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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Feed More, Waste Less, Kaitlyn Dietz Apr 2024

Feed More, Waste Less, Kaitlyn Dietz

Honors Projects

With college prices and the cost of food increasing, so has the rate of food insecurity among college students. Food insecurity is defined as the lack of availability or access to food to meet someone’s basic and necessary needs. Food insecurity is associated with lower grades, depression, higher perceived stress, and lower graduation rates. Campuses across the country are responding to the problem in a variety of ways, including distribution of food directly to students through food pantries. Meal plans are expensive in the addition to college tuition and housing. The lowest cost for a meal plan at Bowling Green …


Forestry, A Valuable Crop For The Pastoral Farmer, N M. Shadbolt Mar 2024

Forestry, A Valuable Crop For The Pastoral Farmer, N M. Shadbolt

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The integration of forestry into a pastoral system (sheep & beef cattle) will be discussed with respect to the economic sustainability of the system. The cash flow implications for a case study farm of forest development, and methods used through forestry right agreements to facilitate these by reducing risk, will be developed.


Environmental Analysis Of Codfish Production And Consumption In Portugal, Ayla Frost, Joana Almeida, Joana Dionisio, Radu Godina, Cátia Magro Feb 2024

Environmental Analysis Of Codfish Production And Consumption In Portugal, Ayla Frost, Joana Almeida, Joana Dionisio, Radu Godina, Cátia Magro

Journal of Critical Global Issues

Codfish, a typical dish consumed frequently in Portugal, is fished in the cold Northern Atlantic waters far from the Portuguese coast. Thus, regional tensions and the environmental impacts of Portuguese codfish importation and production are significant current issues. The present study uses a life cycle assessment methodology to evaluate the array of environmental impacts of the production of 1 kg of codfish, following a cradle to gate approach. The life cycle inventory was grouped into catch and preprocessing, transit, and curing stages. The data collection of products and processes in each stage was based on scientific peer reviewed documents, technical …


Rangeland-Centered Agroecosystems In Indian Central Himalayas: Operationalizing Ecological Sustainability In Mountain Agriculture, Vir Singh Feb 2024

Rangeland-Centered Agroecosystems In Indian Central Himalayas: Operationalizing Ecological Sustainability In Mountain Agriculture, Vir Singh

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Himalayan Mountains are home to unique agroecosystems harboring unique inter- and intra-species diversity in uncultivated and cultivated lands. The uncultivated lands are largely the rangelands which are ecologically more stable ecosystems than the cultivated lands which are ecologically prone areas. Rangelands, cultivated areas, and livestock in mountain agriculture are in organic linkages with each other, woven into a complex unitary whole, functionally oriented to produce foods and other life-supporting products – such as feed, fiber, fuel, fertilizers, etc. – and provide vital ecological functions. Rangelands in fragile Himalayan mountains serve as a key component of agriculture and the biodiversity conserved …


Tennessee Master Beef Producer Program Promotes Sustainable Beef Production, K. M. Mason, G. E. Bates, J. D. Rhinehart Feb 2024

Tennessee Master Beef Producer Program Promotes Sustainable Beef Production, K. M. Mason, G. E. Bates, J. D. Rhinehart

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Tennessee is home to 1.75 million beef cattle as of January 2022 (USDA, 2022). The majority of cattle farms in Tennessee are cow-calf operations, with a few stocker-backgrounder operations across the state. Most of the cows in the state are maintained on tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. pastures, with hay being fed in the winter months and sometimes during the summer. Maintenance of a strong cow herd and sufficient grazing land relies on utilization of sustainable production practices. With urban sprawl creating competition for land area, it is important to use production practices that are efficient and attainable …


Soil Carbon Monitoring Program For Ranches In Dryland Ecosystems, David E. Prado-Tarango, S. Ates, J. Talbot Feb 2024

Soil Carbon Monitoring Program For Ranches In Dryland Ecosystems, David E. Prado-Tarango, S. Ates, J. Talbot

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Implementation of ranching practices that lead to greater soil carbon sequestration has become increasingly important due to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Sustainable ranching practices are suggested to improve soil health and sequester more carbon in the soil. However, there is a paucity of measured data from replicated on-farm studies to support this premise. Thus, we developed a soil carbon monitoring program for a ranch located in the state of Oregon. Our monitoring program is focused on measuring the net carbon budget and the soil carbon sequestration totals. To achieve this goal, we combined field-sampling data with the COMET-Farm model. A …


The Threads That Shape Us: Fashioning A Sustainable Future From Silk, Bryne Croyle Johnson Feb 2024

The Threads That Shape Us: Fashioning A Sustainable Future From Silk, Bryne Croyle Johnson

Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal

Silk has been used for centuries as a natural fiber, but has declined in popularity due to synthetic alternatives. In this pop-science article style paper, the history, present, and possible futures of silk are discussed at a generally accessible level. Anthropology, Biology, Sociology, and Environmental Science are brought together to present a case for a renewed interest in silk as a sustainable fiber.


Spring Grass Availability And Silage Supplementation Impact On Dry Matter Intake And Enteric Methane Emissions In Grazing Dairy Cattle, M. Kennedy, S. Walsh, T. M. Boland, M. Egan Feb 2024

Spring Grass Availability And Silage Supplementation Impact On Dry Matter Intake And Enteric Methane Emissions In Grazing Dairy Cattle, M. Kennedy, S. Walsh, T. M. Boland, M. Egan

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Enteric methane (CH4) emissions were measured in forty spring calving cows offered one of two (n=20) contrasting diets (High Grass; HG, Low Grass; LG) over 10 weeks in early lactation (8th February – 18th April 2021). All cows were blocked for breed and parity and balanced on milk production, economic breeding index (EBI), bodyweight and body condition score and randomly allocated to treatments. The HG grazing treatment cows were offered their full daily nutrient requirement from grazed grass and concentrate with no silage supplementation. The LG grazing treatment cows were offered a restricted (~60%) amount of their daily nutrient requirement …


Regenera+.Uy: Designing A Co-Innovation Process To Apply The Principles Of Regenerative Livestock Production, Oscar Blumetto, M. Bustamante, A. Castagna, D. Caresani, G. Ciappesoni, R. Baptista, I. De Barbieri Feb 2024

Regenera+.Uy: Designing A Co-Innovation Process To Apply The Principles Of Regenerative Livestock Production, Oscar Blumetto, M. Bustamante, A. Castagna, D. Caresani, G. Ciappesoni, R. Baptista, I. De Barbieri

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Consumers around the world are beginning to demand products whose production systems have environmental guarantees. Among them, those derived from regenerative agriculture have a growing demand in many markets. A comprehensive environmental assessment was carried out in 9 case studies of mixed livestock production farms (cattle and sheep) in Uruguay as a basis for the development of a system redesign process following the principles of regenerative agriculture. The results show that emission intensity was 16.0, 10.5, and 49.2 kg CO2 eq kg-1 of beef, sheep meat, and greasy wool, respectively. Also, a simulation exercise shows a significative reduction of emission …


A Framework For Promoting Diverse Perennial Circular Forage Systems For More Resilient Agricultural Landscapes: Developing Extension And Educational Tools For Resilience And Sustainability, Cassida K. A., W. Lamp, S. Gruss Feb 2024

A Framework For Promoting Diverse Perennial Circular Forage Systems For More Resilient Agricultural Landscapes: Developing Extension And Educational Tools For Resilience And Sustainability, Cassida K. A., W. Lamp, S. Gruss

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The Resilience CAP Team seeks to use diverse, perennial, circular forage systems (DPCFS) to enhance biodiversity, improve soil and plant health, support ecosystem service, all towards achieving greater resilience to global change and improving the farm economy and quality of life. Our project will design a transdisciplinary framework that combines agronomic, ecological, economic, and sociological factors to achieve greater resilience and stability in agricultural systems through use of DPCFS. In this paper, we describe two of the project’s six objectives. Objective 5 is our extension/outreach arm where we will develop extension media, activities, and actionable decision tools to communicate concepts …


Below Ground Benefits Of Cactus Opuntia Stricta Under Rangeland Conditions In Laikipia, Kenya, K. T. Oduor, Jose C. B. Dubeux, W. O. Owino, M. Ruiz-Moreno, L. M. D. Queiroz, I. L. Bretas Feb 2024

Below Ground Benefits Of Cactus Opuntia Stricta Under Rangeland Conditions In Laikipia, Kenya, K. T. Oduor, Jose C. B. Dubeux, W. O. Owino, M. Ruiz-Moreno, L. M. D. Queiroz, I. L. Bretas

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Cactus Opuntia stricta primarily invades arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form more than 80% of Kenya’s landmass. The ability of the plant to tolerate poor soils and accumulate biomass under low precipitation has resulted in studies into its potential use by pastoral communities for biofuel and livestock feed. However, few studies have assessed the below-ground benefits associated with cactus under rangeland conditions. In this study, we evaluated the root contributions of the invasives cactus Opuntia stricta under rangeland conditions in Laikipia, Kenya. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with ten (10) replicates, each measuring …


Performance Of Finishing Nellore Beef Steers In Intensively Managed Pastures And Silvopastoral Systems In Southeast Of Brazil, P. P. A. Oliveira, Neto R. Pasquini, G. S. Pádua, L. H. C. Junior, R. Vechi, A. J. Furtado, G. V. Silva, A. A. Lobo, A. L. Abdalla-Filho, A. F. Pedroso, P. H. M. Rodrigues Feb 2024

Performance Of Finishing Nellore Beef Steers In Intensively Managed Pastures And Silvopastoral Systems In Southeast Of Brazil, P. P. A. Oliveira, Neto R. Pasquini, G. S. Pádua, L. H. C. Junior, R. Vechi, A. J. Furtado, G. V. Silva, A. A. Lobo, A. L. Abdalla-Filho, A. F. Pedroso, P. H. M. Rodrigues

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

This study evaluated the average daily weight gain (ADG), stocking rates, and live weight gain per hectare (LWG) in different intensified animal production systems. The experiment was carried out from September 2020 to September 2021 at Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Thirty Nellore steers (285±21 kg of live weight and 12±13 months old) were randomly distributed into five treatments, with two replicates: 1) intensively managed and irrigated Megathyrsus maximus cv. Tanzânia pasture overseeded in the dry season with Avena byzantina and Lolium multiflorum (IHS); 2) intensively managed rainfed M. maximus cv. Tanzânia pasture (RHS); 3) intensively managed rainfed …


Grazing Behavior Of The Endemic Lagune Cattle In The Sub-Humid Savannahs Of Benin, E. Sonon, G. G. Alowanou, B. I. Koura, O. J. Makinde, A. B. Gbangboche Feb 2024

Grazing Behavior Of The Endemic Lagune Cattle In The Sub-Humid Savannahs Of Benin, E. Sonon, G. G. Alowanou, B. I. Koura, O. J. Makinde, A. B. Gbangboche

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The indigenous Lagune, a breed tolerant to trypanosomiasis, is an excellent candidate to meet the ongoing environmental changes sustainably. This cattle breed could be kept like small ruminants, tethered in grasslands, or free grazing. A study was conducted to assess the grazing behavior of Lagune cattle under the two grazing systems to identify the best systems for sustainable production and conservation of the breed. For this study, four Lagune cattle farms, 02 under free-roaming and 02 others in the tethered system, were selected in the original belt of the Lagune cattle, the agro-ecological (AEZ) zones of Valley and Pobe. The …


Nutrient Cycling And Crop Responses On Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems, José C. B. Dubeux Jr., E. R. S. Santos, J. E. Portuguez-Acuna, L. M. D. Queiroz Feb 2024

Nutrient Cycling And Crop Responses On Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems, José C. B. Dubeux Jr., E. R. S. Santos, J. E. Portuguez-Acuna, L. M. D. Queiroz

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) can bring numerous benefits to crops or livestock systems, such as increase soil C sequestration, farm profitability, and provisioning of ecosystem services. In a changing world, production systems need to become more resilient and sustainable. Specialized agriculture is characterized by a high level of inputs and outputs, and oftentimes specialize in a single crop to simplify management. However, such operational systems stray away from sustainable standards. Furthermore, specialized cropping systems may face problems such as persistence of pests and diseases, loss of biodiversity, stagnant yields, development of herbicide-resistant weeds, soil erosion and consequently loss of soil …


Productivity And Variability Of Pastures And Cover Crops In Lowland Rice-Pasture Rotations In Uruguay, Walter Ayala, J. Terra Feb 2024

Productivity And Variability Of Pastures And Cover Crops In Lowland Rice-Pasture Rotations In Uruguay, Walter Ayala, J. Terra

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

No abstract provided.


Upleft: Pick Up Leftovers, Uplift Those In Need, Veronica Galles Jan 2024

Upleft: Pick Up Leftovers, Uplift Those In Need, Veronica Galles

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Clovers In Forage Systems And As Cover Crops, J. H. Bouton, John R. Caradus Jan 2024

The Future Of Clovers In Forage Systems And As Cover Crops, J. H. Bouton, John R. Caradus

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Clovers (Trifolium spp.) are the most widely used genera of legumes in forage systems, although only a limited number of the hundreds of perennial and annual species are commercially available. The number of varieties available within each of the main commercial species can be high and demonstrates past breeding achievements. Success relates to any clover’s ability to persist in mixtures with other forage species, across a range of soil types, management systems, and climates, while providing animal nutrition and biologically fixed nitrogen benefits. Uses range from traditional pasture mixtures with grasses to inclusion in multi-species mixtures, and as cover …


Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist Jan 2024

Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist

CODEE Journal

In this paper, I discuss two environmentally-focused writing assignments that I developed and implemented in recent integral calculus and differential equations courses. These models of carbon storage and PCB’s in a river provide interesting applications of one-compartment mixing problems. The assignments were intended to focus student attention on sustainability concerns while also developing other essential skills. I discuss these assignments and their effect on my students’ technical writing and environmental awareness. Detailed introductory instructions and mostly complete solutions to these assignments appear in the appendices, to include sample student work.


Solar Panels, Euler’S Method And Community-Based Projects: Connecting Differential Equations With Climate Change, Victor J. Donnay Jan 2024

Solar Panels, Euler’S Method And Community-Based Projects: Connecting Differential Equations With Climate Change, Victor J. Donnay

CODEE Journal

How does mathematics connect with the search for solutions to the climate emergency? One simple connection, which can be explored in an introductory differential equations course, can be found by analyzing the energy generated by solar panels or wind turbines. The power generated by these devices is typically recorded at standard time intervals producing a data set which gives a discrete approximation to the power function $P(t)$. Using numerical techniques such as Euler’s method, one can determine the energy generated. Here we describe how we introduce the topic of solar power, apply Euler’s method to determine the energy generated, and …


Data For "Density Constrains Environmental Impacts Of Fluid Abstraction In Continental Lithium Brines", Daniel B. Corkran, David F. Boutt, Lee Ann Munk, Brendan J. Moran, Sarah Mcknight, Jordan Jenckes, Alexander Kirshen Jan 2024

Data For "Density Constrains Environmental Impacts Of Fluid Abstraction In Continental Lithium Brines", Daniel B. Corkran, David F. Boutt, Lee Ann Munk, Brendan J. Moran, Sarah Mcknight, Jordan Jenckes, Alexander Kirshen

Data and Datasets

This dataset contains all data used in the study "Density constrains environmental impacts of fluid abstraction in continental lithium brines." Data include all SEAWAT groundwater-flow model input and output files, which contain all data associated with the parametric modeling study. It also contains NDVI and total annual precipitation datasets used in the study's remote sensing analysis.


Solar-Powered Microgrids In Northern California: An Opportunity For Resilience, Marina Riddle Dec 2023

Solar-Powered Microgrids In Northern California: An Opportunity For Resilience, Marina Riddle

Master's Projects and Capstones

Planned and unplanned power outages have been increasing in frequency and duration, negatively impacting all public sectors, and threatening public safety. These outages are deadly to those who rely on medical devices. As climate change-fueled extreme weather events (wildfires, earthquakes, storms, etc.) also increase in frequency, our electrical grid must be prepared to bounce back. Microgrids provide necessary redundancy and reliability. Through a novel GIS suitability analysis, based on solar radiation, land use type, local energy demand, distance to transmission lines, distance to roads, and slope, optimal locations for solar-powered microgrids throughout Northern California were determined. The counties of Fresno, …


Bitcoin's Technical Foundation And Its Potential For A Decentralized And Environmentally Friendly Future, Iqtiar Md Siddique Dec 2023

Bitcoin's Technical Foundation And Its Potential For A Decentralized And Environmentally Friendly Future, Iqtiar Md Siddique

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This research examines a systematic analysis of Bitcoin, employing a Coefficient of Variation (CV) approach to gauge its degree of decentralization. Bitcoin, an innovative decentralized digital currency, has received much attention for its potential to revolutionize traditional financial systems. This study employs the Coefficient of Variation (CV) to acquire insights into the wealth distribution and concentration among Bitcoin users. This research demonstrates how decentralized the network of Bitcoin is. The methodology uses real data on Bitcoin addresses and their holdings to compute the Coefficient of Variation (CV). This approach provides valuable insights into the ongoing discourse surrounding Bitcoin's decentralization, offering …


Clueless: Revolutionizing Sustainable Fashion And Combating Overconsumption, Tanya Ravichandran Dec 2023

Clueless: Revolutionizing Sustainable Fashion And Combating Overconsumption, Tanya Ravichandran

Graphic Communication

“Clueless” revolutionizes sustainable fashion by combating wardrobe overconsumption and the industry’s carbon footprint, using AI to suggest personalized outfits from existing wardrobes tailored to weather and wear history. It enhances user engagement through features like outfit ‘shuffle’ and provides insights into wardrobe utilization and carbon impact.

It’s more than an app; it’s a step towards a greener wardrobe and a healthier planet.


Breaking The Loop: Strategies For Fighting Climate Change On U.S. Farms, Ashley Barry Nov 2023

Breaking The Loop: Strategies For Fighting Climate Change On U.S. Farms, Ashley Barry

Honors Capstones

Climate change is an increasingly urgent area of research due to the hardships it causes for lands and communities across the globe. Specifically in regard to the United States (U.S.), climate change has many concerning implications on our agricultural system. Increased weather hazards, decreased crop production, and drought are just a few of the hardships American farmers are facing in their fight to keep their farms alive and feed their communities, despite a rapidly changing climate. This study investigates how farmers can fight and prevent climate change through the use of specific mitigation and adaptation strategies on their farms. Semi- …


Population Growth Models: Relationship Between Sustainable Fishing And Making A Profit, James Sandefur Nov 2023

Population Growth Models: Relationship Between Sustainable Fishing And Making A Profit, James Sandefur

CODEE Journal

In this paper, we develop differential equations that model the sustainable harvesting of species having different characteristics. Specifically, we assume the species satisfies one of two different types of density dependence. From these equations, we consider maximizing sustainable harvests. We then introduce a cost function for fishing and study how maximizing profit affects the harvesting strategy. We finally introduce the concept of open access which helps explain the collapse of many fish stocks.

The equations studied involve relatively simple rational and exponential functions. We analyze the differential equations using phase-line analysis as well as graphing approximate solutions using Euler's method, …


Pursuing Profit And Sustainability In The Age Of Climate Change, Tracy Xie Nov 2023

Pursuing Profit And Sustainability In The Age Of Climate Change, Tracy Xie

Asian Management Insights

Building dual-agenda innovation capabilities is the way to go.


Riding The Decarbonisation Wave: Bhp And Its Lng Dual-Fuelled Vessels, Shantanu Bhattacharya, Flocy Joseph, Mahima Rao-Kachroo Nov 2023

Riding The Decarbonisation Wave: Bhp And Its Lng Dual-Fuelled Vessels, Shantanu Bhattacharya, Flocy Joseph, Mahima Rao-Kachroo

Asian Management Insights

What does it take to decarbonise charter-related shipping?


Reimagining Sustainable Urban Communities In Hong Kong, Jeroen Van Ameijde, Sifan Cheng, Junwei Li Nov 2023

Reimagining Sustainable Urban Communities In Hong Kong, Jeroen Van Ameijde, Sifan Cheng, Junwei Li

Asian Management Insights

Using environmental and social urban design principles to create future new towns. Hong Kong began building New Towns in the 1970s in response to a post-war period of rapid population growth.


Building Urban Sustainability With Quality Elites, Havovi Joshi Nov 2023

Building Urban Sustainability With Quality Elites, Havovi Joshi

Asian Management Insights

Do elites contribute to a society more than they extract from it? In many countries where populism has surged in tandem with declining trust in elites in the political and other spheres, the answer.


On The Sustainability Of Deep Learning Projects: Maintainers' Perspective, Junxiao Han, Jiakun Liu, David Lo, Chen Zhi, Yishan Chen, Shuiguang Deng Nov 2023

On The Sustainability Of Deep Learning Projects: Maintainers' Perspective, Junxiao Han, Jiakun Liu, David Lo, Chen Zhi, Yishan Chen, Shuiguang Deng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Deep learning (DL) techniques have grown in leaps and bounds in both academia and industry over the past few years. Despite the growth of DL projects, there has been little study on how DL projects evolve, whether maintainers in this domain encounter a dramatic increase in workload and whether or not existing maintainers can guarantee the sustained development of projects. To address this gap, we perform an empirical study to investigate the sustainability of DL projects, understand maintainers' workloads and workloads growth in DL projects, and compare them with traditional open-source software (OSS) projects. In this regard, we first investigate …