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Addressing Supervisee Anxiety During Covid-19: Applying Models Of Supervision, Deedre N. C. Mitchell, Denise B. Ebersole, Laura E. Martin 2022 Liberty University

Addressing Supervisee Anxiety During Covid-19: Applying Models Of Supervision, Deedre N. C. Mitchell, Denise B. Ebersole, Laura E. Martin

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Graduate counseling supervisees are experiencing unprecedented obstacles, compounding stressors, and heightened anxiety amidst the global COVID-19 pandemic. If not addressed, excessive anxiety can impede professional growth and limit the competence of future counselors. While theoretical-based models of supervision exist, the application of such models has not been fully explored in relation to addressing supervisee anxiety. Prompt and pointed action is needed from counseling supervisors, who are professionally and ethically responsible for training future counselors and the gatekeeping process. Three supervision models, including the Integrative Developmental Model, Solution-Focused Supervision, and Cognitive-Behavioral Supervision, are utilized to address heightened anxiety among counseling supervisees ...


Students’ Experiences Of In-Person And Online Clinical Residencies: A Qualitative Study, Kathleen Ruscitto, Macie Stead, Corinne W. Bridges, Casey Baker 2022 Buena Vista University

Students’ Experiences Of In-Person And Online Clinical Residencies: A Qualitative Study, Kathleen Ruscitto, Macie Stead, Corinne W. Bridges, Casey Baker

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Online counselor education programs have continued to grow in popularity. There is limited current research about residency experiences of counseling students. The coronavirus pandemic has forced counselor educators to move traditionally face to face residencies to the online platform. Our study explores the experiences of counseling students who attended both online and face to face residency using an in-depth phenomenological interviewing. Four major themes emerged including (a) self-care, (b) faculty interactions, (c) student connections, and (d) counselor identity and future practice. One narrative highlights the participant’s experiences.


From Readiness To Action: Social Justice Training In Practicum, Steven J. Moody, Justin D. Lauka, Amanda K. McCarthy 2022 Idaho State University

From Readiness To Action: Social Justice Training In Practicum, Steven J. Moody, Justin D. Lauka, Amanda K. Mccarthy

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Social justice is an imperative within counseling and is recognized through the American Counseling Association's code of ethics, nationally endorsed competencies, and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. The authors completed a phenomenological study exploring the experience of five master’s-level counseling students in their practicum course relative to their development of a socially just counseling approach. The authors identified themes to provide a textural-structural description of how students experienced the transition towards social action. Moving from readiness to action encompassed previous experiences, the learning community, and change agents including awareness, responsibility, motivation, and comfort ...


Integrating Psychosocial Oncology Into The Counseling Curriculum, Andrew Wood, Alexandra Mott, Jessica Gonzalez-Voller 2022 University of Cincinnati

Integrating Psychosocial Oncology Into The Counseling Curriculum, Andrew Wood, Alexandra Mott, Jessica Gonzalez-Voller

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

With nearly two million new cancer diagnoses estimated in 2021 alone, counselors and counselors in training should have some knowledge of the mental health impact that cancer has on individuals and families. The authors of this manuscript present a review of established psychosocial oncology training in other fields and ways to infuse the topic of psychosocial oncology, including how it pertains to working within integrated care teams, into the counseling curriculum via one course or infusion into curriculum to better train counselors to provide their unique contributions to the care of individuals with cancer and their families.


The Effects Of Covid-19 On Counselor-In-Training Resilience: A Case Study, Anthony L. Suarez, Alishia Elliott, Bonni A. Behrend, Chris L. Carver 2022 Valparaiso University

The Effects Of Covid-19 On Counselor-In-Training Resilience: A Case Study, Anthony L. Suarez, Alishia Elliott, Bonni A. Behrend, Chris L. Carver

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Contemporary literature in counseling suggests that resilience is a protective factor in preventing burnout among counselors and counselors-in-training. The strategies that counseling students have historically relied on to learn resilient habits have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but the implications for students are still unknown. This qualitative case study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on 17 counselors-in-training, their adjustments through a resilience lens, and students’ perspectives on the response of their program in support of pandemic-related challenges. Findings of the current study pinpoint specific causes of counseling students’ psychological distress, as well as the social and academic ...


Engaged Trauma Training Through Role-Play Observations During Covid-19, Emily Horton, Claudia G. Interiano-Shiverdecker, Crystal L. Hughes, Mica Stumpf 2022 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Engaged Trauma Training Through Role-Play Observations During Covid-19, Emily Horton, Claudia G. Interiano-Shiverdecker, Crystal L. Hughes, Mica Stumpf

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

This phenomenological investigation explored counselors'-in-training experiences while observing role-plays of trauma-specific cases. Three themes emerged: (a) learning to be a trauma counselor, (b) growth as counselors-in-training, and (c) connection and engagement through multiple delivery methods. The findings from this study showed that observing role-plays can be an efficacious teaching approach in trauma counseling courses. Findings also suggest that integrating role-plays into trauma curricula helped students understand the complexity of trauma, increase self-competency, self-efficacy, and emotional intelligence, and engage with the content in face-to-face and online formats. The authors provide a further discussion on implications for counselor education and research.


Utilizing Self-Determination Theory In Teaching The Research And Evaluation Course, Terence Yee, Rachel P. Smith 2022 Villanova University

Utilizing Self-Determination Theory In Teaching The Research And Evaluation Course, Terence Yee, Rachel P. Smith

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Research is an important component in counselor preparation. However, students often are not motivated in taking the research course. The author explores and applies the Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to teaching the research and evaluation course. Self-Determination Theory posits that student will be autonomously motivated to learn when basic needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competence are present in the classroom. Strategies to increase all three basic needs are discussed in this paper.


Person-Centered Approach To Introduce Working With Clients Who Sexually Offend, Jessie Huebner 2022 Northern Illinois University

Person-Centered Approach To Introduce Working With Clients Who Sexually Offend, Jessie Huebner

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Individuals who have sexually offended and individuals who are sexually attracted to minors are often met with adversity, even by those in the helping profession. Currently counselor educators have limited guidance on the need, benefits, and potential approaches for introducing counselor trainees to working with this client population. A person-centered approach to teaching, in which the instructor communicates unconditional positive regard, empathetic understanding, and congruence to their students is presented, Potential benefits to trainees and their future clients are identified.


Grief Content Inclusion In Cacrep-Accredited Counselor Education Programs, Laura S. Wheat, Jennifer J. Matthews, Peggy P. Whiting 2022 University of Tennessee

Grief Content Inclusion In Cacrep-Accredited Counselor Education Programs, Laura S. Wheat, Jennifer J. Matthews, Peggy P. Whiting

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

This study investigated how counselor educators (n = 61) integrated grief content in accredited counselor education programs, characteristics of the course in which grief is taught, and professional background of faculty members. Most participants endorsed general content items (e.g., reactions to loss), grief theories (e.g., stages/phases of grief), and practice considerations (e.g., self-care). Additionally, results indicated grief-focused courses were mostly elective (n = 23; 85.19%), facilitated face-to-face (n = 18; 66.67%) and taught by counselor educators influenced by significant personal loss (n = 18, 78.26%). Results demonstrated a lack of professional affiliation with grief-related organizations, professional development ...


The Influence Of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, Social Support, Religion/Spirituality, And Occupational History On The Total Wellness Of Counseling Practicum Graduate Students: A Pilot Study, Devona M. Stalnaker-Shofner, Kevin Lyness, Sean Keck 2022 Antioch University New England

The Influence Of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, Social Support, Religion/Spirituality, And Occupational History On The Total Wellness Of Counseling Practicum Graduate Students: A Pilot Study, Devona M. Stalnaker-Shofner, Kevin Lyness, Sean Keck

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

This study sought to identify and explore the differences in participants’ Total Wellness scores with respect to race/ethnicity, gender, age, social support, spirituality, and occupational history. It was asserted that there would be observable differences in the delineated demographic research factors and that these differences would influence students’ Total Wellness as measured by the 5F-Wel Inventory. The sample was comprised of 30 graduate students enrolled in a community mental health counseling program. Hierarchal linear regression indicated that demographic variables did not predict a change in Total Wellness when controlling for pretest scores; however, pretest Total Wellness scores were significantly ...


The Experiences Of Collegiality By Early-Career Counselor Educators, Jessica M. Tyler, Malti Tuttle, Marina Naviaux, Sara Ellison 2022 Auburn University

The Experiences Of Collegiality By Early-Career Counselor Educators, Jessica M. Tyler, Malti Tuttle, Marina Naviaux, Sara Ellison

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

It is essential to develop a work culture that supports faculty needs, be it professional for promotion and tenure, or personal. This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of collegiality by early-career counselor educator faculty members (CES) working in a CACREP institution. Relational support, expectations, administration, and doctoral experiences emerged as themes from these narratives. Implications for the field are discussed to address these experiences and provide recommendations to counselor education faculty and departments.


Effective Remediation In Master’S-Level Counseling Students, Lena Salpietro, Madeline Clark, Tanesha Walker, Clark Ausloos, Elizabeth A. Prosek 2022 University of North Florida

Effective Remediation In Master’S-Level Counseling Students, Lena Salpietro, Madeline Clark, Tanesha Walker, Clark Ausloos, Elizabeth A. Prosek

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Despite evidence that remediation is effective, little is known about counselor educators’ experience with remediation. In this consensual qualitative study, authors interviewed counselor educators (N=11) to better understand remedial practices and identify effective strategies. Findings have implications for the remediation of master’s-level students in counselor education.


Creative Supervision Intervention Impact On School Counselors-In-Training Self-Efficacy: A Single-Case Research Design, Timothy Schoonover 2022 Northeastern State University

Creative Supervision Intervention Impact On School Counselors-In-Training Self-Efficacy: A Single-Case Research Design, Timothy Schoonover

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

School counselors are tasked with multiple roles and responsibilities in their schools to address the needs of all students (American School Counseling Association, 2019). Due to the variety of work that school counselors are responsible for, it is vital for them to have a high belief in their ability to successfully complete their job. This belief in their ability to successfully complete their work is called counselor self-efficacy (Oh et al., 2019). The development of a school counselors self-efficacy begins in their counselor education program, which involves classroom learning and counseling supervision. Although there are multiple models of counseling supervision ...


Exploring Key Group Counseling Processes: Implications For Group Counselor Training, Rostyslaw W. Robak, Poonam V. Doshi, Michael M. Tursi 2022 Pace University

Exploring Key Group Counseling Processes: Implications For Group Counselor Training, Rostyslaw W. Robak, Poonam V. Doshi, Michael M. Tursi

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

We studied several processes in a standardized counselor training group. Participants were masters-level counselor trainees (n=100) who took part in eight sessions in an experiential group. Our purpose was to examine the patterns of therapeutic processes and the therapeutic factors that predicted cohesiveness and commitment of the group tasks. Results underscore the interlocking nature of the therapeutic process factors of cohesiveness, altruism, and universality. Analyses reveal the central role of cohesiveness as a process factor in a short-term group. Altruism and engagement consistently predicted cohesiveness. Cohesiveness predicted commitment to the group tasks. The processes in these training groups resemble ...


Exploring Possibilities Of Predicting Positive Counselor Qualities In Counseling Students From Personality Domains, Nina M. DiTommaso, Laura S. Wheat, Casey A. Barrio Minton, Jeffery L. Cochran 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Possibilities Of Predicting Positive Counselor Qualities In Counseling Students From Personality Domains, Nina M. Ditommaso, Laura S. Wheat, Casey A. Barrio Minton, Jeffery L. Cochran

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

In this pilot study, the authors investigated the degree that Big Five personality domains may predict the positive counselor qualities among 160 students enrolled in sections of a combined undergraduate/graduate Counseling Skills course. Positive counselor qualities of focus in this study are empathy, mindfulness or self-awareness, and unconditional positive self-regard in students studying counseling skills. The results do not suggest a significant predictive role for the Big Five personality domains for the Counseling Skills students, except that the Big Five domain of neuroticism predicted enough variation in mindfulness and unconditional positive self-regard to be practically significant. Limitations and potential ...


Motivated But Challenged: Counselor Educators’ Experiences Teaching About Social Determinants Of Health, John M. Waters, Alexandra C. Gantt, Allison Worth, Bisola Duyile, Kaprea Johnson, Davide Mariotti 2022 Belmont University

Motivated But Challenged: Counselor Educators’ Experiences Teaching About Social Determinants Of Health, John M. Waters, Alexandra C. Gantt, Allison Worth, Bisola Duyile, Kaprea Johnson, Davide Mariotti

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

A phenomenological study was conducted to understand eight counselor educators’ experiences teaching about social determinants of health. The analysis yielded three themes: educator identity, motivations, and challenges. Implications for counselor educators preparing future counselors to be leaders in multiculturalism, social justice, and advocacy are provided.


A Qualitative Case Study Of Supervisors Experiences Related To Distance-Based Supervision, Blake Sandusky, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner, Staci Born, Charlotte Heckmann, Ffion Davies 2022 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

A Qualitative Case Study Of Supervisors Experiences Related To Distance-Based Supervision, Blake Sandusky, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner, Staci Born, Charlotte Heckmann, Ffion Davies

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

The COVID-19 pandemic created a rush to provide counseling and supervision services via distance-based technology. This study was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, it offers some insight into the process of providing distance-based supervision (DBS) to mental health trainees and professionals. Utilizing a multiple case study design, 10 counseling supervisors who had experience providing DBS were interviewed to understand their experiences. Five themes emerged from the data including reasons for providing DBS, benefits and challenges to DBS, and a desire for change to current training structures. Implications for supervision and suggestions for future research are provided.


A Critical Review Of Adlerian Supervision: Illuminating The Untapped Potential, Xiaoxuan Qu, Melissa Luke 2022 Syracuse University

A Critical Review Of Adlerian Supervision: Illuminating The Untapped Potential, Xiaoxuan Qu, Melissa Luke

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Authors conducted a critical review of the Adlerian clinical supervision literature published between 1989 and 2020. Results indicated that of the 13 identified articles, all of which were conceptual, there were three emergent topical trends, including a) Adlerian Psychology-based supervision models, b) second generation and/or integrated models, and c) supervision modalities. Careful examination of the theoretical underpinnings of Adlerian Psychology and its synthesis into clinical supervision exposed a significant yet rarely addressed issue in academia and practice: the fundamental theoretical differences within the Adlerian framework. Authors discuss the potential implications of these unacknowledged differences, including untapped potential for application ...


An Integrative Pedagogical Approach To Teaching Counseling Supervision, Amy R. Broadwater, Cian L. Brown, Meredith Moore 2022 University of Alaska Fairbanks

An Integrative Pedagogical Approach To Teaching Counseling Supervision, Amy R. Broadwater, Cian L. Brown, Meredith Moore

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Counselor Education programs are required to prepare doctoral students to become supervisors, however there is both no single agreed upon pedagogy or method, as well as a seeming lack of culturally responsive pedagogy or teaching methods for instructing students in learning and developing supervision knowledge and skills in counseling supervision courses (Korcuska, 2016). The authors propose the integration of established pedagogical approaches to address students’ implicit and explicit bias in order to develop cultural competence and humility in becoming culturally responsive supervisors. The authors provide an overview of Critical Race, Feminist, and Experiential Learning theories and how these theories can ...


Expanding The Role Of Social Class In Multicultural Counselor Education Curricula, Derrick Shepard, Laura S. Wheat, Casey A. Barrio Minton 2022 University of Tennessee, Martin

Expanding The Role Of Social Class In Multicultural Counselor Education Curricula, Derrick Shepard, Laura S. Wheat, Casey A. Barrio Minton

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Although professional counselors are called to develop Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (MSJCC; Ratts et al., 2016), and social and cultural diversity are highly researched (e.g., Barrio Minton et al., 2014), social class as a multicultural construct has received less attention and is often reduced to being defined as socioeconomic status (SES). Therefore, this article provides a brief historical context of social class, explores the current state of social class research in counseling and counselor education, and suggests methods for increasing inclusion of social class in counselor educators’ multicultural pedagogy.


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