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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Relationship Between Voter Perceptions Of Frequency Of Police Use Of Excessive Force And Support For The Death Penalty, Amelia Collins May 2023

The Relationship Between Voter Perceptions Of Frequency Of Police Use Of Excessive Force And Support For The Death Penalty, Amelia Collins

Honors Theses

Differing opinions of the death penalty continually conflict with the criminal justice system regarding support or opposition. Previous studies have described how sex and race influence one’s perception of the death penalty, whereas this study emphasizes various contributing predictors aside from sex and race. This study utilizes binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between voter perceptions of police use of excessive force and support for the death penalty along with voter demographics. Secondary data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2020 Time Series Survey was incorporated into the data set of this study. The current study is composed …


The Egyptian National Anti-Trafficking Law ‘Adoption Process And Assessment’, Nourhane Awad Feb 2023

The Egyptian National Anti-Trafficking Law ‘Adoption Process And Assessment’, Nourhane Awad

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is about the impact of Egyptian national laws on the protection of African migrants and refugees. Egypt has been considered a transit country for African migrants and refugees fleeing their countries toward European countries or Israel in the past due to its specific geographic location. For that reason, Egypt is considered one of the essential parts of the trafficking process in the middle east. For that reason, it is essential to study and explore how the Egyptian government is controlling and governing the trafficking of persons. In addition, it is important to understand its institutional setup and framework …


Decolonizing Municipal Policing: Indigenous Discrimination And Institutional Approaches, Terran Morris Jan 2023

Decolonizing Municipal Policing: Indigenous Discrimination And Institutional Approaches, Terran Morris

Major Papers

For decades, there have been growing calls to address systemic Indigenous racism in Canadian police institutions. However, progress in this area has remained troublingly slow as recent movements have had little impact on institutional reform. Indigenous Peoples are left disproportionately victimized and overrepresented in the criminal justice system due to discriminatory policing practices. In recent years calls for institutional reforms have been amplified with the completion of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls as well as countless other scathing reports from oversight bodies into racism within municipal police services. Given this newfound urgency, municipal police …


Elder Abuse In Canada: Dimensions And Policy Responses, Taylor Marekovic Jan 2023

Elder Abuse In Canada: Dimensions And Policy Responses, Taylor Marekovic

Major Papers

Elder abuse and neglect continues to be a gray area when it comes to convicting perpetrators such as family, friends, strangers, and caregivers who commit any form of physical, psychological, financial, neglect, or sexual abuse towards an elder. This is due to the legal definition being vague and non-transparent. The legal and health systems rely on two different definitions of what is deemed to be elder abuse and neglect in Canada when reviewing or assessing allegations of such abuse. Elder abuse and neglect increased throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, during which Ontario and the rest of Canada experienced staffing shortages in …


The Impact Of The Canva Program On The Learning Of The Ninth Grade Students In Jordanian Schools Of Html, Maha Abu Maizer Jan 2023

The Impact Of The Canva Program On The Learning Of The Ninth Grade Students In Jordanian Schools Of Html, Maha Abu Maizer

Al-Balqa Journal for Research and Studies البلقاء للبحوث والدراسات

This is a semi-experimental study that aims at measuring the impact of CANVA on the learning of ninth graders in a Jordanian school of HTML. 50 female ninth graders were randomly selected from 72 students in Aisha Bint Abi Baker school, and were distributed to two groups; control, which was taught traditionally, and experimental, which was taught with CANVA to learn HTML as a part of their computer curriculum. The researcher used a set of 20 multiple choice questions to test their knowledge achievement and skills. After checking the validity and reliability of the test. The results showed that there …


Commercialization Of Separated Human Body Parts - Unpacking Instrumentalization Approach, Arseny Shevelev, Georgy Shevelev Jan 2023

Commercialization Of Separated Human Body Parts - Unpacking Instrumentalization Approach, Arseny Shevelev, Georgy Shevelev

Pace International Law Review

The principle of non-commercialization, which prohibits trade in separated human body parts, has long been firmly embedded in many European legal orders and has become an integral part of them. However, many new uses for human biomaterials have now been discovered, and the need for them has reached a historical climax. This paper aims to explain the main tenets of non-commercialization theory, including such principles as human dignity and need to protect human’s health, and to show that these categories have so far been understood in a very one-sided and visceral way, and largely in contradiction to their true spirit. …


Intersectionality In Leadership: Spotlighting The Experiences Of Black Women Dei Leaders In Historically White Academic Institutions, Natasha N. Johnson Jan 2023

Intersectionality In Leadership: Spotlighting The Experiences Of Black Women Dei Leaders In Historically White Academic Institutions, Natasha N. Johnson

CJC Publications

Due to their multiple identities, Black women navigate gendered and racialized pathways to leadership in the US education industry. The journey for Black women in and en route to positions of academic leadership is even more nuanced and multiplicative. Little, though, is known about the effects of their intersecting identities and the structural barriers they encounter in this sphere. To deepen our communal understanding of this phenomenon, this chapter highlights the existing theories and research on the race-gender dyad in the context of academic leadership. Examining the individual and layered effects of race and gender on the professional realities of …


Identifying The Main Causes For Support Of Crime Control Theater Forms, And Understanding How To Correct The Public’S Perception, Erisjames M. Elliott Jan 2023

Identifying The Main Causes For Support Of Crime Control Theater Forms, And Understanding How To Correct The Public’S Perception, Erisjames M. Elliott

CMC Senior Theses

Much research has been completed on the forms of crime control theater (CCT), and the impact that the existence of CCT laws have on society. Research on CCT laws has shown that they are definitively unsuccessful in providing the safety they were created to provide. This thesis will utilize completed research to explain the main psychological phenomena holding people back from decreasing their support for CCT laws. It will also describe proven methods of correcting misinformation in order to change the perceptions of people who support crime control theater laws, and provide suggestions for how research should be continued.


Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban Dec 2022

Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to examine patterns of Part I crimes [including Part I Person/Violent: Homicide, Rape, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery, and Part I Property: Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson, as defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Standards] in The City of Pittsburgh, framing the COVID-19 pandemic as a major stressor that Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory suggests may lead to increased opportunity for crime, due to the perceived unjustness of the associated lockdown orders and potential incentive for criminal coping (Agnew 1992). This descriptive analysis is based primarily upon …


An Updated Look At Mental Health Services In American Public And Private Prisons, Lieren E. Tyira Dec 2022

An Updated Look At Mental Health Services In American Public And Private Prisons, Lieren E. Tyira

Student Theses

People residing in American prisons have the legal right to mental health care while incarcerated (Justia, 2021). This is important, as the prevalence of mental disorders is high in this population (Prins, 2014), and incarceration is a psychologically damaging experience, which hinders a person’s success at rehabilitation. Numerous of issues related to the mental health services (MHSs) in both public and private prison facilities have been reported in recent years, which warrants systematic exploration. The little existing research comparing the presence of MHSs in these facilities has produced mixed results, it uses out-of-date datasets, and none has explored MHSs in …


Smoke But No Fire: Convicting The Innocent Of Crimes That Never Happened, Autumn Huber Dec 2022

Smoke But No Fire: Convicting The Innocent Of Crimes That Never Happened, Autumn Huber

Symposium of Student Scholars

“Smoke but no Fire” published by Jessica Henry provides various discussions of no-crime wrongful convictions of those who are innocent. Throughout this novel, the evaluation of forensic error, police roles, judiciary roles, and misdemeanors bring to light the phantom crimes that occur within our criminal justice system. The criminal justice system brings the injustice of those wrongfully convicted to the eyes of readers worldwide. Part of this research provided throughout her novel includes the National Registry of Exonerations, short for NRE, which assesses evidence of exonerations of those who were innocent and those who remain inside the four walls of …


The Commonalities And Contrasting Features Of English And American Law, Abigail Job Dec 2022

The Commonalities And Contrasting Features Of English And American Law, Abigail Job

Senior Honors Theses

The English and American legal systems and law are founded under the Common Law System. However, there are staunch differences and similarities that work to define the individual legal features of each nation, such as the law's interpretation, making, and role. This paper aims to analyze the qualities that comprise each legal system and analyze their commonalities and contrasting features. The features that will be analyzed are the Common Law systems, Supreme Court, Judicial system Structure, and Legislative Process. It is imperative when exploring the law of a nation to understand the foundational philosophy, creation, interpretation, and application of the …


An Examination Of Differences In Race, Gender, And Age In Processing And Outcomes Within The U.S. Criminal Justice System, Teliyah Cobb Dec 2022

An Examination Of Differences In Race, Gender, And Age In Processing And Outcomes Within The U.S. Criminal Justice System, Teliyah Cobb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Demographic factors can influence criminal justice system outcomes. We examine legal system processing in 12 U.S. states from 1976-1991. Variables included: 1) race, age, and gender; 2) violent, sexual, and drug- and alcohol-related charges; 3) level of charge; 4) charges at arrest, trial, and final disposition; 5) time-lengths between each stage; 6) dismissal, plea bargaining, and conviction; and 7) final sentencing length. Significant differences in arrest, prosecution, plea bargaining, charge severity, and final sanctioning were observed dependent on race, gender, age, and the intersectionality of these characteristics. Implications for research policy to reduce the impact of disparities are discussed.


A Comparison Of The Mental Health Of Police Officers And Correctional Officers In Rural Appalachia, Sierra Thomas Dec 2022

A Comparison Of The Mental Health Of Police Officers And Correctional Officers In Rural Appalachia, Sierra Thomas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of mental health among police officers and correctional officers within rural Appalachia. The main goal of this research was to better understand how the occupational demands of working in the criminal justice field can impact one’s mental health over time. Several research questions were explored, including the prevalence of various mental health problems, associated stressors, the structure of support among officers, and the perceptions of mental health treatment services. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 21 police and correctional officers located in rural Appalachia. Results provided a better understanding of …


Domestic Violence Against Men: Their Report Decision Making Process, Ngozi Aleke Dec 2022

Domestic Violence Against Men: Their Report Decision Making Process, Ngozi Aleke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Little or nothing is really known about a man’s victimization in a domestic violence situation. Generally domestic violence is viewed from the lens of a women with the typical idea that women are the victim while men, the perpetrators of violence. Overtime, this societal perception is beginning to subside as researchers have proven that men are also victims of domestic violence (Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz,1980). Despite this revelation, not much is known about male victimization as most men prefer not to report their victimization. This study seeks to examine the reasons for not reporting victimization and the effect of this …


Housing Discrimination In New York City’S Housing Voucher Program, Tashana Brooks Dec 2022

Housing Discrimination In New York City’S Housing Voucher Program, Tashana Brooks

Publications and Research

The Fair Housing Act (FHA), enacted as Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibits discrimination from selling or renting a dwelling to any person because of race, color, disability, religion, sex, family status, and national origin. The federal government provides rental subsidies for many low-income renters through government programs. Rental assistance such as Section 8 vouchers administered by Housing and Urban Development is considered a lawful source of income for paying rent; however, many landlords or realtors discriminate against individuals utilizing Section 8 vouchers. According to the New York City Human Rights Law, this is illegal. The …


Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses, Shannon E. Ettinger Dec 2022

Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses, Shannon E. Ettinger

Student Theses

Offender profiling research suggests that offenders may display behavioral consistency, meaning they may behave in some consistent manner between their crime scene actions and other aspects of their lives. Through behavioral themes, researchers can identify consistency in groups of individual behaviors that are thematically similar. Previous literature successfully applied the Expressive/Instrumental themes to homicide crime scene behaviors and criminal history. The current study aims to apply the Expressive/Instrumental thematic approach to analyzing the relationship between sexual homicide offender’s criminal history and their crime scene behaviors. The present study focuses on the distinction between sexual homicide offenders with a history of …


Prevalence Of Non-Self Dna On Three Different Sebaceous Skin Locations, Jan Kirstine Zamora Dec 2022

Prevalence Of Non-Self Dna On Three Different Sebaceous Skin Locations, Jan Kirstine Zamora

Student Theses

This project serves to provide additional information on the prevalence of non-self DNA on the exposed skin locations specifically the inner upper arm, the nape area of the neck and the neck area just below the ear, where current literature is lacking. Skin tape lifts from these locations were collected from 15 male participants and 13 female participants once a week over a period of three weeks. Only single source profiles were obtained from six volunteers. Eight volunteers had only one mixture DNA profile in nine samples, while mixture DNA profiles for at least two collection occasions were observed in …


Perception Of Safety In Public Transport In Brazil, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Da Silva, Pietra Raissa Silva, Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto, Elisa Dilly Generoso Macedo Dec 2022

Perception Of Safety In Public Transport In Brazil, Elenice De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Da Silva, Pietra Raissa Silva, Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto, Elisa Dilly Generoso Macedo

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This current study examines the perception of safety on the public bus transit system in a large Brazilian metropolis. Using a web-based survey, the study reached a convenient sample of bus users of a local university who were victims and witnesses to crime in two different types of local bus transit environments - the BRT MOVE - a modern bus system and its opposing counterpart - the conventional bus system. Research questions investigate whether or not riders’ perception of safety is influenced by the presence of mechanisms of control and surveillance on buses. Using a linear regression model, this study …


Pretrial Consequences: The Impact Of New York State Bail Reforms On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Pretrial Outcomes, Esther Laaninen Dec 2022

Pretrial Consequences: The Impact Of New York State Bail Reforms On Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Pretrial Outcomes, Esther Laaninen

Student Theses

This study investigates the impact of New York’s 2020 Bail Reforms on racial and ethnic disparities in pretrial outcomes for New York State. 2019, 2020, and 2021 arraignment data from the Office of Court Administration Pretrial Release Datasets are used to determine whether racial and ethnic disparities for White Non Hispanic, Black Non Hispanic, Hispanic, and other race defendants narrowed after the implementation of the new law. The results from descriptive analysis, binary logistic regressions, and ANOVA tests suggest that racial-ethnic disparities have not abated, even though the proportion of defendants required to pay cash bail has sharply declined among …


Acid Attacks: An Overview Of Legal Measures And Motivation Trends In India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, And Cambodia, Gaia Calcini Dec 2022

Acid Attacks: An Overview Of Legal Measures And Motivation Trends In India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, And Cambodia, Gaia Calcini

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Vitriolage is a form of widespread violence around the world. This research analyzed legislative measures against the practice adopted by India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Colombia, and Cambodia. The strengths and weaknesses of the different legal systems were examined. Motivational trends on why the violence was committed were reviewed in the literature in these countries. It was found that acid attacks are a form of gender-based violence. Countries where the measures were adopted to prevent attacks but failed to achieve the goal did not consider the attacks as a part of a broader problem. The only country that seems to have achieved …


The Real Face Of Borderline Personality Organization Within Intimate Partner Violence, Adriana Isabel Patino Dec 2022

The Real Face Of Borderline Personality Organization Within Intimate Partner Violence, Adriana Isabel Patino

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This study tests the relationship between IPV perpetration and victimization with BPO. Results indicate that, as predicted, BPO is positively associated with both IPV perpetration and victimization and is more prevalent in female perpetrators and victims than in male perpetrators and victims. However, contrary to what previous literature says, self-control does not show enough significance to state that it is one of the leading causes of IPV perpetrated by those who present traits of BPO. In addition, results also indicate that having suffered from physical abuse during childhood diminishes the probability of perpetrating IPV. To fully understand these results, future …


Mind The Gaps: Assessing And Enhancing The Trustworthiness Of Mental Health Apps, Gary Kok Yew Chan Dec 2022

Mind The Gaps: Assessing And Enhancing The Trustworthiness Of Mental Health Apps, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Mental health apps including artificial intelligence (“AI”)- powered apps and chatbots have raised serious concerns relating to safety, efficacy and privacy. This article assesses their trustworthiness based on lego-regulatory, ethical and technological measures in addressing the abovementioned concerns. Focusing on applications to mental health apps, it examines Singapore laws, regulations and guidelines relating to software-based and AI medical devices, data protection, consumer protection, advertising and medical negligence. Additionally, upon taking into account other non-binding ethical guidelines, certification standards and technological measures targeted at app developers, a few recommendations are offered for enhancing trust in mental health apps.


Exploring Perceptions Of Control Within Offender Cognition And Recidivism Paradigms, Anistasha H. Lightning, Danielle Polage Nov 2022

Exploring Perceptions Of Control Within Offender Cognition And Recidivism Paradigms, Anistasha H. Lightning, Danielle Polage

Student Published Works

Elements of perceived control are associated with recidivism in offender populations. We investigated the application of locus of control to the frequency of personal involvement with the law and to beliefs surrounding the likelihood of future contact with the legal system. We hypothesized that, as the number of sentencings or legal experiences increased, locus of control would externalize. We also predicted that increased legal involvement would lead to greater belief in the likelihood of future involvement. A statistically significant path model suggests that locus of control appears to be a predictor of increased criminality, as opposed to the other way …


Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University Nov 2022

Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

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“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti Nov 2022

“Elder Scam” Risk Profiles: Individual And Situational Factors Of Younger And Older Age Groups’ Fraud Victimization, Katalin Parti

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In an attempt to understand how differently fraud works depending on a victim’s age, we have examined the effects of situational (lifestyle-routine activities), self-control, and sociodemographic variables on scam victimization across age groups. The analysis was carried out on a national sample of 2,558 Americans, representative by age, sex, and race, and includes additional factors such as their education, living arrangement, employment, and propensity for reporting a crime or asking for help. The results substantiate research findings of the contribution of self-control and LRAT in predicting victimization in general but could not identify major situational and individual differences between older …


Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa Nov 2022

Emerging Trends In Cybercrime Awareness In Nigeria, Ogochukwu Favour Nzeakor, Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma, Ibrahim Hassan, Benjamin Okorie Ajah, John T. Okpa

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The study examined the current trend in cybercrime awareness and the relationship such trend has with cybercrime vulnerability or victimization. Selecting a sample of 1104 Internet users from Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, We found that: 1) awareness of information security was high in that about 2 in every 3 (68%) participants demonstrated a favorable awareness of information security and cybercrime. It was, however, revealed that such a high level of awareness could be partial and weak. 2) most Internet users demonstrated the awareness of fraud-related cybercrime categories (39%), e-theft (15%), hacking (12%), and ATM theft (10%). However, they were rarely …


Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park Nov 2022

Understanding Deviance And Victimization In Cyber Space Among Diverse Populations, Insun Park

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Recent years have witnessed a growing academic interest in deviance and victimization in the cyber space. The current issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime features three empirical research articles on online behavior of traditionally under-researched populations and a review of much waited book on digital forensics and investigation. This paper was prepared to introduce these important scholarly works in the context of newly emerging scholarship that focuses on the experiences of diverse subgroups in cyberspace.


Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller Nov 2022

Aggressive Reality Docuseries And Cyberbullying: A Partial Test Of Glaser’S Differential Identification Theory, J. Ra’Chel Fowler, Darren R. Beneby, Kenethia L. Fuller

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Reality docuseries have dominated primetime airwaves for the greater part of three decades. However, little is known about how viewers who are enamored with the genre’s most aggressive characters are influenced. Using Glaser’s (1956) theory of differential identification, this study employs survey data from 210 college students at a historically Black college and university to explore whether identification with characters from aggressive reality docuseries (ARDs) and the frequency of viewing ARD are positively associated with cyberbullying. Results of multivariate analyses revealed that men were more likely than women to publicly shame others and air other’s dirty laundry online. Additionally, the …


Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation Nov 2022

Book Review: Digital Forensics And Cyber Investigation

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.