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Impulsivity, Impulsive And Reflective Processes And The Development Of Alcohol Use And Misuse In Adolescents And Young Adults, Reinout W. Wiers, Susan L. Ames, Wilhelm Hofmann, Marvin Krank, Alan W. Stacy 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Impulsivity, Impulsive And Reflective Processes And The Development Of Alcohol Use And Misuse In Adolescents And Young Adults, Reinout W. Wiers, Susan L. Ames, Wilhelm Hofmann, Marvin Krank, Alan W. Stacy

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This paper contrasts dual-process and personality approaches in the prediction of addictive behaviors and related risk behaviors. In dual-process models, behavior is described as the joint outcome of qualitatively different “impulsive” (or associative) and “reflective” processes. There are important individual differences regarding both types of processes, and the relative strength of both in a specific situation is influenced by prior behavior and state variables (e.g., fatigue, alcohol use). From this perspective, a specific behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse) can be predicted by the combined indices of the behavior-related impulsive processes (e.g., associations with alcohol), and reflective processes, including ...


Make Better Choices (Mbc): Study Design Of A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Optimal Technology-Supported Change In Multiple Diet And Physical Activity Risk Behaviors, Bonnie J. Spring, Kristin L. Schneider, H. G. McFadden, Jocelyn Vaughn, Andrea T. Kozak, Malaina Smith, Arlen C. Moller, Leonard Epstein, Stephanie W. Russell, Andrew DeMott, Donald Hedeker 2010 Northwestern University

Make Better Choices (Mbc): Study Design Of A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Optimal Technology-Supported Change In Multiple Diet And Physical Activity Risk Behaviors, Bonnie J. Spring, Kristin L. Schneider, H. G. Mcfadden, Jocelyn Vaughn, Andrea T. Kozak, Malaina Smith, Arlen C. Moller, Leonard Epstein, Stephanie W. Russell, Andrew Demott, Donald Hedeker

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals--one dietary, one activity--yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change.

METHODS/DESIGN: Adults (n = 200) with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will ...


Psychometric Characteristics And Clinical Correlates Of Neo-Pi-R Fearless Dominance And Impulsive Antisociality In The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study, Edward A. Witt, Christopher J. Hopwood, Leslie C. Morey, John C. Markowitz, Thomas H. McGlashan, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, John G. Gunderson, M. Brent Donnellan 2010 Michigan State University

Psychometric Characteristics And Clinical Correlates Of Neo-Pi-R Fearless Dominance And Impulsive Antisociality In The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study, Edward A. Witt, Christopher J. Hopwood, Leslie C. Morey, John C. Markowitz, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, John G. Gunderson, M. Brent Donnellan

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a) the stability of the measures over a 10-year interval, (b) their criterion-related validity, and (c) their incremental validity relative to an alternative NEO-PI-R profile-rating approach for assessing psychopathy. NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality scales were relatively stable across 10 years and demonstrated differential associations with measures of personality pathology and psychopathology generally consistent ...


Affective Consequences Of Sleep Deprivation, Jared D. Minkel 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Affective Consequences Of Sleep Deprivation, Jared D. Minkel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Surprisingly little is known about the effects of sleep deprivation on affective processes. Although clinical evidence and introspection suggest that emotional function is sensitive to sleep loss, there are only three published studies that have experimentally manipulated both stress and emotion in a single experiment, the earliest of which was published in 2007. This dissertation presents findings from three studies that were designed to improve our understanding of the influence of sleep loss on affective functioning in healthy adults. Study 1 (Sleep and Mood) measured the effects of sleep loss on affect in the absence of specific probes. Three facets ...


Prediction Of Dengue Disease Severity Among Pediatric Thai Patients Using Early Clinical Laboratory Indicators, James A. Potts, Robert V. Gibbons, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Stephen J. Thomas, Pra-On Supradish, Stephenie C. Lemon, Daniel H. Libraty, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Prediction Of Dengue Disease Severity Among Pediatric Thai Patients Using Early Clinical Laboratory Indicators, James A. Potts, Robert V. Gibbons, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Stephen J. Thomas, Pra-On Supradish, Stephenie C. Lemon, Daniel H. Libraty, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical resource-poor countries. Dengue illness can range from a nonspecific febrile illness to a severe disease, Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), in which patients develop circulatory failure. Earlier diagnosis of severe dengue illnesses would have a substantial impact on the allocation of health resources in endemic countries.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared clinical laboratory findings collected within 72 hours of fever onset from a prospective cohort children presenting to one of two hospitals (one urban and one rural) in Thailand. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop diagnostic algorithms using different ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Beverage Consumption Among Low-Income Hispanics With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Barbara C. Olendzki 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Beverage Consumption Among Low-Income Hispanics With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Barbara C. Olendzki

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications

This study sought to describe beverage consumption, caloric contribution of beverages to total caloric intake, and associations between beverage consumption and metabolic factors among a sample of low-income Hispanics participating in a trial of a diabetes self-management intervention. Findings: Treatment strategies to improve glucose control and reduce diabetes complications among Hispanics are needed. There is a high consumption of calories from beverages, accounting for one-fifth of total caloric intake, among this high-risk Hispanic population. Milk, juices, fruit drinks and regular soda are particular sources of calories. Beverage consumption is associated with metabolic markers, including HbA1c, cholesterol, blood pressure, BMI and ...


Stressors And Coping Mechanisms Of Married Female Physicians : A Qualitative Review, Eva Marie Starner 2010 Loma Linda University

Stressors And Coping Mechanisms Of Married Female Physicians : A Qualitative Review, Eva Marie Starner

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Female physicians live and work in a very complex world fraught with professional demands and personal challenges. Twenty-seven married female physicians were interviewed for this study to assess demands and stressors endemic to them and to determine how they manage them. The breadth of this study looked at the demands and stressors of the female physician from the perspective of her work environment, home and family responsibilities, parenting responsibilities, and self-imposed demands in her perceived roles as a working wife and mother. Two main categories emerged during the development of grounded theory: System Challenge and System Adaptation. Additionally, work demands ...


Ask A Different Question, Get A Different Answer: Why Living Wills Are Poor Guides To Care Preferences At The End Of Life., Laraine Winter, Susan M Parks, James J Diamond 2010 Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health, Thomas Jefferson University

Ask A Different Question, Get A Different Answer: Why Living Wills Are Poor Guides To Care Preferences At The End Of Life., Laraine Winter, Susan M Parks, James J Diamond

Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health Research Papers

CONTEXT: Living wills have a poor record of directing care at the end of life, as a copious literature attests. Some speculation centers on the questionable correspondence between the scenario described in living wills versus the real-life circumstances that typically arise at the end of life.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the strength of association between responses to a standard living will question and preferences for treatments in six end-of-life scenarios.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

SETTING: Telephone interviews.

PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred two community-dwelling men and women 70 years of age or older in the greater Philadelphia area.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Strength of preferences for ...


Methodological Considerations For Treatment Trials For Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder, Mary C. Zanarini, Barbara Stanley, Donald W. Black, John C. Markowitz, Marianne Goodman, Paul Pilkonis, Thomas R. Lynch, Kenneth Levy, Peter Fonagy, Martin Bohus, Joan Farrell, Charles A. Sanislow 2010 Harvard Medical School

Methodological Considerations For Treatment Trials For Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder, Mary C. Zanarini, Barbara Stanley, Donald W. Black, John C. Markowitz, Marianne Goodman, Paul Pilkonis, Thomas R. Lynch, Kenneth Levy, Peter Fonagy, Martin Bohus, Joan Farrell, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

BACKGROUND: The National Institute of Mental Health convened an international group of experts to examine the conduct of treatment trials for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The rapid growth of treatment research had led to the recognition that investigators face unique methodological issues with these challenging patients.

METHODS: Conference members reviewed critical aspects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy trial design for patients with BPD.

RESULTS: This article summarizes discussions held on March 17-18, 2005.

CONCLUSION: This paper addresses the most pressing issues in sample selection and trial design pertaining to BPD; issues that have bedeviled both investigators submitting applications and ...


State Effects Of Major Depression On The Assessment Of Personality And Personality Disorder, Leslie C. Morey, M. Tracie Shea, John C. Markowitz, Robert L. Stout, Christopher J. Hopwood, John G. Gunderson, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. McGlashan, Shirley Yen, Charles A. Sanislow, Andrew E. Skodol 2010 Texas A & M University - College Station

State Effects Of Major Depression On The Assessment Of Personality And Personality Disorder, Leslie C. Morey, M. Tracie Shea, John C. Markowitz, Robert L. Stout, Christopher J. Hopwood, John G. Gunderson, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Shirley Yen, Charles A. Sanislow, Andrew E. Skodol

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether personality disorders diagnosed during a depressive episode have long-term outcomes more typical of those of other patients with personality disorders or those of patients with noncomorbid major depression.

METHOD: The authors used 6-year outcome data collected from the multisite Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Diagnoses and personality measures gathered from the study cohort at the index assessment using interview and self-report methods were associated with symptomatic, functional, and personality measures at 6-year follow-up. Of 668 patients initially recruited to the CLPS, 522 were followed for 6 years. All participants had either a ...


Effects Of Perceived Fitness Level Of Exercise Partner On Intensity Of Exertion, Thomas G. Plante, Meghan Madden, Sonia Mann, Grace Lee 2010 Santa Clara University

Effects Of Perceived Fitness Level Of Exercise Partner On Intensity Of Exertion, Thomas G. Plante, Meghan Madden, Sonia Mann, Grace Lee

Psychology

Problem statement: Social comparison theory was used to examine if exercising with a research confederate posing as either high fit or low fit would increase the exertion in exercising. Approach: 91 college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Biking alone, biking with a high fit confederate, or biking with a low fit confederate. All participants were instructed to complete 20 min of exercise at 60-70% of their maximum target heart rate. Results: Results indicated that participants in the high fit condition exercised harder than those in the low fit condition. However, no mood differences emerged between conditions ...


Vasopressin Anatomy Of The Mouse Brain, Benjamin D. Rood 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Vasopressin Anatomy Of The Mouse Brain, Benjamin D. Rood

Open Access Dissertations

The nine amino acid peptide vasopressin acts as a neurohormone in the periphery and a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Historically, research on vasopressin neurons and their projections to the pituitary has helped lay the groundwork for our understanding of peptidergic neurotransmission. Currently, our research on central vasopressin projections is driving a revolution in our understanding of social behavior. Vasopressin affects a number of social behaviors from social memory to aggression to affiliative behavior, such as pair-bonding. Further, with the addition of more and more transgenic mouse models of disease states, anxiety and depression related disorders, and social ...


Author Guidelines For Reporting Scale Development And Validation Results In The Journal Of The Society For Social Work And Research, Peter Cabrera-Nguyen 2010 Washington University in St. Louis

Author Guidelines For Reporting Scale Development And Validation Results In The Journal Of The Society For Social Work And Research, Peter Cabrera-Nguyen

Elián P. Cabrera-Nguyen

In this invited article, Cabrera-Nguyen provides guidelines for reporting scale development and validation results. Authors' attention to these guidelines will help ensure the research reported in JSSWR is rigorous and of high quality. This article provides guidance for those using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition, the article provides helpful links to resources addressing structural equation modeling, multiple imputation for missing data, and a general resource for quantitative data analysis.


Introversion And Autism: A Conceptual Exploration Of The Placement Of Introversion On The Autism Spectrum, Jennifer Grimes 2010 University of Central Florida

Introversion And Autism: A Conceptual Exploration Of The Placement Of Introversion On The Autism Spectrum, Jennifer Grimes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019

The conceptualization of the personality construct of introversion has been problematic since the term's inception due to the complexity and seemingly self-contradictory nature of the collection of attributes of which it is comprised. To advance the understanding of introversion, I propose that it is a continuous segment of the non-clinical part of the autism spectrum, and that it is not the same as the inverse of extraversion. When introversion and autism are placed on the same continuum, the nature of the relationship of the traits becomes more apparent, and new possibilities are available for exploration of both autism and ...


Developing And Implementing The Massachusetts Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition Survivorship Summit, Stephenie C. Lemon, Marianne N. Prout, Junaidah B. Barnett, Maureen Sullivan Flynn 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Developing And Implementing The Massachusetts Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition Survivorship Summit, Stephenie C. Lemon, Marianne N. Prout, Junaidah B. Barnett, Maureen Sullivan Flynn

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications

Cancer survivors face numerous medical and psychosocial challenges, which the medical and public health systems are ill-equipped to deal with. In May 2008, the Massachusetts Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition conducted a Survivorship Summit to elicit input from cancer survivors and professionals on developing system-level action plans for cancer survivorship issues. We describe how health care and public health professionals can implement similar events. Our results suggest that a cancer survivorship summit can be a valuable tool for cancer coalitions and advocacy organizations in determining survivorship agendas and action plans.


The Effects Of Cumulative Risk Experience And Violence Exposure On Children's Prosocial Behaviors, Lauren Aaron 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The Effects Of Cumulative Risk Experience And Violence Exposure On Children's Prosocial Behaviors, Lauren Aaron

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Evidence Based Practices For Sensory Stimulation Seeking Impulsive Diagnosis, Sheena Gasner 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Evidence Based Practices For Sensory Stimulation Seeking Impulsive Diagnosis, Sheena Gasner

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The purpose of this project is to identify evidence based practices that can be used in the treatment of Sensory Stimulation Seeking Impulsive Disorder (430.0). Identification of these practices will more effectively meet the therapeutic needs of the children diagnosed with this disorder.


Lost In Translation?: An Essay On Law And Neuroscience, Stephen J. Morse 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Lost In Translation?: An Essay On Law And Neuroscience, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The rapid expansion in neuroscientific research fuelled by the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] has been accompanied by popular and scholarly commentary suggesting that neuroscience may substantially alter, and perhaps will even revolutionize, both law and morality. This essay, a contribution to, Law and Neuroscience (M. Freeman, Ed. 2011), will attempt to put such claims in perspective and to consider how properly to think about the relation between law and neuroscience. The overarching thesis is that neuroscience may indeed make some contributions to legal doctrine, practice and theory, but such contributions will be few and modest for the ...


Using A Structured Decision Making Protocol To Stratify Caseloads In The Child Support Program, Steven J. Golightly 2010 Walden University

Using A Structured Decision Making Protocol To Stratify Caseloads In The Child Support Program, Steven J. Golightly

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although structured decision making and risk assessment protocols have successfully been used in human service programs, little research has been done on their applicability in the child support program. In this study, problems identified with child support case management were examined, along with positive and negative attributes of various risk assessment tools utilized in other arenas. The overall research problem asserted that there are no structured decision making protocols in the child support program to support case assignment by enforcement difficulty. The primary research question asked whether or not a process stratified by risk and level of enforcement difficulty could ...


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