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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva Jul 2022

Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

The 2002 film ‘City of God’ tells an anecdotal story of violence in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, and is a reminder that the societies we tend to take for granted can actually be a luxury. The film portrays the daily life of the peripheries of Rio and its relation with drug trafficking, crime, and poverty, and how it has deteriorated into a war zone so dangerous that anyone risk being shot to death. Thousands of miles away from the Brazilian slums there is another so-called city of God, or the city chosen by God to be the home ...


Defining The Police Mission, Devin Neal Jul 2022

Defining The Police Mission, Devin Neal

Criminology Student Work

Directives and duties of law enforcement have changed drastically over time. Today there is little agreement within society regarding what is needed and wanted from police. Even within the police ranks, it is unclear whether there is a single view of what “good” police work is (and if so, what that looks like). An officer may learn what “good” policing is from numerous channels including departmental missions, informal cultures, personal characteristics, and community contexts. Officers’ opinions may also derive from personal beliefs about policing, personality traits, and/or attitudes toward police work. The purpose of this study is to determine ...


Nudging Users Towards Data Privacy, Ossama Hanafy Jun 2022

Nudging Users Towards Data Privacy, Ossama Hanafy

Theses and Dissertations

The internet challenges users' privacy in unpreceded ways. Technology companies collect massive amounts of data from online users. They use algorithms that can track and analyze each activity by each user. Even though many users worry about their online privacy, they keep revealing more personal data. This study explores the causes behind online privacy erosion. While tech companies and governments aim to achieve economic and political goals, users are motivated by social motives. Online Privacy erosion leads to many harms to individuals and societies while collecting, processing, and disseminating data. Moreover, this study argues that the current legal approaches, especially ...


The Cop In Your Head: Criminal Justice Education, Liberalism, And The Carceral State, Nicole Haiber Jun 2022

The Cop In Your Head: Criminal Justice Education, Liberalism, And The Carceral State, Nicole Haiber

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis centers policing ideology in higher education and the way it is constructed and fortified through criminal justice programs. In 1968, the Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP) made funds available to police officers to attend college and awarded grants to universities to create criminal justice programs. The program effectively funneled federal money into the project of professionalizing the police and developed criminal justice as a field devoted to conducting crime research, as defined by the federal government. Criminal justice programs exploded across the country with the availability of LEEP funding, and the City University of New York’s (CUNY ...


Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna May 2022

Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna

West Virginia Law Review

Although the majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled with plea bargains, very little empirical evidence exists to explain how defendants make life-altering plea bargain decisions. This Article first discusses the psychologicalfactors involved in plea bargaining decisions. Next, this Article empirically examines the factors involved in plea decisions of real-life defendants within the legal and psychological contexts. Finally, this Article highlights the psychological issues that need to be further examined in pleabargaining literature.


America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider May 2022

America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

In this article, the author examines the tenets of the Defund the Police movement and applies them to the American military to make the argument that not only should the police be defunded, but so should the American military. The purpose of this piece is to push the conversation regarding policing beyond American borders to examine American influence internationally. The article incorporates various Critical Race Theories to explore the intersection of policing and the military. The Defund the Police Movement also provides a framework for critiquing the American military because the American police and military are inextricably connected. Part I ...


Covid-19 Behind Bars In The Mountain West, Dielle T. Telada, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. May 2022

Covid-19 Behind Bars In The Mountain West, Dielle T. Telada, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Criminal Justice

Due to overcrowding, inadequate healthcare, systemic neglect, and violence in U.S. carceral (i.e. jails or prisons) and immigration detention centers, these facilities are a hot spot for the spread of COVID-19. In March 2020, the UCLA Law “Covid Behind Bars Data Project” began tracking official agency websites for self-reported data of COVID-19 across prisons, jails, and other detention facilities in the U.S. The number of COVID-19 cases, deaths, and tests performed from 50 state correctional agencies, the District of Columbia’s Department of Corrections, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE ...


The Well-Being Outcomes Of Sexual Assault Survivors After Sexual Assault Kit Examinations, Brianna N. Zimmer May 2022

The Well-Being Outcomes Of Sexual Assault Survivors After Sexual Assault Kit Examinations, Brianna N. Zimmer

Honors Thesis

This study examined how the quality of a sexual assault medical forensic exam, or SAMFE, affects the well-being outcomes of sexual assault victims. A SAMFE is used to collect forensic evidence and provide comprehensive care to victims. Furthermore, SAMFEs are typically collected by a specially trained Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or medical practitioner. It was hypothesized that a more trauma-informed and victim-centered SAMFE allowed victims to have better physical, psychological, and social well-being outcomes. In this study, a victim’s well-being outcomes were measured through the dependent variables of the TSC-40, Brief-COPE, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scales. Furthermore, the ...


The Spatial Associations Between Crime And Economy In Chicago 2015-2020, Hongtao Huang May 2022

The Spatial Associations Between Crime And Economy In Chicago 2015-2020, Hongtao Huang

Honors Capstones

The severity of the crime is often the most intuitive reflection of whether a region is safe and the top factor for the public when evaluating a region. Economist's list of the safest cities in seven major North American cities, Chicago was ranked at six, just above Dallas. Chicago scored the lowest in personal security, which is closely tied to the crime. Against the backdrop of higher unemployment and prices, this study is interested in how property-based crimes are related to the economic decline in Chicago geographically. The study used the heterogeneity analysis tool Geodetector to investigate the correlation ...


Disaster, Social Disorganization, And Crime In The Largest Cities In Texas, Daniel Augusto, Jared Linebach May 2022

Disaster, Social Disorganization, And Crime In The Largest Cities In Texas, Daniel Augusto, Jared Linebach

International Journal of Security Studies & Practice

This study uses multiple regressions and moderation analysis to examine the relationship between disaster and crime in the 10 largest cities in Texas. The regressions revealed that yearly days with disaster significantly predicted Robbery, Murder, Rape, Burglary, and Auto Theft. Additionally, social disorganization and population density were often found to predict crime. Moderation analysis revealed that social disorganization increases the effect of yearly days with disaster on Burglary rates, which serve as a proxy for looting. These findings indicate that, on average, disaster responders, public safety, and security personnel in large cities can expect increases to crime as days with ...


The Meaning And Malleableness Of Liberty From 1897-1945, Quentin E. Smith May 2022

The Meaning And Malleableness Of Liberty From 1897-1945, Quentin E. Smith

The Purdue Historian

This paper covers how the substance and meaning of liberty changed during the ending years of the Gilded Age (1870-1900) through the beginning ages of the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968). Economic liberty took shape in the cases Allegeyer v. Louisiana (1897) and Lochner v. New York (1905). Civil liberties would take several more years to come into the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction. The case Gitlow v. New York (1925) began the establishment of incorporation of the Bill of Rights to the states, otherwise known as our fundamental liberties (note: The Supreme Court used selective incorporation, however). In the case U ...


Impacts Of Post-Incarceration Programming For Women's Lives And Local Communities, Megan Greenslade May 2022

Impacts Of Post-Incarceration Programming For Women's Lives And Local Communities, Megan Greenslade

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous research on reentry programming has focused mostly on male inmates and less attention is given to female inmates. In Arkansas, where female reentry rates have recently increased, research is needed to add to the conversation surrounding effective programming for previously justice-involved women, its impact on their lives and behaviors, and how this can influence the likelihood of recidivism. This qualitative study also aims to discover whether reentry programming can have a positive impact on the local community. Residents and staff at a local Northwest Arkansas transitional housing facility for previously justice-involved women were interviewed to analyze the effects of ...


The American Racial Divide In Fear Of The Police, Justin T. Pickett, Amanda Graham, Francis T. Cullen May 2022

The American Racial Divide In Fear Of The Police, Justin T. Pickett, Amanda Graham, Francis T. Cullen

Criminal Justice and Criminology Faculty Publications

The mission of policing is “to protect and serve,” but recent events suggest that many Americans, and especially Black Americans, do not feel protected from the police. Understanding police-related fear is important because it may impact civilians’ health, daily lives, and policy attitudes. To examine the prevalence, sources, and consequences of both personal and altruistic fear of the police, we surveyed a nationwide sample (N = 1,150), which included comparable numbers of Black (N = 517) and White (N = 492) respondents. Most White respondents felt safe, but most Black respondents lived in fear of the police killing them and hurting their ...


Police Education And Its Influence On Traffic Enforcement Performance, Shatavia Monique Kennedy May 2022

Police Education And Its Influence On Traffic Enforcement Performance, Shatavia Monique Kennedy

Masters Theses

In demanding occupations, the preference for formal education is presumptive when improving competency and workmanship. This study assesses the correlation between college education and traffic enforcement performance within a local police department in Aberdeen, North Carolina. In this study, performance strictly refers to issued traffic citations and traffic enforcement. The research consisted of a secondary analysis (public records) using qualitative data. Data were collected to determine which officers issued the most traffic citations from the highway patrol unit from January to June 2021. Second, qualitative data were collected via an interview with one of the department officers to obtain demographic ...


Anger In The Overlooked: A Gendered Analysis Of The January 6, 2021 Capitol Hill Breach, Elizabeth Bender May 2022

Anger In The Overlooked: A Gendered Analysis Of The January 6, 2021 Capitol Hill Breach, Elizabeth Bender

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The violence seen at the U.S. Capitol Building on January 6, 2021 has sparked concern at the threat of domestic violent extremism (DVE) within the United States. Over 700 individuals have been federally charged in connection with the events of January 6 including almost 100 women. Women’s involvement in DVE is underestimated and understudied. This project utilized a corpus of over 1,000 court documents to content code variables relating to violence and DVE affiliation for the individuals who have been federally charged in relation to January 6th. The results of the coding process were then used to ...


Reset The Boundary: State Activism In Juvenile Transfer Reform, Yuchen Tang May 2022

Reset The Boundary: State Activism In Juvenile Transfer Reform, Yuchen Tang

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Law and policy are deeply intertwined. States themselves are the main venues to deliberate and implement policies that alter the status quo of juvenile transfer. The policymaking process in some states can increase our ability to understand and predict how others will similarly react. This learning model has been the foundation for juvenile justice reform where lessons are drawn from past successes or failures to keep more youths from incarceration. Legislative and judicial capacity to influence criminal justice reforms are complementary, and there is an ongoing debate on the designated function of the judiciary, whether it should be more active ...


Zinā In The Criminal Legislation Act (1999-2000): An Evaluation Of The Implication For Muslim Women's Right In Nigeria, Paul Orerhime Akpomie May 2022

Zinā In The Criminal Legislation Act (1999-2000): An Evaluation Of The Implication For Muslim Women's Right In Nigeria, Paul Orerhime Akpomie

Theses and Dissertations

The research engages in an exploration of human rights in Islam. Human rights issues are then contrasted with international law positions. The data gotten is then used for investigating women’s human rights issues in Shariʾa penal tradition regarding zinā (adultery) in Nigeria. The re-emergence of Sharia penal codes adopted by 12 Northern states in Nigeria in 1999 as an operative Islamic law has sparked concerns about rulings amounting to stoning to death in several cases of zinā. These events raised concerns about Shariʾa penal traditions’ legality and relationship with other legal traditions operational in Nigeria, a secular political space ...


The Dangers Of The Social Drinker: An Analysis Of Adolescent Drinking Habits At Social Gatherings, Mason Seitz May 2022

The Dangers Of The Social Drinker: An Analysis Of Adolescent Drinking Habits At Social Gatherings, Mason Seitz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Adolescent alcohol consumption is a topic that has been well-researched to date due to the dangers it can pose. A variety of factors may work to contribute to the habits these adolescents develop. One factor that has not been extensively studied is the impact of locations on drinking decisions. Location provides a perspective on how various social factors can intersect to dictate where and when young people will choose to consume alcohol. Most previous literature has focused on the alcohol usage found at parties or bars, but the current research wishes to expand this idea to other locations, such as ...


College Students’ Perception Of Law Enforcement, Joseph Lyon May 2022

College Students’ Perception Of Law Enforcement, Joseph Lyon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There are many ways that people can form an opinion about law enforcement even if they have had a personal interaction with someone who works in the field. This idea has always been interesting as there needs to be some type of understanding when it comes to this certain viewpoint. There can be many factors that result in having a certain perspective on law enforcement in general like their background growing up, hearsay from close relatives, friends, and whatever they have seen up close in person. This study is going to aim at a specific area of how people view ...


Elucidation Strategies: A Case Study Of The U.S Supreme Court, Gordon Carroll Apr 2022

Elucidation Strategies: A Case Study Of The U.S Supreme Court, Gordon Carroll

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

The research encompassed a study on the consistency in judicial interpretations and factors that influenced U.S. Supreme Court decisions. To do this, the study explored literature and theoretical perspectives relating to judicial interpretations and decisions. The target population entailed officers in the Office of the Solicitor General for their experience in Court rulings. Interviews were conducted among ten respondents, with data collected, coded, and analyzed. The study results were then presented, discussed, and conclusions derived from them. Generally, the study found serious inconsistencies in interpretations not only between justices but also in almost similar cases. Decisions by justices were ...


Mental Health Focus As A Deterrent For Justice Involved Youth, Miyah Seckinger Apr 2022

Mental Health Focus As A Deterrent For Justice Involved Youth, Miyah Seckinger

Honors Projects

Tough-on-crime policies regarding youthful offending have resulted in a pendulum swing in which the juvenile justice system has shifted from a rehabilitative focus to one of punishment. The current paper evaluates different mental health program alternatives, as an option to return to a rehabilitative focus for juveniles, with a major focus on the Juvenile Treatment and Support Court in Kent County, Michigan. Through a qualitative analysis, there were findings of initial success with the youthful offenders presented in the court. Recommendations and limitations from the study are presented to aid further policy change and research.


Volume 13, Payton Davenport, Audrey Lemons, Jacob Shope, Haley Smith, Cassandra Poole, Rachel Cannon, Rachel Boch, Suzanne Stetson Apr 2022

Volume 13, Payton Davenport, Audrey Lemons, Jacob Shope, Haley Smith, Cassandra Poole, Rachel Cannon, Rachel Boch, Suzanne Stetson

Incite: The Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Introduction Dr. Roger A. Byrne, Dean

From the Editor Dr. Larissa “Kat” Tracy

From the Designers Rachel English, Rachel Hanson

The Effect of Compliment Type on the Estimated Value of the Compliment by Payton Davenport, Audrey Lemons, and Jacob Shope

The Imperial Japanese Military: A New Identity in the Twentieth Century, 1853–1922 by Haley Smith

Longwood University’s campus: Human-cultivated Soil has Higher Microbial Diversity than Soil Collected from Wild Sites by Cassandra Poole

Reminiscent Modernism: Poetry Magazine’s Modernist Nostalgia for the Past by Rachel Cannon

Challenges Faced by Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Preliminary Study ...


Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon Apr 2022

Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon

Honors Projects

In order to have access and use the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), it is required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Quality Assurance Standards (FBI-QAS) for Forensic DNA Units to complete comprehensive validation studies on all equipment, materials, and methods used in the process of DNA analysis. This study continues validation previous done within the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI). YFiler Plus is a DNA amplification kit that is used in cases where it is most useful to examine only male DNA profile(s) within a sample by amplifying loci only on the Y-Chromosome. Components of this ...


Need For Reform: The Prison System And Deaf Inmates, Catherine Pellini Apr 2022

Need For Reform: The Prison System And Deaf Inmates, Catherine Pellini

Montserrat Annual Writing Prize

Anecdotal and empirical evidence reveal a severe lack of awareness, education and accessibility in the criminal justtice system for those who are deaf. These issues are most obvious and detrimental in the prison system and have serious ethical implications that need to be addressed.


Racialized Mass Incarceration In The United States: Exposing The Facade Of “Liberty And Justice For All”, Emily Wingfield Apr 2022

Racialized Mass Incarceration In The United States: Exposing The Facade Of “Liberty And Justice For All”, Emily Wingfield

The Compass

No abstract provided.


Evaluating The New York State Bail Reform Act: What Impact Does It Have On Law Enforcement?, Nicholas Cole Apr 2022

Evaluating The New York State Bail Reform Act: What Impact Does It Have On Law Enforcement?, Nicholas Cole

Helm's School of Government Conference

No abstract provided.


Protecting Violent Free Speech And Combatting True Homicidal Threats In Cyberspace, Aimee Lillie Apr 2022

Protecting Violent Free Speech And Combatting True Homicidal Threats In Cyberspace, Aimee Lillie

Helm's School of Government Conference

No abstract provided.


Sacrificing Liberty For Security, Samuel Whatley Ii Apr 2022

Sacrificing Liberty For Security, Samuel Whatley Ii

Helm's School of Government Conference

This paper attempts to address ongoing problems associated with the U.S. justice system as it relates to collaboration with state and local agencies. Also, some focus areas will include management, policy, and evidence-based programs that are needing to be addressed.


Substance Use In Rural Areas: A Narrative Concerning The Care, Treatment, And Stigma Of Rural Substance Users, Katie J. Nutter Apr 2022

Substance Use In Rural Areas: A Narrative Concerning The Care, Treatment, And Stigma Of Rural Substance Users, Katie J. Nutter

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Fatal drug overdoses have affected both urban and rural communities in recent years but is more pronounced in rural areas. In this narrative, a commentary regarding the increased maternal morbidity and mortality rates for rural women, the lack of access to appropriate medical and substance abuse treatment, and societal and intragroup stigma will be addressed, as these issues are plaguing rural substance users and their recovery. The narrative will include an in-depth discussion regarding the practices and policies being implemented in reducing rural fatal overdoses, including the implementation and underutilization of medication assisted treatment and harm reduction techniques, as well ...


A Scrutiny Of Mental Illness In Criminality And The Assessment Of Viable Alternatives, Kelley Barry Apr 2022

A Scrutiny Of Mental Illness In Criminality And The Assessment Of Viable Alternatives, Kelley Barry

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Because of the compelling role it plays as an enigma, mental illness has been featured in innumerable theaters of human history and our present-day society. There is perhaps no greater place for this dynamic than our criminal justice system. This analysis provides a thorough examination of how our modern approach to the management of mental illness evolved in accordance to the ways in which it began. The controversy over incarceration rates of the mentally ill are astronomical, in that nearly half of inmates in the United States are suffering with a mental illness of sorts (National Alliance for the Mentally ...