the excess is the patent rent collected by the drug company while the patent and exclusive marketing periods remain. Patent rents are significant. AIDS drugs which sell for US$10,000 per person per year in the US are sold generically for less than US$200. If patented drugs could be sold at the marginal cost of production, cost effective treatments would become even more attractive, and other interventions would become affordable.

This ...