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Articles 1 - 30 of 6016

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Harm Reduction In Psychotherapy, Jillian Cramer Apr 2024

Harm Reduction In Psychotherapy, Jillian Cramer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With approximately 22 people dying due to opiate-related harms everyday in Canada (Government of Canada, 2023), there is a great need to offer low-barrier, evidence-based services for people who use substances across various disciplines, including healthcare, social services, and psychotherapy. This qualitative study examined the experiences of Canadian social justice-informed counsellors who work with clients who use substances from harm reduction frameworks of care. Seven counsellors were interviewed on their personal experiences implementing harm reduction in psychotherapy. Through a reflexive thematic analysis, five themes surfaced: axiology of harm reduction work, development of therapist surrounding harm reduction, main focuses of harm …


Fostering Friendship And Acceptance In An Inclusive Summer Day Camp, Emily Villani Apr 2024

Fostering Friendship And Acceptance In An Inclusive Summer Day Camp, Emily Villani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Historically, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) have faced barriers to social inclusion and forming friendships - essential life factors. Research has indicated the importance of reducing social barriers to inclusion and highlights the benefits of improving social skills and fostering positive attitudes about IDDs for facilitating friendship formation and inclusion. With the goal of fostering friendships, the S3 summer camp offered 22 youth (aged 9-14) with and without IDDs accessible and inclusive STEM education and a one-week social skills training package which included disability awareness lessons. Analysis examined the effects of this training package on participants’ friendship …


Five Interconnections Of Race And Class, Michael Billeaux-Martinez, David Calnitsky Mar 2024

Five Interconnections Of Race And Class, Michael Billeaux-Martinez, David Calnitsky

Sociology Publications

This paper proposes a five-part empirical typology of interconnections of race and class. We describe the mechanisms whereby (1) race is a form of class relation; (2) race relations and class relations reciprocally affect each other; (3) race acts as a sorting mechanism into class locations; (4) race acts as a mediating linkage to class locations; and (5) race interacts with class in determining other outcomes. Rather than insisting on one or another mechanism as the overarching framework for conceptualising the interconnections between race and class, we propose a theoretical integration of all five within a functionalist model. The model …


Approaches To Regulating Privacy Dark Patterns, Matthew Gaulton, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell Mar 2024

Approaches To Regulating Privacy Dark Patterns, Matthew Gaulton, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell

FIMS Publications

In this paper, we will evaluate new bills slated to replace the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) and offer stronger privacy dark pattern protections to Canadians.

Existing scholarship in the realm of privacy law, such as “Deceptive Design and Ongoing Consent in Privacy Law” by Jeremy Wiener and “Privacy Dark Patterns: A Case for Regulatory Reform in Canada” by Ademola Adeyoju, primarily focuses on creating frameworks for understanding privacy dark patterns in the law and explaining the pitfalls and legal inadequacies surrounding dark pattern legislation in Canada.

However, the aim of this paper diverges significantly. While acknowledging …


Examining How Users Perceive And Respond To Dark Patterns, Vicky Chung, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell Mar 2024

Examining How Users Perceive And Respond To Dark Patterns, Vicky Chung, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell

FIMS Publications

Dark patterns are user interface (UI) design elements that influence users to take actions that benefit an online service and that are generally not in the user’s best interest. Studies show that users demonstrate some awareness of and ability to identify dark patterns. Users also report experiencing negative emotions such as annoyance when encountering these tactics online. Yet, while users may abstractly understand that dark patterns exist, there is a disconnect between this understanding and their behavioural responses to manipulative design. Research has experimentally determined that dark patterns are effective at influencing users’ behaviour across different online activities, including consenting …


Identifying And Responding To Privacy Dark Patterns, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell Mar 2024

Identifying And Responding To Privacy Dark Patterns, Dominique Kelly, Jacquelyn Burkell

FIMS Publications

Privacy dark patterns are user interface design strategies intended to “nudge” users to reveal personal data, either directly or by enabling (or failing to disable) privacy-invasive platform/profile settings. Examples of privacy dark patterns on social media include defaults that enable the public display of posted content, warnings that follow attempts to reject personalized ads, and hidden “skip” buttons that make it more challenging to decline privacy-undermining requests such as to sync contacts.

Our project aims to minimize the impact of privacy dark patterns on Canadian youth. Building on our prior research documenting the use of these strategies on five social …


The Ecology Of American Noir, Katrina Younes Mar 2024

The Ecology Of American Noir, Katrina Younes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In The Ecology of American Noir, I investigate the relationship between the conventions of noir fiction and film and its sub-types in relation to environmental crises. Specifically, I address questions that not only allow us to (re)read early hardboiled literature and neo-noir films, but that also help us identify a new sub-genre of noir and develop an ecocritical methodology: I call this contemporary sub-genre and methodology “eco-noir.” I trace the development of strategies of mapping urban blight and environmental deterioration in classic hardboiled fiction of the 1940s, neo-noir films of the 1970s, and eco-noir texts of the post millennial …


A Comprehensive Study Of Neural Entrainment In Developmental Language Disorder And Reading Disability, Christine Moreau Mar 2024

A Comprehensive Study Of Neural Entrainment In Developmental Language Disorder And Reading Disability, Christine Moreau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prior research has suggested that reading disability (RD, dyslexia) and developmental language disorder (DLD) stem from deficits in rhythmic auditory processing, specifically in synchronizing neural oscillations (Cumming et al., 2015; Goswami, 2011). Speech relies on rhythmic patterns for signaling linguistic information at multiple timescales (e.g., phonemes, syllables; Giraud & Poeppel, 2012). The disruption of regular neural entrainment is hypothesized to lead to difficulties in processing fast acoustic changes in speech, negatively affecting phonological processing, and speech segmentation. In this dissertation, I studied neural entrainment to uncover possible areas of impairment related to speech tracking, which could help inform interventions. In …


Understanding The Long-Term Ramifications Of Adolescent Marijuana Use And Its Effects On Educational Attainment, Trent Lebans Feb 2024

Understanding The Long-Term Ramifications Of Adolescent Marijuana Use And Its Effects On Educational Attainment, Trent Lebans

MA Research Paper

This paper examines the long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use. Using the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort, the study seeks to find whether marijuana use in adolescence creates difficulties in educational attainment in later life. It uses a life course lens, precisely that of cumulative inequality theory, to frame their questions and place their study within the context of their population's generation. To encapsulate period-specific cohort events, the backdrop of the war on drugs that took place in the U.S. in the late 1990s, is used to better understand macro-level conditions at play. Using a logistical regression, …


Assessing Homelessness Risk And Service Deprivation In London, Ontario, Jackie Tan Feb 2024

Assessing Homelessness Risk And Service Deprivation In London, Ontario, Jackie Tan

MA Research Paper

Despite the increasing prevalence of homelessness in small and mid-sized Canadian cities, research addressing this issue has been notably absent. As homelessness continues to become a more substantial problem within these communities, it is important to examine whether the trends and insights observed in larger cities apply to their smaller counterparts. Drawing on the 2021 Census and municipal data, this study explored the risk of homelessness in the mid-sized city of London, Ontario and investigated whether the spatial distribution of homeless services corresponded with the areas of greatest need. Results reveal that homeless risk and service provision concentrate within specific …


The Spatial Risk Of Assault On Police Officers In Toronto, Ontario, Stephanie C. Pongracz Feb 2024

The Spatial Risk Of Assault On Police Officers In Toronto, Ontario, Stephanie C. Pongracz

MA Research Paper

Since September 12th, 2022, nine police officers in Canada have been fatally assaulted in the line of duty. These officer deaths raise important questions concerning the nature of risks police face on duty, as well as the ways we can better understand those risks. Utilizing a Risk Terrain Modelling (RTM) approach, this study examined the risk of assault to police officers in Toronto, Ontario using Assault to Peace Officer data from January 1st, 2022, to December 31st, 2022. This study revealed that the risk of assault to police varies by the physical features present …


Pain Among Immigrants To Canada: Testing The Healthy Immigrant Effect, Marouna Gomes Feb 2024

Pain Among Immigrants To Canada: Testing The Healthy Immigrant Effect, Marouna Gomes

MA Research Paper

In Canada, immigrants compose roughly one quarter of the population. The health of immigrants and their descendants is key to understanding the future health profile of all Canadians. Current literature on the health of immigrants often uses self-rated health and has produced mixed results regarding the healthy immigrant effect (HIE). Using data from the 2022 NEST survey, my study tests the HIE using chronic pain as a measure of population health to investigate the differences in pain experience among immigrants compared to the Canadian-born population. My results support the HIE: immigrants are 28% less likely to experience pain than Canadian-born …


Hands-On History: Applying A Strong Like Two People Approach To Archaeology Education, Kaylee Woldum Feb 2024

Hands-On History: Applying A Strong Like Two People Approach To Archaeology Education, Kaylee Woldum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis explores Indigenization in the context of archaeology and Western education at the Tundra Science and Culture Camp (TSCC), a government-run summer camp in the Northwest Territories, Canada. By collaborating with Indigenous knowledge holders, it begins the process of re-designing the Human History session—a program within the TSCC that focuses on archaeology and the cultural sites around the camp—to incorporate more Indigenous pedagogies and knowledge. Drawing on semi-structured interviews and participant observation, this thesis outlines an attempt to Indigenize the Human History session at the 2022 TSCC, its successes and challenges, and diverse conceptions of what it would mean …


Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Analysis Of Infant Feeding Practices And Stress In 18th-19th Century Pointe-Aux-Trembles, Québec, Sydney Holland Jan 2024

Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Analysis Of Infant Feeding Practices And Stress In 18th-19th Century Pointe-Aux-Trembles, Québec, Sydney Holland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is a bioarchaeological study of infant feeding practices and early life stress in 18th -19th century Pointe-aux-Trembles, a rural community near Montréal, Québec that was known to practice wet nursing. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of 62 incremental dentine samples were used to reconstruct the feeding histories of 10 infants (age) interred between 1709-1843. At least 6 of 10 infants display evidence of breastfeeding, with weaning foods (e.g., porridge, bread) typically introduced between ~1.5-5.5 months of age and weaning completion around 10.5-13.5 months. Isotopic and/or dental evidence of stress (e.g., enamel hypoplasia) was identified in 8 of …


Conceptualizing The Urban Circular Economy: Understanding The Formal-Informal Continuum In London, Ontario, Canada, Martha Paiz-Domingo Jan 2024

Conceptualizing The Urban Circular Economy: Understanding The Formal-Informal Continuum In London, Ontario, Canada, Martha Paiz-Domingo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research study delves into the contribution of formal and informal practices to the local urban circular economy in London, Ontario, Canada. The circular economy (CE) aims to foster a sustainable economy by closing resource, energy, and materials loops. While there is existing research on formal large-scale industrial activities within the CE, there still is a significant gap in understanding the role of informal CE activities in driving greater CE efforts. This study examined grassroots CE initiatives undertaken by local stakeholders and assesses their significance in promoting urban sustainability. A CE inventory captured a comprehensive overview, documenting 153 actors and …


Validation Of A Virtual Auditory Space, And Its Use To Investigate How Pitch And Spatial Cues Contribute To Perceptual Segregation Of Auditory Streams, Nima Zargarnezhad Jan 2024

Validation Of A Virtual Auditory Space, And Its Use To Investigate How Pitch And Spatial Cues Contribute To Perceptual Segregation Of Auditory Streams, Nima Zargarnezhad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human auditory system can decompose complex sound mixtures into distinct perceptual auditory objects through a process (or processes) known as Auditory Scene Analysis. Pitch and spatial cues are among the sound attributes known to influence sequential streaming (Plack 2018). In this project, the fidelity of a virtual acoustic space (the Audio Dome) in reproducing precisely located sound sources with a 9th-order ambisonics algorithm was validated. The estimated horizontal Minimum Audible Angles aligned with previously reported values (Mills 1958) homogeneously across the space, and a robust low-frequency presentation was identified. Then, the Audio Dome was utilized to test …


Identifying Dark Patterns In User Account Disabling Interfaces: Content Analysis Results, Dominique Kelly, Victoria L. Rubin Jan 2024

Identifying Dark Patterns In User Account Disabling Interfaces: Content Analysis Results, Dominique Kelly, Victoria L. Rubin

FIMS Publications

Dark patterns are user interface (UI) strategies deliberately designed to influence users to perform actions or make choices that benefit online service providers. This mixed methods study examines dark patterns employed by social networking sites (SNSs) with the intent to deter users from disabling accounts. We recorded our attempts to disable experimental accounts in 25 SNSs drawn from Alexa’s 2020 Top Sites list. As a result of our systematic content analysis of the recordings, we identified major types of dark patterns (Complete Obstruction, Temporary Obstruction, Obfuscation, Inducements to Reconsider, and Consequences) and unified them into a conceptual model, based on …


Development And Validation Of The Pain Resilience And Optimism Scale (Pros), Wonjin Seo Jan 2024

Development And Validation Of The Pain Resilience And Optimism Scale (Pros), Wonjin Seo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Numerous self-report questionnaires have been used in pain research to explore patients' experiences. However, these questionnaires often employ negatively worded items that can potentially worsen patients' distress. In response to the emergence of positive psychology, this thesis aimed to develop a new questionnaire that adopts a positive and strengths-focused approach, incorporating resilience, to replace the negative items found in existing tools such as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). First, the effectiveness of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in measuring resilience following trauma was assessed through a systematic review using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments …


Experiential Learning In Language Revitalization, Anthony Tran Dec 2023

Experiential Learning In Language Revitalization, Anthony Tran

SASAH 4th Year Capstone and Other Projects: Publications

Language revitalization plays a crucial role in preserving cultural diversity and identity. It serves as a conduit to reconnect communities with their ancestral roots, promoting cultural continuity and helping create a sense of belonging. Furthermore, it offers a stand against the often destructive impacts of colonization and globalization, which frequently result in language loss. In this report, I narrate my enriching journey as a student researcher, working on language revitalization alongside Dr. Tania Granadillo during an my summer internship. This unique experience extensively involved language study, understanding colonialism, and significant personal growth in self-management skills, epitomized by a challenging yet …


Technological Fair Play: An Ethical Framework For Olympic Sports, Marwan Hellal Dec 2023

Technological Fair Play: An Ethical Framework For Olympic Sports, Marwan Hellal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research strived to address age-old concerns clouding the governance of sport technologies, specifically in sports under the Olympic umbrella. Anti-doping has long been a mandatory clause in the Olympic Charter. Yet, other forms of technological incursions have long been left unaddressed or prohibited via premature reactive judgments. Utilizing a multidimensional philosophical lens encompassing scholarship in the fields of philosophy of sport, applied ethics and the philosophy of technology - this thesis is aimed at creating an accessible, structured, and principled ethical framework to guide the integration of emerging technologies within Olympic sports. Taking an analytical look into WADA’s underlying …


Spontaneous Simulation Of Future And Past Events, Mackenzie Bain Dec 2023

Spontaneous Simulation Of Future And Past Events, Mackenzie Bain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spontaneous future and past events come to mind unintentionally. Previous research supports that environmental cues prompt spontaneous simulation, although the role of specific cues remains unaddressed. Previous work has found that involuntary autobiographical memories are generated in chained-event sequences, which refers to multiple, related events being generated consecutively. We addressed how event and location cues influence spontaneous future and past events, and whether future events occur in chains. In a boring vigilance task, 132 participants located a left-facing arrow amongst right-facing arrows. On 49 of 350 trials, participants encountered event or location cues. Ten times, participants audio-recorded off-task thoughts they …


Beyond Recognition: The Significance Of External Legitimacy For De Facto States In The Global Arena, Megan K. Payler Ms Dec 2023

Beyond Recognition: The Significance Of External Legitimacy For De Facto States In The Global Arena, Megan K. Payler Ms

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation investigates the concept of external legitimacy and its implications for de facto states in the international system. Previous research on state recognition has primarily relied on United Nations recognition as a binary measure, neglecting the nuanced variation in the external legitimacy of de facto states. To address this gap, this study introduces a new External Legitimacy Dataset and develops a comprehensive measure of external legitimacy. Using this dataset, the study demonstrates the utility of the measure by providing latent estimates for 31 de facto states and predicting violence based on their level of external legitimacy. The results indicate …


Polisci 3210f: Feasibility Of A National Disability Insurance Plan (Ndip) In Canada, Twana Hassan, Aditi Priya, Dylan Poole, Samantha Rubin, Ethan Chen Dec 2023

Polisci 3210f: Feasibility Of A National Disability Insurance Plan (Ndip) In Canada, Twana Hassan, Aditi Priya, Dylan Poole, Samantha Rubin, Ethan Chen

Community Engaged Learning Final Projects

This research report presents an overview of the feasibility and reliability of a National Disability Insurance Plan (NDIP) in Canada. Several Global North countries are leading the way in disability legislation and disability funding in comparison to Canada's inaction on the matter. A National Disability Insurance Plan in Canada will have social and economic benefits for everyone in Canada. The report concluded that Canada is capable of implementing a NDIP and doing so is the right choice.


Changing Minds And Changing Practice: Barriers And Facilitators To The Use Of Methods Associated With Popular Musicianship, And Strategies Music Teachers Use To Navigate Them, Rhiannon Simpson Dec 2023

Changing Minds And Changing Practice: Barriers And Facilitators To The Use Of Methods Associated With Popular Musicianship, And Strategies Music Teachers Use To Navigate Them, Rhiannon Simpson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to identify factors which impede or facilitate teacher initiated changes to practice, and the ways in which these factors were strategically navigated by secondary school music educators employing methods associated with popular music education [PME] and/or informal music pedagogy [IMP]. The research was framed using a theoretical framework informed by Bourdieu’s (2000) concept of ‘hysteresis’ and Schmidt’s (2020) concept of ‘policy knowhow’. This served to highlight the dialectic relationship between the beliefs, values, agency and dispositions of individuals, and the presence of complex policy networks across macro, meso, and micro levels.

The research utilised …


Looking In The Mirror: Including The Reflected Best Self Exercise In Management Curricula To Increase Students’ Interview Self-Efficacy, Jennifer Robertson, Noelle Baird, Mathew Mclarnon Dec 2023

Looking In The Mirror: Including The Reflected Best Self Exercise In Management Curricula To Increase Students’ Interview Self-Efficacy, Jennifer Robertson, Noelle Baird, Mathew Mclarnon

Management and Organizational Studies Publications

Students often choose to pursue a business major during their post-secondary education to increase their chances of securing employment post-graduation. However, evidence suggests that many recent business degree graduates struggle with underemployment, highlighting the importance of examining how post-secondary institutions can better prepare students for the transition to work. In the current study, we investigated how including a personal strengths-driven intervention, the Reflected Best Self Exercise (RBSE), in management curricula may help better prepare students for securing employment by increasing students’ confidence in their ability to succeed in an employment interview (i.e., by enhancing interview self-efficacy). Using a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental …


Exploring How Covid-19 Impacts Relationship Dynamics Among Cohabitating Heterosexual And Female Same-Sex Couples, Mishele Kaplan Nov 2023

Exploring How Covid-19 Impacts Relationship Dynamics Among Cohabitating Heterosexual And Female Same-Sex Couples, Mishele Kaplan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This qualitative study investigates the experiences of cohabitating heterosexual (n=10) and female same-sex couples (n=8) during the COVID-19 pandemic. It explores how these couples utilized dyadic coping and relational resilience to manage pandemic-related stressors and how their gender identities influenced their responses. Employing a phenomenological approach informed by feminist, queer, and dyadic coping theories, the study reveals that couples strengthened their bonds during the pandemic through intentional communication and novel activities. The findings of the study also highlight that societal perceptions of gender roles continue to exert pressure on individuals, but female same-sex couples demonstrated greater adaptability by challenging these …


Too Many Constructs In The Kitchen: Toward A Feature-Based Approach To Mistreatment, Sarah Carver Nov 2023

Too Many Constructs In The Kitchen: Toward A Feature-Based Approach To Mistreatment, Sarah Carver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of workplace mistreatment has grown considerably over the last two decades yet continues to be plagued by construct overload and measurement challenges. Constructs such as incivility, bullying, abusive supervision, and social undermining are definitionally distinct in terms of their frequency, intensity, and intentionality but this is seldom explicitly measured. Across three studies, we created and developed the Features of Mistreatment (FOM) measure to explicitly measure frequency, intensity, and perceived intentionality. In Study 1 (N = 282), we examined the psychometric properties of the initial 28-item FOM measure and revised the subscales to four items each. We found …


Acquisition Of Main-Clause Wh-Questions In Egyptian Arabic-English And Spanish-English Bilingual Children, Riham H. Mohamed Nov 2023

Acquisition Of Main-Clause Wh-Questions In Egyptian Arabic-English And Spanish-English Bilingual Children, Riham H. Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines the production and judgment of Egyptian Arabic (henceforth EA) main-clause wh-questions in EA-English bilingual children living in Ontario, Canada, or in the United Kingdom. The three comparison groups are EA monolingual children and EA monolingual adults living in Egypt, and first-generation Egyptian immigrants. The results are compared to previous research on the acquisition of obligatory subject-verb (S-V) inversion in Spanish wh-questions.

The focus of this study is to investigate the potential role of cross-linguistic influence in narrow syntactic structures. Until fairly recently, it was believed that only structures that exhibit syntax-pragmatics interfaces are vulnerable to cross-linguistic influence …


Beyond Rank Attainment: Examining The Nature And Function Of Dominance And Prestige In Teams, Lynden Jensen Nov 2023

Beyond Rank Attainment: Examining The Nature And Function Of Dominance And Prestige In Teams, Lynden Jensen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social hierarchies are fundamental to human societies, shaping group dynamics and outcomes. Ongoing debates attempt to understand their functional and dysfunctional consequences. While the conflict account of hierarchy emphasizes the potentially detrimental conflict-inducing effects of hierarchies, the functionalist account proposes that hierarchies create contexts conducive to coordination. This study investigates if team-level dominance and prestige processes might account for these diverging consequences of hierarchy with dominance fueling conflict-prone environments and prestige nurturing coordination processes. Additionally, it examines whether the inherently competitive nature of team-level dominance yields more favorable outcomes in highly competitive, zero-sum, contexts.

Across two studies, I investigated the …


Needs Assessment And Program Evaluation Of A Peer Mentorship Program For Undergraduate Health Sciences Students, Chris W. Ruffell Nov 2023

Needs Assessment And Program Evaluation Of A Peer Mentorship Program For Undergraduate Health Sciences Students, Chris W. Ruffell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

High post-secondary degree dropout rates cost individuals, institutions, and governments around the world hundreds of millions of dollars annually, and these rates appear to be increasing in many parts of the world. Peer-mentorship programs have been proposed as a cost-effective method for increasing post-secondary success and ultimately reducing dropout rates, however, few studies to date have evaluated programs that were designed using student feedback. The purpose of the present study was to take an existing peer-mentorship program, modify it using feedback collected from students, and quantitatively evaluate the results. Survey responses suggested that the program improved student transition to …