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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Dyadic And Ecological Associations With Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv): Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling To Differentiate Ipv From Community Crime, Rachel Carpenter Aug 2023

Dyadic And Ecological Associations With Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv): Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling To Differentiate Ipv From Community Crime, Rachel Carpenter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) has largely focused on individual and dyadic-level risk factors, but recently studies have explored how the surrounding environment is associated with IPV/IPSV. Studies that have explored community-level variables typically only use IPV/IPSV samples and do not first compare indicators of IPV/IPSV to those of general crime in those same communities. To address these gaps, this study was conducted in two parts. Data were retrieved from the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation Reporting System, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps System, the US Census Bureau, and other sources ...


Approaching Trans Healthcare Competency: The Implementation Of Trans Health Education For Medical Providers In Appalachia, Rebecca Altschuler May 2023

Approaching Trans Healthcare Competency: The Implementation Of Trans Health Education For Medical Providers In Appalachia, Rebecca Altschuler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Barriers to competent and safe healthcare disproportionately impact people who are marginalized because of their race, ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status. It is well documented that transgender patients in particular experience barriers to both accessing care and receiving high quality, non-discriminatory care (Hatzenbuehler & Pachankis, 2016; James et al., 2016; Rahman et al., 2019; Safer et al., 2016). This lack of access to culturally competent healthcare services contributes to health disparities that disproportionately impact the trans community. Literature on barriers to competent care for trans patients indicates that providers experience discomfort related to their ability to provide competent care (Safer et al., 2016 ...


The Conditional Effects Of Emotion Regulation On The Relationship Between Occupational Stress And Suicidal Behaviors In Veterinary Students, Sara Carroll Johnson Jan 2023

The Conditional Effects Of Emotion Regulation On The Relationship Between Occupational Stress And Suicidal Behaviors In Veterinary Students, Sara Carroll Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is an area of increasing concern in the field of veterinary medicine. As veterinary students prepare to enter the profession and take on the unique stressors associated with this line of work, there is a need for models that identify protective factors for suicidal behaviors. Specifically, research is needed to identify factors that offset the relationship between occupational stress and suicidal behaviors. To better inform interventions designed to prevent suicidal behaviors in veterinary students, emotion upregulation and downregulation strategies were evaluated as potential moderators in the relationship between occupational stress and suicidal behaviors in a sample of veterinary students ...


Silver Linings Playlist: Exploring The Effectiveness Of Music As An Emotion Regulation Tool, Caitlin Fountain Jan 2023

Silver Linings Playlist: Exploring The Effectiveness Of Music As An Emotion Regulation Tool, Caitlin Fountain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Music not only entertains listeners, but it also evokes emotions and facilitates emotion regulation (Gabrielsson, 2001; Krahe & Bienick, 2012). Specifically, music helps listeners to express their emotions and alter their mood through cognitive reappraisal (Chin & Rickard, 2014; Witvliet & Vrana, 2007). Listening to music also enhances relaxation and reduces physiological arousal after experiencing a stressful event (Yehuda, 2011). Stress often involves an influx of negative emotions, which when left unmitigated, may result in fewer positive emotions, increased depression, and maladaptive coping (Flynn & Rudolph, 2010; Lazenby et al., 2019). While music appears to be an effective stress management tool, less is known about how music impacts positive and negative emotions in the context of stressors. Thus, the current study examined the ability of different kinds of music interventions to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions after a stressful event. The study was conducted in two phases using undergraduate samples. Seven hundred and ninety-five students completed a music preferences questionnaire during Phase 1. During Phase 2, 63 ...


Effects Of Perpetrator And Victim Gender, Rape Myths, And Report Timing On Blame Attributions Following Sexual Assault, Katherine E. Kennon Jan 2023

Effects Of Perpetrator And Victim Gender, Rape Myths, And Report Timing On Blame Attributions Following Sexual Assault, Katherine E. Kennon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research examined the effects of victim gender, perpetrator gender, and rape myth acceptance on victim blaming attribution; however, fewer studies explore victim and perpetrator gender at the same time, and even fewer studies examined the relevance of factors like timing of reporting (immediate or delayed) or rurality. The primary purpose of the study, therefore, was to explore the effect of victim gender, perpetrator gender, and report timing (same day vs. six months later) on victim blaming attributions. The study also examined the role of rape myth acceptance on victim blame and compared levels of rape myth acceptance across participant ...


The Strong Families Program: Utility Of Telehealth Parenting Skills Psychoeducation, Grace C. Prosperi Jan 2023

The Strong Families Program: Utility Of Telehealth Parenting Skills Psychoeducation, Grace C. Prosperi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Externalizing behaviors in children are a common problem experienced by many parents. If untreated, externalizing behaviors are associated with more serious consequences (Hann, 2012). Parents of children with behavior issues also report higher levels of stress (Dumas et al., 2009). Parenting stress is related to lower life satisfaction for parents and increased negative outcomes for children living in the home. Parent training programs, incorporating attachment building and discipline strategies, combat childhood externalizing behaviors in clinical settings. While reducing childhood externalizing behaviors is the main aim of parent training, there are other benefits to gaining parenting skills such as increased familial ...


The Lived Experiences Of Introverts And Their Extracurricular Involvement In A Four-Year University Environment, Maigan Wipfli May 2022

The Lived Experiences Of Introverts And Their Extracurricular Involvement In A Four-Year University Environment, Maigan Wipfli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of introverts who were involved in two or more passive or active extracurricular involvement opportunities during their undergraduate experience at a four-year college or university. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted via Zoom video conferencing with self-identified introverts who attended public, four-year universities in the South, West, and Midwest regions of the United States. Participants represented both medium and large institutions. The analysis of the data indicated common themes from the participants including personality traits and common misconceptions of introversion, cultural focus of extraversion, personal and professional development, opportunities granted, and individual preferences ...


Operatic Mysticisms: Mountains, Deserts, Waterscapes, Andrew Demczuk May 2022

Operatic Mysticisms: Mountains, Deserts, Waterscapes, Andrew Demczuk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Operatic Mysticisms: Mountains, Deserts, Waterscapes examines the ways we encounter environments as readers/viewers of operas, literature, film, and sound recordings, and how each medium requires different detail-gathering techniques. Respective to the previously mentioned mediums, Sun & Sea (2017), Mount Analogue (1952), El Mar La Mar (2017), and Energy Field (2010) are analyzed by engaging with environmental media studies and invention. Reflecting the nature of each landscape—summits of mountains, aporias of deserts, and mysteries of waterscapes—an elemental approach is taken in investigating how these spaces may be noticed, internalized, recorded, and traversed by both the artist and viewer. With ...


The Influence Of Fraternity And Sorority Characteristics On Alcohol Exposure: Who Is At Risk?, Sydney Shupe May 2022

The Influence Of Fraternity And Sorority Characteristics On Alcohol Exposure: Who Is At Risk?, Sydney Shupe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fraternity and sorority membership has been among the highest contributing factors linked to increased exposure to alcohol consumption among college students. Many have argued that this association persists as a result of the drinking sub-culture among Greek organizations, and report that finding effective methods to minimize alcohol consumption among college students is critical. Using self-reported data from fraternity and sorority members at East Tennessee State University (n=107) the link between observed alcohol consumption and demographic characteristics of the individual Greek member and the Greek organization was examined through a quantitative lens. It was hypothesized that the demographic characteristics of ...


Gratitude, Spirituality, And Attachment To God, Jessica Guajardo May 2022

Gratitude, Spirituality, And Attachment To God, Jessica Guajardo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aspects of positive psychology, such as gratitude, have been widely studied to show improvements in one’s overall perception of their well-being. Similarly, religion/spirituality is a common avenue that is sought to find peace and comfort during difficult circumstances in the hope of increasing their subjective well-being and perceived meaning in life. This study seeks to explore if gratitude to God could affect one’s spiritual well-being in a similar fashion to how gratitude may improve other aspects of an individual’s well-being. Particularly, this study explores if divine gratitude mediates the relationship between spiritual well-being and attachment to ...


Digital Manipulation Of Human Faces: Effects On Emotional Perception And Brain Activity, Martin Knoll May 2022

Digital Manipulation Of Human Faces: Effects On Emotional Perception And Brain Activity, Martin Knoll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The study of human face-processing has granted insight into key adaptions across various social and biological functions. However, there is an overall lack of consistency regarding digital alteration styles of human-face stimuli. In order to investigate this, two independent studies were conducted examining unique effects of image construction and presentation. In the first study, three primary forms of stimuli presentation styles (color, black and white, cutout) were used across iterations of non-thatcherized/thatcherized and non-inverted/inverted presentations. Outcome measures included subjective reactions measured via ratings of perceived “grotesqueness,” and objective outcomes of N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) measured via encephalography. Results ...


The Happiest Place On Earth: A Grounded Theory Of Fulfillment In Mixed-Orientation Marriages, Isadora Ferreira De Melo May 2022

The Happiest Place On Earth: A Grounded Theory Of Fulfillment In Mixed-Orientation Marriages, Isadora Ferreira De Melo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-orientation marriages (MOMs) are often misunderstood. There is a general cynicism in research literature and in the broader culture regarding the relational viability of same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals who marry someone of the opposite sex. However, there exist couples in MOMs that are resilient and attain satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to better understand how MOMs might become successful. By interviewing maritally satisfied mixed-orientation couples, the Model of Relational Self- Determination in Mixed-Orientation Marriages was developed. This model is separated into five stages that are organized around the experience of disclosure of the SSA spouse’s sexuality. Depending ...


The Relationship Of Minority Stress With The Mental Health Of Lgbtq College Students On A Christian Campus With Non-Affirming Policies, Ethan Nicholas Smetana May 2022

The Relationship Of Minority Stress With The Mental Health Of Lgbtq College Students On A Christian Campus With Non-Affirming Policies, Ethan Nicholas Smetana

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One foundational concept of the Minority Stress Model (Meyer, 2003) is that the stress is based on persisting social processes and structures. Consequently, research to further the available pool of empirical evidence on how institutions based in the dominant culture affect minorities is needed and valuable. This study seeks to examine the effects of dimensions of minority stress on the mental health outcomes of LGBTQ students at a Christian university with a non-affirming school policy. Further, this study is interested in how gratitude affects the impact that minority stress has on mental health as a potential protective factor. Participants were ...


Communication Accommodation Of Surgeons With Student-Athletes, Emily Womble May 2022

Communication Accommodation Of Surgeons With Student-Athletes, Emily Womble

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Health communication is a topic that has been broadly researched for a while. It is an area that holds significance everyday due to the number of people involved and the number of people who rely on healthcare in general. Student-athletes sustain over a million injuries annually, over half of which required surgery (Corlette et al., 2015). However, the specific topic of communication between a surgeon and their studentathlete is one that is not studied much at all. Utilizing Communication Accommodation Theory as the theoretical framework, this study explored how surgeons currently use accommodation in their communication to their student-athletes. It ...


Caregiver-Child Conversations About Sex In African American Women, Hannah King May 2022

Caregiver-Child Conversations About Sex In African American Women, Hannah King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using grounded theory methods, this study examines the experience of African American women during their caregiver-child conversations about sex and the impacts of the conversations on their sexual attitudes. The process of these conversations begins with an unplanned topic and progresses further to identify six essential themes of these conversations: gender differences, race and religion, protective/emphasis on protection, lack of knowledge, withholding knowledge, and sex negativity/shame. African American women’s description of the process included feelings of shame and negativity towards their sexuality. Caregivers promoted positive messages about sex by having open conversations that advocated for equality between ...


Child Exit Types And Permanency Outcomes In Foster Care As Correlated To Casa Involvement, Grace Hill May 2022

Child Exit Types And Permanency Outcomes In Foster Care As Correlated To Casa Involvement, Grace Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to identify correlations between Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) activities and exit outcomes for children in foster care. Previous research on the impact of CASA has been inconclusive and offered mixed findings, so this study sought to build off of previous research while also exploring new areas of research that have not yet been investigated. Big Country CASA’s database, Optima, was utilized to retrieve data on cases that closed during the 2021 fiscal year (September 1, 2020, to August 31, 2021). This yielded a sample size of 75 cases. Through an analysis of these cases to ...


The Correlations Of Financial Exploitation On Senior Adults Over 65, Carmen Price May 2022

The Correlations Of Financial Exploitation On Senior Adults Over 65, Carmen Price

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the increase in people over the age of 65, the need for education about elder abuse and intervention in confirmed cases has become a priority for service providers, including social workers. The purpose of this study is to bring awareness to the different circumstances attributing to a senior adult over the age of 65 becoming a victim of elder abuse or financial exploitation. This exploratory descriptive study gathered data from the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services Open Data Portal and the 2020 U.S. Census Bureau. Various analyses were conducted to determine what may cause someone to ...


Retention Of First-Generation College Students: Exploring The Effect Of Mental Health, Yana Sue Hendricks May 2022

Retention Of First-Generation College Students: Exploring The Effect Of Mental Health, Yana Sue Hendricks

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The retention of First-Generation College Students is an issue faced across different universities in the United States. FGCS are faced with various challenges that impact their enrollment in post-secondary institutions and these challenges are presented as the factors that affect retention in this study. This study attempts to analyze the three factors that affect the retention of FGCS which are mental health, financial well-being, and social support. Drawing participants, from a post-secondary program run by the Workforce Solutions of West Central Texas who attend colleges in West Central Texas. This study used a cross-sectional survey design to collect and analyze ...


Adults With Disabilities: What Factors Create A Successful Transition From Higher Education To The Workforce?, Tiffany Elaine Brown May 2022

Adults With Disabilities: What Factors Create A Successful Transition From Higher Education To The Workforce?, Tiffany Elaine Brown

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with disabilities face difficulties in both higher education and the workforce. While it would seem that they would be equipped to deal with these difficulties, high levels of college dropouts as well as pay gaps and high levels of underemployment suggest otherwise. Although there are many studies on disabilities and its relationship to singular factors, there is a lack of empirical study on the holistic relationship between disabilities and multiple factors. The purpose of this study is to explore how environmental factors, individual-external factors, and individual-internal factors are related to a successful transition from higher education to the workforce ...


A Systematic Review Of Studies Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Horticultural Therapy For Increasing Well-Being And Decreasing Anxiety And Depression, Claudia Lasater May 2022

A Systematic Review Of Studies Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Horticultural Therapy For Increasing Well-Being And Decreasing Anxiety And Depression, Claudia Lasater

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study is a systematic review of published research on the effectiveness of horticultural therapy and related interventions in reducing stress. Since the beginning of time, the great outdoors has been humanity’s source of thriving on earth. However, as industrialization, urbanization, technological, and digital advances continue to expand, human life has changed, resulting in many negative outcomes, such as mental health concerns related to stress and lack of outside engagement. The mental health and related health concerns in previous studies show to be depression, rumination, anxiety, mood and salivary cortisol, anger, general health, existential issues, and many more all ...


The Impact Of Intensive Advising Within Trio Student Support Services On Good Academic Standing And Student Perception: An Explorative Study, Mariesha Shaw May 2022

The Impact Of Intensive Advising Within Trio Student Support Services On Good Academic Standing And Student Perception: An Explorative Study, Mariesha Shaw

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Challenges in bachelor’s degree attainment for disadvantaged students (e.g., low income, first generation and disabled) within higher education is a social problem. TRiO SSS, a federal program, has been implemented at a private university in Texas to meet the needs of disadvantaged students and positively influence good academic standing, which would lead to higher bachelor’s degree attainment. Intensive advising, which is holistic meetings conducted with participants to meet academic and personal needs, is one intervention utilized in the TRiO SSS program. The purpose of this study is to assess the role and influence of intensive advising by ...


Spiritual Fortitude, Spiritual Struggles, Attachment To God And Faith Maturity: An Exploratory Study, Jacob Kranendonk Apr 2022

Spiritual Fortitude, Spiritual Struggles, Attachment To God And Faith Maturity: An Exploratory Study, Jacob Kranendonk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spiritual fortitude is a relatively new construct in psychological research with promising insights for helping individuals navigate challenges throughout life. This study aims to explore spiritual fortitude and its relationship to other religious variables, namely religious/spiritual struggles, attachment to God, and faith maturity. Additionally, I explored spiritual fortitude as a moderator of attachment to God and religious/spiritual struggles. Results indicated a positive correlation between spiritual fortitude and faith maturity, as well as spiritual fortitude moderating the relationship between attachment to God and religious/spiritual struggles. I discuss implications of the findings as well as future directions for research.


Perceptions Of Race, Status, And Instructional Modality As Predictors Of Degree Attainment For African American Male Community College Students, Roderick C. Lewis Sr. Apr 2022

Perceptions Of Race, Status, And Instructional Modality As Predictors Of Degree Attainment For African American Male Community College Students, Roderick C. Lewis Sr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Given the large number of students who begin their college education yet never graduate, it is essential that, as higher education leaders and policymakers develop student success strategies, they consider the persistence and degree attainment dynamics of all populations. This study focuses on the problem of degree attainment from the perspective of male, second-year, African American, community college students. A qualitative narrative case study approach was used to ascertain their perception of race, status attainment, and instructional learning modalities as predictors of degree attainment. Accordingly, those perceptions were then evaluated to determine their utility as predictors of degree attainment. Six ...


The Impact Of Disruptive Physician Behavior On Support Staff And Patients: A Quantitative Secondary Analysis, Michael C. Marino Mar 2022

The Impact Of Disruptive Physician Behavior On Support Staff And Patients: A Quantitative Secondary Analysis, Michael C. Marino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this quantitative secondary analysis, the purpose was to examine the nature of disruptive physician behavior (DPB) from the support staff and patient perspectives. Healthcare staffing shortages existed prior to the global pandemic and have increased, creating importance for employee retention and recruitment. I wanted to understand the impact of physician behavior on staff turnover rates in a private oncology practice, its effect on patient satisfaction rates, and to compare these rates of physicians that display DPB with physicians that do not display this behavior in a private hematology oncology community outpatient setting in the Southwest United States. To answer ...


Examining The Utility Of Hope Interventions To Mitigate The Effect Of Discrimination On Distress In African Americans, Sunia H. Choudhury Jan 2022

Examining The Utility Of Hope Interventions To Mitigate The Effect Of Discrimination On Distress In African Americans, Sunia H. Choudhury

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hope is a positive psychology resource that utilizes one’s perceptions of strengths to create clear goals, produce multiple pathways to reach goals, overcome barriers, and generate the energy needed to pursue goals by increasing positive affect and satisfaction, while reducing negative problem orientations (Magyar-Moe, 2014). Hope interventions also significantly reduce psychological distress (Rustøen, Cooper, & Miaskowski, 2011). Discrimination is a significant barrier to quality of life for African Americans (Bilkins, Allen, Davey, & Davey, 2016). Discriminatory experiences increase levels of distress (Brown, et al., 2000). However, it is unknown if hope interventions can protect African Americans against distress caused by microaggressions ...


The Role Of Motivation In Community Partner Perceptions Of Service-Learning, Jayda P. Felder Jan 2022

The Role Of Motivation In Community Partner Perceptions Of Service-Learning, Jayda P. Felder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current study sought to determine how community partners’ varying motivations for participating in collegiate service-learning programs relates to their perceptions of service-learning. Prior research has demonstrated a plethora of positive outcomes for students who partake in courses with service-learning requirements, but research investigating the outcomes for the organizations that host these students is less common, and research investigating the link between their motives and perceptions is nonexistent. Based on this gap in the literature, the quantitative, evidence-based Perceptions of Service-Learning Scale was developed for the current study to assess how community partners perceive their experiences with service-learning across four ...


Capitalizing On Stress: Improving Affect And Self-Efficacy Through An Arousal Reappraisal Intervention, Angel Long Jan 2022

Capitalizing On Stress: Improving Affect And Self-Efficacy Through An Arousal Reappraisal Intervention, Angel Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stress is a non-specific reaction to the body (Jamieson et al., 2018), defined as a feeling of tension when one’s personal resources are taxed or exceeded (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). Coping mechanisms for stress often focus on reducing associated features (Connor-Smith & Flachsbart, 2007). However, stress can produce challenge states, mindsets where individuals perceive personal resources as greater than situational demands (Jamieson et al., 2013). Challenge states are more likely to elicit positive behavior (Jamieson et al., 2018) and improved cognitive performance (Jamieson et al., 2010). One prospective mechanism to foster challenge states is arousal reappraisal, a cognitive mechanism that encourages individuals to view elevated physiological arousal as a positive resource (Moore et al., 2015). The current study examined the effects of a stress arousal reappraisal intervention on self-efficacy and different dimensions of affect during a stressful task in hopes to gain knowledge about how to improve well-being, optimal functioning and subjective happiness during the course of stress (Delegach & Katz-Navon, 2020; Li et al., 2019). The overarching purpose was to fill gaps within the stress and well-being literature, examining the following questions. Forty-nine undergraduate students participated in the study, and valid data were collected from 40 individuals. All participants underwent stress induction. Participants were then randomly assigned to an intervention task (arousal reappraisal vs. control). Participants in each condition completed a speech-task. Participants completed measurements during baseline (Time 1), post stress induction (Time ...


Factors Associated With Intention To Disclose Concussive Symptoms In Active Duty Soldiers, Carly Beck Jan 2022

Factors Associated With Intention To Disclose Concussive Symptoms In Active Duty Soldiers, Carly Beck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Concussion disclosure is a heavily researched topic, and while previous literature has explored predictors of concussion disclosure in numerous populations, research within the active duty Soldier population is limited. This study further explored predictors of concussion disclosure to a medical professional or leadership in the active duty Solider population through the lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to 181 active duty Soldiers. Descriptive statistics were used to report frequency of high intention to disclose concussive symptoms among demographics, and a multivariate regression model was used to assess significant predictors of intention ...


Does Insufficient Effort Responding Account For The Relationship Between Psychopathy And Social Desirability?, Logan F. Folger Jan 2022

Does Insufficient Effort Responding Account For The Relationship Between Psychopathy And Social Desirability?, Logan F. Folger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the relationship between self-report psychopathy and social desirability and whether insufficient effort responding may impact this relationship. It was hypothesized that insufficient effort responding is biasing the relationship. Therefore, the significant negative relationship between psychopathy and social desirability may approach zero after isolating insufficient effort responding data. Two studies were conducted to aid this investigation. The first study utilized the Monte Carlo method to simulate this relationship. The simulation had 1,000 trials using 1,000 participants with proportions of valid respondents ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 with increments of 0.1. The results showed ...


The Perspective Of Riverkeepers And Environmental Groups On Poor Water Quality In Georgia, Jacob A. Crawford Jan 2022

The Perspective Of Riverkeepers And Environmental Groups On Poor Water Quality In Georgia, Jacob A. Crawford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Riverkeepers and environmental groups currently face the complex task of defending watersheds. In Georgia, these efforts are complicated by the vast geographical and racial diversity within the state. This study examined the riverkeepers and environmental groups need to improve advocacy abilities to defend communities they serve from poor water quality, what communities in Georgia are being impacted by poor water quality, what disconnects exist between riverkeepers, environmental groups, and governmental agencies, and how COVID-19 has challenged the riverkeepers and environmental groups. Using qualitative interviews with eleven riverkeepers and environmentalists, the findings suggest that collaboration with riverkeepers, enforcement of current policy ...