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Articles 1 - 30 of 13793

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat May 2022

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke May 2022

Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni May 2022

Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni

MODVIS Workshop

We report on preliminary results of an anatomically-inspired deep learning model of the visual system and its role in explaining the face inversion effect. Contrary to the generally accepted wisdom, our hypothesis is that the face inversion effect can be accounted for by the representation in V1 combined with the reliance on the configuration of features due to face expertise. We take two features of the primate visual system into account: 1) The foveated retina; and 2) The log-polar mapping from retina to V1. We simulate acquisition of faces, etc., by gradually increasing the number of identities the network learns ...


“Mecca For The Colored People”: Reexamining The Demolition Of Pittsburgh’S Lower Hill District, Avishek Acharya May 2022

“Mecca For The Colored People”: Reexamining The Demolition Of Pittsburgh’S Lower Hill District, Avishek Acharya

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

The Hill District of Pittsburgh is a neighborhood of national importance, having hosted jazz legends, nationally renowned newspapers, and artists. However, the Hill of today is much smaller than it has ever been; the destruction of the Lower Hill effectively separated the neighborhood from not only another part of the previously collectively one singular neighborhood but separated the neighborhood and its residents from the economic hubs in both down and uptown. The wholesale destruction of the Lower Hill District can be attributed to both the national trend of “urban renewal,” a series of misguided, often explicitly racist attempts to undo ...


Analysis Of Follow-Up Times For Families Discharged From Opioid Addiction Treatment Facilities, Abigail Reith, Carley Reith, Lindsay Moskal, Rachael Neilan May 2022

Analysis Of Follow-Up Times For Families Discharged From Opioid Addiction Treatment Facilities, Abigail Reith, Carley Reith, Lindsay Moskal, Rachael Neilan

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Caregivers who receive treatment for opioid addiction often face adverse post-discharge incidents involving Children, Youth, and Family (CYF) services. These incidents can be traumatic for the children involved, potentially leading to the removal of a child from their home. Nonprofit social service organizations like Auberle aim to minimize these adverse events by implementing frequent follow-ups with discharged caregivers and their families.

We collaborated with Auberle social services (Pittsburgh, PA) and the Allegheny County Department of Human Services (DHS) to evaluate the effectiveness of standard follow-up times (7, 30, and 90 days post-discharge) in preventing CYF incident and to determine if ...


Feature Tracking And Geometrical Priors Counteract Illusory Non-Rigidities From Outputs Of Motion-Energy Cells, Akihito Maruya, Qasim Zaidi May 2022

Feature Tracking And Geometrical Priors Counteract Illusory Non-Rigidities From Outputs Of Motion-Energy Cells, Akihito Maruya, Qasim Zaidi

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Perceived Object Motion Variance Across Optical Contexts, Jan Jaap R. Van Assen, Mitchell J.P. Van Zuijlen, Shin'ya Nishida May 2022

Perceived Object Motion Variance Across Optical Contexts, Jan Jaap R. Van Assen, Mitchell J.P. Van Zuijlen, Shin'ya Nishida

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Monocular 3d Reconstruction Of Polyhedral Shapes Via Neural Network, Mark Beers, Zygmunt Pizlo May 2022

Monocular 3d Reconstruction Of Polyhedral Shapes Via Neural Network, Mark Beers, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modeling The Impacts Of Inter-Display And Inter-Lens Separation On Perceived Slant In Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays, Jonathan Tong, Laurie M. Wilcox, Robert S. Allison May 2022

Modeling The Impacts Of Inter-Display And Inter-Lens Separation On Perceived Slant In Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays, Jonathan Tong, Laurie M. Wilcox, Robert S. Allison

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd May 2022

Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens May 2022

Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno May 2022

Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno

MODVIS Workshop

We concluded in our previous study that model cortical visual pathways actively retained information differently according to the different goals of the training tasks. One limitation of our study was that there was only one object in each input image whereas in reality there may be multiple objects in a scene. In our current study, we try to find a brain-like algorithm that can recognize and localize multiple objects.


Modeling Perceptual Grouping Strategies In Visual Search Tasks, Maria Kon, Gregory Francis May 2022

Modeling Perceptual Grouping Strategies In Visual Search Tasks, Maria Kon, Gregory Francis

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Impact Of Inequality On Political Activity And Class Consciousness, Matthew Prouty May 2022

Assessing The Impact Of Inequality On Political Activity And Class Consciousness, Matthew Prouty

Thinking Matters Symposium

Since 1980, the United States has experienced stagnating wages, higher levels of inequality, and intensifying political polarization. Despite this, U.S. domestic economic policy has not undergone the fundamental transformation needed to combat these systemic challenges. Why have these policies remained in place when they have a negative impact on the aggregate working class, and why has the working class not used American Democracy to change these policies? Could it be that the rising inequality has led to reduced political engagement with the remaining voters being more devout participants to their ideology than effective policy? Although there is an abundance ...


Spending On Public Benefit Programs And Exposure To Adverse Childhood Experiences, Megan Collins May 2022

Spending On Public Benefit Programs And Exposure To Adverse Childhood Experiences, Megan Collins

Research Days

Watch recording of live presentation.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been shown to be associated with poor health outcomes, and children living in poverty are more likely to experience ACEs. Our objective was to estimate the association between spending on benefit programs and cumulative exposure to ACEs among children.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined state and federal spending, at the state-level, on 5 categories of public benefit programs: cash, housing, and in-kind assistance; housing infrastructure; childcare assistance; refundable Earned Income Tax Credit; and Medical Assistance Programs (e.g., Medicaid). The primary exposure was median annual spending per person living ...


Farmworker Voices: Contesting & Renegotiating Essential Status During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Jennifer Martinez May 2022

Farmworker Voices: Contesting & Renegotiating Essential Status During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Jennifer Martinez

Student Research Symposium

This study draws on a subset of thirty individuals that took part in the community-driven Oregon COVID-19 Farmworker Study to analyze how farmworkers interpreted the contradictory label essential worker. Using discourse analysis, this article examines how these peasant workers drew on their embodied experiences working throughout the pandemic to give meaning to their essential designation. The data suggest that farmworkers were tacitly aware of the contradictions between their labeling as indispensable and their disposable treatment on the ground. Farmworkers generally felt unrecognized, underpaid, and felt exposed to COVID-19 infection in addition to everyday workplace hazards. While the essential title was ...


Hemp-Lime Insulation: A Climate Friendly Building Material, Ginger Rose Jensen May 2022

Hemp-Lime Insulation: A Climate Friendly Building Material, Ginger Rose Jensen

Student Research Symposium

It is critical to reduce greenhouse gas from the atmosphere to reduce the impacts of climate change. Oregon’s Climate Action Plan has established goals to reduce emissions by developing ‘Clean Buildings’ and increasing the CO2 sequestered by the state's ‘Natural and Working Lands’. Carbon negative construction materials like hemp-lime insulation could contribute to both goals.

Hemp-lime is a non-structural insulation material made from crushed hemp hurd, a lime-based binder, and water. It is non-toxic and versatile alternative to traditional insulation materials. Hemp-lime was submitted to be added to the International Residential Codes (IRC) index in 2022. IRC ...


Mental Health In Student Leadership: Perceptions Of Ability, Rose M. Jardine May 2022

Mental Health In Student Leadership: Perceptions Of Ability, Rose M. Jardine

Student Research Symposium

This proposal aims to evaluate the relationship between perceptions of mental health and leadership ability among student leaders in university communities.

Over fifty participants, including faculty and students, from Oregon universities and community colleges are expected to contribute to this study. Participants will answer a survey and be randomly assigned to one of four situations describing a student leader’s disclosure or non-disclosure, both with and without Bipolar 1 Disorder. Bipolar 1 Disorder was chosen for this study based on its intermittence, varying severity, higher associated stigma, and symptomatology that can include externally perceived increased productivity. They will respond to ...


Understanding Work And Sleep Through A Machine Learning Approach, Jennifer Saucedo May 2022

Understanding Work And Sleep Through A Machine Learning Approach, Jennifer Saucedo

Student Research Symposium

The present study will utilize machine learning methods to find the individual factors (e.g, demographic, lifestyle, contextual, work-related) best predict sleep. I will examine (1) whether machine learning techniques better predict sleep over linear prediction methods and (2) what factors are most important when predicting sleep. Using government-funded data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), a variety of prediction methods will be utilized to evaluate and compare predictive performance across 2018, 2019, and 2020. Results found will have a variety of theoretical and practical implications for scientists and practitioners.


Daily Work, Nonwork, And Stress Experiences Of Students, Erika A. Schemmel, Tori L. Crain, Rachel G. Lucas-Thompson May 2022

Daily Work, Nonwork, And Stress Experiences Of Students, Erika A. Schemmel, Tori L. Crain, Rachel G. Lucas-Thompson

Student Research Symposium

A substantial body of literature exists that examines work, nonwork, and stress in employed adults. Less is known about experiences of stress in adolescents and emerging adults. The goal of the present study is to examine the association between daily activities and next day stress within a sample of students. We propose that students use their personal resources to meet school demands, and then need to replenish those resources, or stress may ensure. One aim of this study is to examine the relationship of hours of exercise and sleep with students’ reports of stress the next day. Additionally, many students ...


Case Study In Activist Applied Linguistics: Working With The Oregon Judicial Department For The Accessibility Of Domestic Relations Information, Amandalyn R. Wayland, Jamal R. Ford, Abbee A. Mortensen May 2022

Case Study In Activist Applied Linguistics: Working With The Oregon Judicial Department For The Accessibility Of Domestic Relations Information, Amandalyn R. Wayland, Jamal R. Ford, Abbee A. Mortensen

Student Research Symposium

How are students of applied linguistics able to contribute to community efforts in increasing access to justice? Activist applied linguistics (AAL) (Cowal & Leung, 2021) is defined as utilizing applied linguistics in coordination with community partners to address wicked problems (Rittel & Webber, 1973). AAL provides a framework for engaging university students with communities outside of their campus and has been utilized to further work in water justice (Haeffner & Cowal, 2019) and to increase the Oregon State Bar website’s comprehensibility (Anesa, Cowal, & Pulju, 2022). In this poster, we present an AAL case study in which students of applied linguistics partner with ...


The Effects Of Approach And Avoidance Dispositions And Sense Of Power On Promotive And Prohibitive Voice Efficacy, Christopher J. Waterbury, Avery N. Waklatsi, Amy Pytlovany Ph.D. May 2022

The Effects Of Approach And Avoidance Dispositions And Sense Of Power On Promotive And Prohibitive Voice Efficacy, Christopher J. Waterbury, Avery N. Waklatsi, Amy Pytlovany Ph.D.

Student Research Symposium

Developments in research on promotive and prohibitive voice in workplaces have important implications for organizational innovation and prevention of unethical behavior. Drawing on theory that approach and avoidance dispositions predict promotive and prohibitive voice, and mediate the effect of a sense of powerfulness or powerlessness to predict voice or silence, the proposed study hypothesizes that approach and avoidance disposition will explain differential effects of personal sense of power on an employee’s perceived efficacy of promotive and prohibitive voice. 200 front-line restaurant workers will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive a (1) powerful prime, (2) powerless prime, or (3 ...


Third-Wave, Mindfulness-Based Therapies As Treatments For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Xander Kahle, Avery Waklatsi, Amy Pytlovany May 2022

Third-Wave, Mindfulness-Based Therapies As Treatments For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Xander Kahle, Avery Waklatsi, Amy Pytlovany

Student Research Symposium

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe, difficult-to-treat neuropsychiatric condition that affects millions of people throughout the world. The current first-line psychotherapy for OCD is exposure and response prevention (ERP). ERP is effective but flawed, and researchers seek alternative OCD treatments. We examined two third-wave, mindfulness-based therapies (1) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and (2) mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as treatments for OCD. We expected ACT/MBCT to have (1a) significantly higher OCD symptom reduction rates, (1b) higher treatment response rates, and (1c) lower dropout rates than a control (progressive relaxation training/PRT), as well as (2a) equal/higher OCD symptom ...


Reduce, Reuse And Deny: How Sustainability Is Judged By Consumers, Madison E. Hill May 2022

Reduce, Reuse And Deny: How Sustainability Is Judged By Consumers, Madison E. Hill

Student Research Symposium

This research was an analysis of a series of interviews regarding what factors are considered when deciding if a given product is environmentally friendly or not. Participants were asked to select between products or practices as the generally more sustainable option, and were asked to explain their reasoning for that decision. Participants were encouraged to describe their reasoning behind each choice, but it was noted when certain choices were more challenging than others. Products that green-wash effectively generate trust between consumers trying to ‘do their part’ and industries attempting to capitalize on each side of environmental crises. Most sustainable practices ...


Evaluation Of Oregon’S Food Waste Recovery And Reintegration Policy Adoption Through Civic Capacity, Jenna N. Stathopoulos May 2022

Evaluation Of Oregon’S Food Waste Recovery And Reintegration Policy Adoption Through Civic Capacity, Jenna N. Stathopoulos

Student Research Symposium

The US Food System is complex and multi-layered, containing many areas for improvement. My research focuses specifically on the issue area of food waste. On a global and national scale mitigating food waste can seem too large to manage. Containing complexity across multiple sectors and with extended timelines for improvements, it is indeed a wicked problem, a problem which in its complexity is almost impossible to fully distinguish or address with one (or even multiple) solutions. (Rittel, 1973). However, when we look to local, place-based solutions we can develop more realistic and actionable plans. The state of Oregon is equipped ...


Climate Model Skill At Simulating Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns And Associated Temperature And Precipitation Over The Pacific Northwest, Graham Taylor May 2022

Climate Model Skill At Simulating Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns And Associated Temperature And Precipitation Over The Pacific Northwest, Graham Taylor

Student Research Symposium

The ability of the latest state-of-the-art suite of climate models to simulate observed large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over the Pacific Northwest of North America is evaluated. Twelve representative patterns of atmospheric circulation are identified using machine learning applied to observational data. Climate model data from simulations of the historical period are mapped to each observational-derived pattern, and the resulting differences between patterns, as well as differences in frequency of pattern occurrence, are quantified. In general, models are able to simulate the range of circulation patterns with reasonable accuracy, although model skill varies to some degree across the 25-member climate model ...


A Mixed-Methods Examination Of Transgender Youth Desistence, Mirae J. Fornander May 2022

A Mixed-Methods Examination Of Transgender Youth Desistence, Mirae J. Fornander

Research Days

Watch recording of live presentation

Background: Access to gender-affirming medical care (GAMC) for transgender/gender diverse (TGD) individuals is one of the most pressing social justice issues of our time. Research has begun to identify the benefits of GAMC. However, little is known about the healthcare needs of TGD youth, especially those who discontinue GAMC. Available literature lacks clear and consistent terms to define TGD youth who stop care. Further, a significant criticism of current research is the assumption that discontinuing care is equivalent to detransitioning. There are no studies, to our knowledge, that differentiate between TGD youth who choose ...


Self-Reported Sexual Behavior In A Pediatric Gender Clinic Sample, Mirae J. Fornander May 2022

Self-Reported Sexual Behavior In A Pediatric Gender Clinic Sample, Mirae J. Fornander

Research Days

Watch recording of live presentation

Background: Previous studies of transgender/gender diverse (TGD) youth indicate differences in rates of sexual behaviors between TGD youth and their cisgender peers. However, few studies have reported the sexual behavior and preferences of TGD youth in a large clinic sample, and no studies, to our knowledge, have utilized questionnaires that do not assume the sex or gender of one’s sexual partner.

Objectives/Goal: The current study aims to explore the self-reported sexual behavior of TGD youth presenting for gender-affirming medical care.

Methods/Design: Retrospective chart review of 589 patients (ages 12-22, M= 15 ...


A Model For Equity In Arts Education For Youth In Greater Portland, Maine, Catherine Scheirer May 2022

A Model For Equity In Arts Education For Youth In Greater Portland, Maine, Catherine Scheirer

Thinking Matters Symposium

Time and time again, by providing an outlet that allows innate human creativity to roam free, participation in arts activities such as dance, music, theatre, and visual arts is proven to have significant positive impacts on participants, regardless of age, experience, or background. Even though the arts have been acknowledged as critical for mental, physical, and emotional health, especially for children and adolescents, research has found that providing arts education in an equitable and culturally appropriate way is fraught with barriers. In addition, certain areas of the arts have seen a downward trend in educational priority and availability. My project ...


Identifying The Support Women Entrepreneurs In Rural Maine Need From Each Other And Their Communities To Thrive, Lisa Luken May 2022

Identifying The Support Women Entrepreneurs In Rural Maine Need From Each Other And Their Communities To Thrive, Lisa Luken

Thinking Matters Symposium

Rural women entrepreneurs have the power to positively impact the sustainability of their communities, yet they are faced with internal and external challenges in their pursuits to grow successful businesses and create sustainable livelihoods. While a number of scholars in the past 10 years investigated these challenges and suggested some solutions, more research is needed to identify additional solutions, including those specifically relevant to rural Maine communities. This qualitative study explored the support women entrepreneurs in rural Maine need from each other and their communities to thrive. Data gathered through semi-structured interviews with eleven women entrepreneurs from rural Maine revealed ...