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Evaluating Selected Properties Of Underutilized Hardwood Species For Fabrication Of Cross-Laminated Timber Industrial Mats, Mercy Itunu Ogunruku 2023 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Selected Properties Of Underutilized Hardwood Species For Fabrication Of Cross-Laminated Timber Industrial Mats, Mercy Itunu Ogunruku

Theses and Dissertations

Softwood is more in demand than hardwood because it is used primarily in the US's largest wood-consuming industry, construction, resulting in increased importation of softwood annually to meet this demand. Hardwood, used for non-structural purposes like furniture and interior designs, is more abundant in US forests. However, some hardwood species are underutilized and undervalued. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has increased the demand for softwood.

A study evaluated the mechanical and physical properties of three underutilized hardwood species (321 yellow poplar, 393 sweetgum, and 262 red oak specimens) for CLT industrial mat manufacturing. The results showed that red oak had a higher …


Barriers To Use Of Cross-Laminated Timber In Maine, Shane R. O'Neill 2023 University of Maine

Barriers To Use Of Cross-Laminated Timber In Maine, Shane R. O'Neill

Forest Resources Faculty Scholarship

To increase understanding of both the adoption rate and in-state manufacturing of mass timber In Maine, the 131st Legislature and Governor Mills passed LD 881, a resolve directing a study of the barriers facing cross-laminated timber In Maine and provide recommendations to promote their use in construction. This study was developed in response to the resolve. The study engaged 108 unique participants to define available training, education, and experiences across the stakeholders throughout the building lifecycle process in the state.

From this information, the following five recommendations are proposed:

  1. Understand the policies and initiatives of other states to develop …


Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant

Doctoral Dissertations

Poplar (Populus sp.) is a promising biofuel feedstock due to advantageous features such as fast growth, the ability to grow on marginal land, and relatively low lignin content. However, there is tremendous variability associated with the composition of biomass. Understanding this variability, especially in lignin, is crucial to developing and implementing financially viable, integrated biorefineries. Although lignin is typically described as being comprised of three primary monolignols (syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyphenyl), it is a highly irregular biopolymer that can incorporate non-canonical monolignols. It is also connected by a variety of interunit linkages, adding to its complexity. Secondary cell wall …


Cellulose Nanocrystals/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Membranes For Air Dehydration With The Aim Of Energy-Use Reduction In Wood Kiln Drying, Nasim Alikhani 2023 University of Maine

Cellulose Nanocrystals/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Membranes For Air Dehydration With The Aim Of Energy-Use Reduction In Wood Kiln Drying, Nasim Alikhani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation project addressed the manufacture and evaluation of a small polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hollow fiber membrane system in the kiln drying of lumber in an attempt to explore air dehydration and reduced energy usage. Temperature and vacuum pressure exert the most pronounced influence on membrane efficiency. Under optimal conditions, the PDMS membrane module demonstrates a remarkable 66% efficiency in removing water vapor from a moist air stream. Based on the parameters of the lab system and its operational performance, a finite element model was developed to simulate its scaleup for a lab-scale lumber drying kiln to remove moisture from the …


Development Of Preservative-Treated Cross-Laminated Timber And Lignin-Reinforced Polyurethane-Adhesive For Glued Laminated Timber, Samuel Oluwafemi Ayanleye 2023 Mississippi State University

Development Of Preservative-Treated Cross-Laminated Timber And Lignin-Reinforced Polyurethane-Adhesive For Glued Laminated Timber, Samuel Oluwafemi Ayanleye

Theses and Dissertations

Interest in the use of mass timber in building and construction is growing worldwide, this is due to the structural integrity and reduced environmental footprint of timber-based structures. Concerns associated with the biological and environmental degradation of mass timber necessitate the development of adequate protection strategies to ensure the durability of these products. Preservative treatment is a proven technique that increases the durability and performance of wood in-service and can also be applied to large-sized timber panels such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). Therefore, this study focused on investigating the feasibility of treating prefabricated 3- and 5-layer CLT panels with Copper-azole …


Surface Modification Of Wood Using Nano-Sized Titania Particles Coated By Liquid-Precursor Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Ganesh Sedhain 2023 Mississippi State University

Surface Modification Of Wood Using Nano-Sized Titania Particles Coated By Liquid-Precursor Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Ganesh Sedhain

Theses and Dissertations

Wood is a renewable resource and versatile material used in tasks ranging from tools and furniture to advanced engineering structures. Although wood is light, mechanically robust, environmentally friendly, and abundant, some inherent properties of wood, such as degradation due to moisture and UV radiation from sunlight, are less desirable for extended service life and dimensional stability. In this dissertation, a novel surface modification of wood is explored by depositing nano-sized titania particles on wood veneers and cross-laminated timber (CLT) blocks by liquid-precursor flame spray pyrolysis to confer reversible wettability switching and enhanced durability to UV irradiation. The reaction between a …


Expanding The Market Of Biomaterials, Franklin Quin Jr. 2023 Mississippi State University

Expanding The Market Of Biomaterials, Franklin Quin Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

Biomaterials such as wood and bamboo are in high demand as a building material with the push for building with green technology. The wood product industry accounts for approximately 4% of the total U.S. manufacturing GDP (Gross Domestic Product), which is more than $100 billion. The industry supports over 752,000 full-time equivalent jobs, most of which are in rural areas where employment opportunities are limited. The estimated global market value of bamboo is estimated to be $60 billion annually. This research will explore the use of wood and bamboo in different end use products. The objectives of this research will …


Influence Of Biochar As A Soil Amendment On Soil Water Content And Wild Blueberry Physiology, Abigayl Novak 2023 University of Maine

Influence Of Biochar As A Soil Amendment On Soil Water Content And Wild Blueberry Physiology, Abigayl Novak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine wild (or lowbush) blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) continue to face challenges imposed by climate change. Reduced frequency of precipitation and increased drought conditions have negatively impacted this crop since it resides in sandy soils with limited retention of water and nutrients. The wild blueberry plants growing in water- and nutrient-poor sandy soils are likely to have poor resilience to drought, resulting in a decline in berry yield during drought years. Thus, there is an urgent need to find a drought management solution for wild blueberries. Compared with other drought management practices, such as irrigation systems, mulching, and adopting drought-resistant …


Air Pre-Heat System Optimization For Flash Dryers, Sophia Louden 2023 Western Michigan University

Air Pre-Heat System Optimization For Flash Dryers, Sophia Louden

Honors Theses

Primient, a leading producer of food and industrial ingredients made from plant-based, renewable sources is the industrial sponsor for this project. The company is currently using Plate & Frame Heat exchangers to heat up a 40% by-weight glycol and water solution that is then used to preheat the incoming ambient air. Glycol is being added to reduce the risks of freezing in the system during the winter season. It is important to highlight that this fact affects the heat transfer properties of the liquid overall. Since air heating is a highly energy-demanding process, an outlet stream of hot water produced …


Producing Hardwood Cross - Laminated Timber (Hclt) Mats From Low Grade Red Oak Lumber, Jonathan R. Norris 2023 West Virginia University

Producing Hardwood Cross - Laminated Timber (Hclt) Mats From Low Grade Red Oak Lumber, Jonathan R. Norris

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) has significantly grown in North America, but hardwood species have not yet been deemed a viable material to manufacture CLT panels, whereas, softwood species continue to serve as the only approved material for CLT in structural applications according to ANSI/APA PRG-320. In order to introduce hardwoods into the CLT market, we must develop non-structural CLT products that utilize low grade lumber from hardwood species. This allows hardwood manufacturers to enter the CLT market without certification, while also displaying the strength and beauty of the hardwood resources found within this region.

Of the hardwood species …


Production, Best Management Practices, And Market Impacts Of Forest Biomass Harvest And Collection In The Mid-Atlantic Region, William E. Smith 2023 West Virginia University

Production, Best Management Practices, And Market Impacts Of Forest Biomass Harvest And Collection In The Mid-Atlantic Region, William E. Smith

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Time motion studies were conducted at five mid-Atlantic sites that spanned various operations in West Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The harvest systems included integrated harvests where chips were produced in the forest, roundwood systems where only roundwood was produced, and a centralized chipping system. The study collected overall productivity and machine utilization data at the various harvesting operations. The cost per green ton of woody biomass ranged from $18.46 to $39.8 resulting in an average of $30.33 among the five systems. Hauling had the highest average price per green ton at $9.10, while loading had the lowest at $1.73 per …


Evaluation Of Low-Grade Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) And Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) As A Raw-Material For Cross-Laminated Timber Panel Production, Matthew Allen Young 2023 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of Low-Grade Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) And Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) As A Raw-Material For Cross-Laminated Timber Panel Production, Matthew Allen Young

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Hardwoods in the Appalachian region are traditionally destined for use in furniture, cabinetry, pallets, and railroad ties. The expanding market for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is an opportunity for increased utilization of low-quality hardwoods typically used in pallets or equipment mats. Large quantities of low-grade red oak (Quercus rubra) and red maple (Acer rubrum) to be used in CLTs would provide sufficient lumber sources that could foster the growth of CLT manufacturing facilities in the state of West Virginia or Appalachia all together. The objective of this study was to determine the yield distribution of visual structural grade quality lumber …


Assessing Wood Failure In Plywood By Deep Learning/Semantic Segmentation, Ramon Ferreira Oliveira 2022 Mississippi State University

Assessing Wood Failure In Plywood By Deep Learning/Semantic Segmentation, Ramon Ferreira Oliveira

Theses and Dissertations

The current method for estimating wood failure is highly subjective. Various techniques have been proposed to improve the current protocol, but none have succeeded. This research aims to use deep learning/semantic segmentation using SegNet architecture to estimate wood failure in four types of three-ply plywood from mechanical shear strength specimens. We trained and tested our approach on custom and commercial plywood with bio-based and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Shear specimens were prepared and tested. Photographs of 255 shear bonded areas were taken. Forty photographs were used to solicit visual estimates from five human evaluators, and the remaining photographs were used to train …


Out Of The Wood: Sojurn Cyclery, Jay H. Kinsinger 2022 Cedarville University

Out Of The Wood: Sojurn Cyclery, Jay H. Kinsinger

Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Contributions to the Popular Press

No abstract provided.


Contact Dewatering Of Cellulose Nanofibers For Biopolymer Composite Applications, Alexander Collins 2022 University of Maine

Contact Dewatering Of Cellulose Nanofibers For Biopolymer Composite Applications, Alexander Collins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNFs) are promising materials for reinforcement of polymer matrices attributable to their impressive physical and mechanical properties, as well as their biodegradability. However, the utilization of these materials in composites is made challenging by the water content of CNF slurries, the tendency of CNFs to agglomerate as they dry, and incompatibility between hydrophilic CNFs and hydrophobic polymer matrices. The most commercially viable drying methods to produce small-scale dry CNFs, such as spray drying, are very energy intensive, can only dry the materials down to micron-scale agglomerates, and do not preserve fibrillar aspect ratios. “Contact dewatering,” or the removal …


Nondestructive Assessment Of Flexural And Tensile Properties For Southern Pine Structural Lumber, Marly Gabriela Carmona Uzcategui 2022 Mississippi State University

Nondestructive Assessment Of Flexural And Tensile Properties For Southern Pine Structural Lumber, Marly Gabriela Carmona Uzcategui

Theses and Dissertations

The flexural and tensile properties of visually graded southern yellow pine lumber were modeled. Longitudinal and transverse vibration techniques and proof-loading bending tests were used to assess the flexural and tensile properties of southern pine lumber. The properties evaluated were dynamic modulus of elasticity (dMOE), static modulus of elasticity (Eb), tension modulus of elasticity (Et), and ultimate tensile stress (UTS). The tensile properties were evaluated in the direction parallel to the grain. This study presents the results of tests conducted on No. 2 2 × 6 and 2 × 10 southern pine lumber of two different …


Improvement Value Of Forest Resources By Use Of Cottonseed Protein Meal As A Bio-Based Wood Adhesive For Hardwood Plywood Products, Edward David Entsminger 2022 Mississippi State University

Improvement Value Of Forest Resources By Use Of Cottonseed Protein Meal As A Bio-Based Wood Adhesive For Hardwood Plywood Products, Edward David Entsminger

Theses and Dissertations

Literature shows that production of cottonseed adhesives is feasible to develop an environmentally friendly and competitive bio-based wood adhesive. Defatted cottonseed and water-washed cottonseed meals were prepared from glandless cottonseed and were used in adhesive formulations to produce three-ply yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) plywood panels as the first objective. These two cottonseed meals were compared with the properties of plywood panels made with an adhesive formulated from a commercial soybean meal, as a control. Adhesive resins were prepared from each protein meal with sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) and one of two polyamido-amine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) wet strength agents, and the plywood panels were …


Evaluation Of Flood Damage On Cross Laminated Timber Wall Configurations, Mustafa Nezih Kaya 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluation Of Flood Damage On Cross Laminated Timber Wall Configurations, Mustafa Nezih Kaya

Theses and Dissertations

Greenhouse gas emissions are one of the critical factors that affect climate change, increasing flooding risk and threatening human life. The use of traditional construction materials is responsible for a higher percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the use of sustainable materials in the construction industry. The substitution of current building materials with sustainable materials is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and positively influence climate change when the current construction demand in the world is considered. Wood is one of the primary environmentally friendly construction materials in regard to high carbon storage and low carbon emissions. …


Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Embodied Carbon And Operational Energy Of Different Building Systems, Marilia Hellmeister 2022 University of Maine

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Embodied Carbon And Operational Energy Of Different Building Systems, Marilia Hellmeister

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to human activity, the levels of carbon emissions found in the atmosphere have reached its highest concentration and therefore it is necessary to find solutions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to a more sustainable pattern of development. The substitution of fossil fuel-dependent materials with renewable materials which exhibit lower embodied carbon is an option to be considered in the design phase of a building. Engineered wood product innovations over the past twenty years, coupled with design innovation and building code modifications have demonstrated their viability in multi-story construction (18 stories). The goals of this project are to 1) estimate …


Attitudes And Perceptions Of College Students And Recent College Graduates Towards Forestry And Wood Products Science Fields, Amanda Peres Vieira Bedette 2022 Mississippi State University

Attitudes And Perceptions Of College Students And Recent College Graduates Towards Forestry And Wood Products Science Fields, Amanda Peres Vieira Bedette

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past few decades, university level US Forestry and Wood Science and Technology programs have faced declining enrollment. As a result, the seeming disinterest of younger generations has impacted employment in these sectors. In an attempt to bridge the communication gap among colleges/industries, this study was created to attract the interest and maintain the enthusiasm of new generations of professionals and currently enrolled college students in the United States. In September 2021, an online survey was created and distributed to over 1500 alumni and students and received 1,495 usable surveys. Analysis performed on the resultant data included descriptive statistics …


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