Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Security

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 583

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Systematic Review On Machine Learning Models For Online Learning And Examination Systems, Sanaa Kaddoura, Daniela Elena Popescu, Jude D. Hemanth May 2022

A Systematic Review On Machine Learning Models For Online Learning And Examination Systems, Sanaa Kaddoura, Daniela Elena Popescu, Jude D. Hemanth

All Works

Examinations or assessments play a vital role in every student’s life; they determine their future and career paths. The COVID pandemic has left adverse impacts in all areas, including the academic field. The regularized classroom learning and face-to-face real-time examinations were not feasible to avoid widespread infection and ensure safety. During these desperate times, technological advancements stepped in to aid students in continuing their education without any academic breaks. Machine learning is a key to this digital transformation of schools or colleges from real-time to online mode. Online learning and examination during lockdown were made possible by Machine learning ...


Information Provenance For Mobile Health Data, Taylor A. Hardin May 2022

Information Provenance For Mobile Health Data, Taylor A. Hardin

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Mobile health (mHealth) apps and devices are increasingly popular for health research, clinical treatment and personal wellness, as they offer the ability to continuously monitor aspects of individuals' health as they go about their everyday activities. Many believe that combining the data produced by these mHealth apps and devices may give healthcare-related service providers and researchers a more holistic view of an individual's health, increase the quality of service, and reduce operating costs. For such mHealth data to be considered useful though, data consumers need to be assured that the authenticity and the integrity of the data has remained ...


Establishing Trust In Vehicle-To-Vehicle Coordination: A Sensor Fusion Approach, Jakob Veselsky, Jack West, Isaac Ahlgren, George K. Thiruvathukal, Neil Klingensmith, Abhinav Goel, Wenxin Jiang, James C. Davis, Kyuin Lee, Younghyun Kim May 2022

Establishing Trust In Vehicle-To-Vehicle Coordination: A Sensor Fusion Approach, Jakob Veselsky, Jack West, Isaac Ahlgren, George K. Thiruvathukal, Neil Klingensmith, Abhinav Goel, Wenxin Jiang, James C. Davis, Kyuin Lee, Younghyun Kim

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) use diverse sensors to understand their surroundings as they continually make safety- critical decisions. However, establishing trust with other AVs is a key prerequisite because safety-critical decisions cannot be made based on data shared from untrusted sources. Existing protocols require an infrastructure network connection and a third-party root of trust to establish a secure channel, which are not always available.

In this paper, we propose a sensor-fusion approach for mobile trust establishment, which combines GPS and visual data. The combined data forms evidence that one vehicle is nearby another, which is a strong indication that it is ...


Secure Wearable Authentication: Generalization Through Self-Sovereign Identity And Iot Parallels, Jordan Hazelip May 2022

Secure Wearable Authentication: Generalization Through Self-Sovereign Identity And Iot Parallels, Jordan Hazelip

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This culminating experience project explored current and up-and-coming forms of authentication in association to secure wearable devices. The increase in scams and associated vulnerabilities cause additional stress on the ability to identify and authenticate devices and individuals. The research questions posed in this project are: “What are the limitations of a wearable device actively participating in a cryptographic exchange?” and “How can the relationship between Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) and Internet of Things (IoT) influence the future of secure wearable authentication?” The limitations of a wearable device actively participating in a cryptographic exchange are the battery, computational mass, and overall wearable ...


Machine Learning-Based Device Type Classification For Iot Device Re- And Continuous Authentication, Kaustubh Gupta Apr 2022

Machine Learning-Based Device Type Classification For Iot Device Re- And Continuous Authentication, Kaustubh Gupta

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Today, the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is higher than ever and it is growing rapidly. Many IoT devices are usually manufactured by home appliance manufacturers where security and privacy are not the foremost concern. When an IoT device is connected to a network, currently there does not exist a strict authentication method that verifies the identity of the device, allowing any rogue IoT device to authenticate to an access point. This thesis addresses the issue by introducing methods for continuous and re-authentication of static and dynamic IoT devices, respectively. We introduce mechanisms and protocols for authenticating a ...


Assessing Security Risks With The Internet Of Things, Faith Mosemann Apr 2022

Assessing Security Risks With The Internet Of Things, Faith Mosemann

Senior Honors Theses

For my honors thesis I have decided to study the security risks associated with the Internet of Things (IoT) and possible ways to secure them. I will focus on how corporate, and individuals use IoT devices and the security risks that come with their implementation. In my research, I found out that IoT gadgets tend to go unnoticed as a checkpoint for vulnerability. For example, often personal IoT devices tend to have the default username and password issued from the factory that a hacker could easily find through Google. IoT devices need security just as much as computers or servers ...


Smart Hospitality And Secure Tourism Management Using Blockchain Technology: Beshostm Approach, Asik Rahaman Jamader Mr, Puja Das Ms., Biswaranjan Acharya Mr., Sandhya Makkar Dr. Feb 2022

Smart Hospitality And Secure Tourism Management Using Blockchain Technology: Beshostm Approach, Asik Rahaman Jamader Mr, Puja Das Ms., Biswaranjan Acharya Mr., Sandhya Makkar Dr.

International Journal of Computer Science and Informatics

Throughout the age of 5G technology, the majority of contactless banking is made via software that is enabled by a wide range of financial platforms. Several alternative financing channels provide access to a variety of services. The opportunity for hackers to engage in nefarious behaviour such as payment account hacking, identity theft, and payment system assaults stages of clearances with e-tourism, monetary information is kept in a database. Payment issues can be caused by a centralised cloud server. Throughout the periods of heavy congestion, the abovementioned problems are solvable by utilising a decentralised system like blockchain, it allows for the ...


An Analysis On Network Flow-Based Iot Botnet Detection Using Weka, Cian Porteous Jan 2022

An Analysis On Network Flow-Based Iot Botnet Detection Using Weka, Cian Porteous

Dissertations

Botnets pose a significant and growing risk to modern networks. Detection of botnets remains an important area of open research in order to prevent the proliferation of botnets and to mitigate the damage that can be caused by botnets that have already been established. Botnet detection can be broadly categorised into two main categories: signature-based detection and anomaly-based detection. This paper sets out to measure the accuracy, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate of four algorithms that are available in Weka for anomaly-based detection of a dataset of HTTP and IRC botnet data. The algorithms that were selected to detect botnets ...


Formal Modeling And Verification Of A Blockchain-Based Crowdsourcing Consensus Protocol, Hamra Afzaal, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Umar Janjua, Sarada Prasad Gochhayat Jan 2022

Formal Modeling And Verification Of A Blockchain-Based Crowdsourcing Consensus Protocol, Hamra Afzaal, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Umar Janjua, Sarada Prasad Gochhayat

VMASC Publications

Crowdsourcing is an effective technique that allows humans to solve complex problems that are hard to accomplish by automated tools. Some significant challenges in crowdsourcing systems include avoiding security attacks, effective trust management, and ensuring the system’s correctness. Blockchain is a promising technology that can be efficiently exploited to address security and trust issues. The consensus protocol is a core component of a blockchain network through which all the blockchain peers achieve an agreement about the state of the distributed ledger. Therefore, its security, trustworthiness, and correctness have vital importance. This work proposes a Secure and Trustworthy Blockchain-based Crowdsourcing ...


Edge-Iiotset: A New Comprehensive Realistic Cyber Security Dataset Of Iot And Iiot Applications For Centralized And Federated Learning, Mohamed A. Ferrag, Othmane Friha, Djallel Hamouda, Leandros Maglaras, Helge Janicke Jan 2022

Edge-Iiotset: A New Comprehensive Realistic Cyber Security Dataset Of Iot And Iiot Applications For Centralized And Federated Learning, Mohamed A. Ferrag, Othmane Friha, Djallel Hamouda, Leandros Maglaras, Helge Janicke

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

In this paper, we propose a new comprehensive realistic cyber security dataset of IoT and IIoT applications, called Edge-IIoTset, which can be used by machine learning-based intrusion detection systems in two different modes, namely, centralized and federated learning. Specifically, the dataset has been generated using a purpose-built IoT/IIoT testbed with a large representative set of devices, sensors, protocols and cloud/edge configurations. The IoT data are generated from various IoT devices (more than 10 types) such as Low-cost digital sensors for sensing temperature and humidity, Ultrasonic sensor, Water level detection sensor, pH Sensor Meter, Soil Moisture sensor, Heart Rate ...


Permissioned Blockchain Based Remote Electronic Examination, Öznur Kalkar, İsa Sertkaya Jan 2022

Permissioned Blockchain Based Remote Electronic Examination, Öznur Kalkar, İsa Sertkaya

Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

Recent coronavirus pandemic transformed almost all aspects of daily life including educational institutions and learning environments. As a result, this transformation brought remote electronic examination (shortly e-exam) concepts back into consideration. In this study, we revisit secure and privacy preserving e-exam protocol proposals and propose an e-exam protocol that utilizes decentralized identity-based verifiable credentials for proof of authentication and public-permissioned blockchain for immutably storing records. In regard to the previously proposed e-exam schemes, our scheme offers both privacy enhancement and better efficiency. More concretely, the proposed solution satisfies test answer authentication, examiner authentication, anonymous marking, anonymous examiner, question secrecy, question ...


Secure Storage Model For Digital Forensic Readiness, Avinash Singh, Richard Adeyemi Ikuesan, Hein Venter Jan 2022

Secure Storage Model For Digital Forensic Readiness, Avinash Singh, Richard Adeyemi Ikuesan, Hein Venter

All Works

Securing digital evidence is a key factor that contributes to evidence admissibility during digital forensic investigations, particularly in establishing the chain of custody of digital evidence. However, not enough is done to ensure that the environment and access to the evidence are secure. Attackers can go to extreme lengths to cover up their tracks, which is a serious concern to digital forensics – particularly digital forensic readiness. If an attacker gains access to the location where evidence is stored, they could easily alter the evidence (if not remove it altogether). Even though integrity checks can be performed to ensure that the ...


Ggnb: Graph-Based Gaussian Naive Bayes Intrusion Detection System For Can Bus, Riadul Islam, Maloy K. Devnath, Manar D. Samad, Syed Md Jaffrey Al Kadry Nov 2021

Ggnb: Graph-Based Gaussian Naive Bayes Intrusion Detection System For Can Bus, Riadul Islam, Maloy K. Devnath, Manar D. Samad, Syed Md Jaffrey Al Kadry

Computer Science Faculty Research

The national highway traffic safety administration (NHTSA) identified cybersecurity of the automobile systems are more critical than the security of other information systems. Researchers already demonstrated remote attacks on critical vehicular electronic control units (ECUs) using controller area network (CAN). Besides, existing intrusion detection systems (IDSs) often propose to tackle a specific type of attack, which may leave a system vulnerable to numerous other types of attacks. A generalizable IDS that can identify a wide range of attacks within the shortest possible time has more practical value than attack-specific IDSs, which is not a trivial task to accomplish. In this ...


Sofi: Reflection-Augmented Fuzzing For Javascript Engines, Xiaoyu He, Xiaofei Xie, Yuekang Li, Jianwen Sun, Feng Li, Wei Zou, Yang Liu, Lei Yu, Jianhua Zhou, Wenchang Shi, Wei Huo Nov 2021

Sofi: Reflection-Augmented Fuzzing For Javascript Engines, Xiaoyu He, Xiaofei Xie, Yuekang Li, Jianwen Sun, Feng Li, Wei Zou, Yang Liu, Lei Yu, Jianhua Zhou, Wenchang Shi, Wei Huo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

JavaScript engines have been shown prone to security vulnerabilities, which can lead to serious consequences due to their popularity. Fuzzing is an effective testing technique to discover vulnerabilities. The main challenge of fuzzing JavaScript engines is to generate syntactically and semantically valid inputs such that deep functionalities can be explored. However, due to the dynamic nature of JavaScript and the special features of different engines, it is quite challenging to generate semantically meaningful test inputs.We observed that state-of-the-art semantic-aware JavaScript fuzzers usually require manually written rules to analyze the semantics for a JavaScript engine, which is labor-intensive, incomplete and ...


Dataflow Management In The Internet Of Things: Sensing, Control, And Security, Dawei Wei, Huansheng Ning, Feifei Shi, Yueliang Wan, Jiabo Xu, Shunkun Yang, Li Zhu Oct 2021

Dataflow Management In The Internet Of Things: Sensing, Control, And Security, Dawei Wei, Huansheng Ning, Feifei Shi, Yueliang Wan, Jiabo Xu, Shunkun Yang, Li Zhu

Tsinghua Science and Technology

The pervasiveness of the smart Internet of Things (IoTs) enables many electric sensors and devices to be connected and generates a large amount of dataflow. Compared with traditional big data, the streaming dataflow is faced with representative challenges, such as high speed, strong variability, rough continuity, and demanding timeliness, which pose severe tests of its efficient management. In this paper, we provide an overall review of IoT dataflow management. We first analyze the key challenges faced with IoT dataflow and initially overview the related techniques in dataflow management, spanning dataflow sensing, mining, control, security, privacy protection, etc. Then, we illustrate ...


Recent Advances In Wearable Sensing Technologies, Alfredo J. Perez, Sherali Zeadally Oct 2021

Recent Advances In Wearable Sensing Technologies, Alfredo J. Perez, Sherali Zeadally

Information Science Faculty Publications

Wearable sensing technologies are having a worldwide impact on the creation of novel business opportunities and application services that are benefiting the common citizen. By using these technologies, people have transformed the way they live, interact with each other and their surroundings, their daily routines, and how they monitor their health conditions. We review recent advances in the area of wearable sensing technologies, focusing on aspects such as sensor technologies, communication infrastructures, service infrastructures, security, and privacy. We also review the use of consumer wearables during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ...


An Exploratory Study Of Social Support Systems To Help Older Adults In Managing Mobile Safety, Tamir Mendel, Debin Gao, David Lo, Eran Toch Oct 2021

An Exploratory Study Of Social Support Systems To Help Older Adults In Managing Mobile Safety, Tamir Mendel, Debin Gao, David Lo, Eran Toch

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Older adults face increased safety challenges, such as targeted online fraud and phishing, contributing to the growing technological divide between them and younger adults. Social support from family and friends is often the primary way older adults receive help, but it may also lead to reliance on others. We have conducted an exploratory study to investigate older adults' attitudes and experiences related to mobile social support technologies for mobile safety. We interviewed 18 older adults about their existing support and used the think-aloud method to gather data about a prototype for providing social support during mobile safety challenges. Our findings ...


Secure Self-Checkout Kiosks Using Alma Api With Two-Factor Authentication, Ron Bulaon Aug 2021

Secure Self-Checkout Kiosks Using Alma Api With Two-Factor Authentication, Ron Bulaon

Research Collection Library

Self-checkout kiosks have become a staple feature of many modern and digitized libraries. These devices are used by library patrons for self-service item loans. Most implementations are not new, in fact many of these systems are simple, straight forward and work as intended. But behind this useful technology, there is a security concern on authentication that has to be addressed.

In my proposed presentation, I will discuss the risk factors of self-checkout kiosks and propose a solution using Alma APIs. I will address the technical shortcomings of the current implementations, compared to the proposed solution, and where the weakest link ...


Automated Privacy Protection For Mobile Device Users And Bystanders In Public Spaces, David Darling Jul 2021

Automated Privacy Protection For Mobile Device Users And Bystanders In Public Spaces, David Darling

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As smartphones have gained popularity over recent years, they have provided usersconvenient access to services and integrated sensors that were previously only available through larger, stationary computing devices. This trend of ubiquitous, mobile devices provides unparalleled convenience and productivity for users who wish to perform everyday actions such as taking photos, participating in social media, reading emails, or checking online banking transactions. However, the increasing use of mobile devices in public spaces by users has negative implications for their own privacy and, in some cases, that of bystanders around them.

Specifically, digital photography trends in public have negative implications for ...


An Analysis Of Modern Password Manager Security And Usage On Desktop And Mobile Devices, Timothy Oesch May 2021

An Analysis Of Modern Password Manager Security And Usage On Desktop And Mobile Devices, Timothy Oesch

Doctoral Dissertations

Security experts recommend password managers to help users generate, store, and enter strong, unique passwords. Prior research confirms that managers do help users move towards these objectives, but it also identified usability and security issues that had the potential to leak user data or prevent users from making full use of their manager. In this dissertation, I set out to measure to what extent modern managers have addressed these security issues on both desktop and mobile environments. Additionally, I have interviewed individuals to understand their password management behavior.

I begin my analysis by conducting the first security evaluation of the ...


Smart Contract Security: A Practitioners' Perspective, Zhiyuan Wan, Xin Xia, David Lo, Jiachi Chen, Xiapu Luo, Xiaohu Yang May 2021

Smart Contract Security: A Practitioners' Perspective, Zhiyuan Wan, Xin Xia, David Lo, Jiachi Chen, Xiapu Luo, Xiaohu Yang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Smart contracts have been plagued by security incidents, which resulted in substantial financial losses. Given numerous research efforts in addressing the security issues of smart contracts, we wondered how software practitioners build security into smart contracts in practice. We performed a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies with 13 interviewees and 156 survey respondents from 35 countries across six continents to understand practitioners' perceptions and practices on smart contract security. Our study uncovers practitioners' motivations and deterrents of smart contract security, as well as how security efforts and strategies fit into the development lifecycle. We also find that blockchain platforms ...


Trust Models And Risk In The Internet Of Things, Jeffrey Hemmes Apr 2021

Trust Models And Risk In The Internet Of Things, Jeffrey Hemmes

Regis University Faculty Publications

The Internet of Things (IoT) is envisaged to be a large-scale, massively heterogeneous ecosystem of devices with varying purposes and capabilities. While architectures and frameworks have focused on functionality and performance, security is a critical aspect that must be integrated into system design. This work proposes a method of risk assessment of devices using both trust models and static capability profiles to determine the level of risk each device poses. By combining the concepts of trust and secure device fingerprinting, security mechanisms can be more efficiently allocated across networked IoT devices. Simultaneously, devices can be allowed a greater degree of ...


Concentration Inequalities In The Wild: Case Studies In Blockchain & Reinforcement Learning, A. Pinar Ozisik Apr 2021

Concentration Inequalities In The Wild: Case Studies In Blockchain & Reinforcement Learning, A. Pinar Ozisik

Doctoral Dissertations

Concentration inequalities (CIs) are a powerful tool that provide probability bounds on how a random variable deviates from its expectation. In this dissertation, first I describe a blockchain protocol that I have developed, called Graphene, which uses CIs to provide probabilistic guarantees on performance. Second, I analyze the extent to which CIs are robust when the assumptions they require are violated, using Reinforcement Learning (RL) as the domain.

Graphene is a method for interactive set reconciliation among peers in blockchains and related distributed systems. Through the novel combination of a Bloom filter and an Invertible Bloom Lookup Table, Graphene uses ...


Using Grids As Password Entry Devices, Karol Lejmbach Apr 2021

Using Grids As Password Entry Devices, Karol Lejmbach

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The classic text-based password has been around for a very long time. A lot of security research has been conducted on it. A set of best practices has been available for many years stressing the use of longer and more complex passwords. The issue with this approach is that humans have a hard time recalling long complex sequences of characters. Worse, the more complex the string of characters the more prone it is to being written down which is the most detrimental security threat. The goal of this paper is to introduce and provide an introductory analysis of a grid-based ...


Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? How Vulnerable Dependencies Affect Open-Source Projects, Gede Artha Azriadi Prana, Abhishek Sharma, Lwin Khin Shar, Darius Foo, Andrew E. Santosa, Asankhaya Sharma, David Lo Apr 2021

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? How Vulnerable Dependencies Affect Open-Source Projects, Gede Artha Azriadi Prana, Abhishek Sharma, Lwin Khin Shar, Darius Foo, Andrew E. Santosa, Asankhaya Sharma, David Lo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Context: Software developers often use open-source libraries in their project to improve development speed. However, such libraries may contain security vulnerabilities, and this has resulted in several high-profile incidents in re- cent years. As usage of open-source libraries grows, understanding of these dependency vulnerabilities becomes increasingly important. Objective: In this work, we analyze vulnerabilities in open-source libraries used by 450 software projects written in Java, Python, and Ruby. Our goal is to examine types, distribution, severity, and persistence of the vulnerabili- ties, along with relationships between their prevalence and project as well as commit attributes. Method: Our data is obtained ...


New Enhanced Authentication Protocol For Internet Of Things, Mourade Azrour, Jamal Mabrouki, Azedine Guezzaz, Yousef Farhaoui Mar 2021

New Enhanced Authentication Protocol For Internet Of Things, Mourade Azrour, Jamal Mabrouki, Azedine Guezzaz, Yousef Farhaoui

Big Data Mining and Analytics

Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a new extended network that enables to any object to be linked to the Internet in order to exchange data and to be controlled remotely. Nowadays, due to its multiple advantages, the IoT is useful in many areas like environment, water monitoring, industry, public security, medicine, and so on. For covering all spaces and operating correctly, the IoT benefits from advantages of other recent technologies, like radio frequency identification, wireless sensor networks, big data, and mobile network. However, despite of the integration of various things in one network and the exchange of data among ...


Security Against Data Falsification Attacks In Smart City Applications, Venkata Praveen Kumar Madhavarapu Jan 2021

Security Against Data Falsification Attacks In Smart City Applications, Venkata Praveen Kumar Madhavarapu

Doctoral Dissertations

Smart city applications like smart grid, smart transportation, healthcare deal with very important data collected from IoT devices. False reporting of data consumption from device failures or by organized adversaries may have drastic consequences on the quality of operations. To deal with this, we propose a coarse grained and a fine grained anomaly based security event detection technique that uses indicators such as deviation and directional change in the time series of the proposed anomaly detection metrics to detect different attacks. We also built a trust scoring metric to filter out the malicious devices. Another challenging problem is injection of ...


Quality Of Sql Code Security On Stackoverflow And Methods Of Prevention, Robert Klock Jan 2021

Quality Of Sql Code Security On Stackoverflow And Methods Of Prevention, Robert Klock

Honors Papers

This paper explores the frequency at which SQL/PHP posts on the website Stackoverflow.com contain code susceptible to SQL Injection, a common database vulnerability. Specifically, we analyze whether other users give notice of the vulnerability or provide an answer that is secure. The majority of questions analyzed were vulnerable to SQL Injection and were not corrected in their answers or brought to the attention of the original poster. To mitigate this, we present a machine learning bot which analyzes the poster’s code and alerts them of potential injection vulnerabilities, if necessary.


Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann Jan 2021

Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As local, state, and federal governments increase their reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making tools designed and operated by private contractors, so too do public concerns increase over the accountability and transparency of such AI tools. But current calls to respond to these concerns by banning governments from using AI will only deny society the benefits that prudent use of such technology can provide. In this Article, we argue that government agencies should pursue a more nuanced and effective approach to governing the governmental use of AI by structuring their procurement contracts for AI tools and services in ways that ...


Covid-19 And Biocybersecurity's Increasing Role On Defending Forward, Xavier Palmer, Lucas N. Potter, Saltuk Karahan Jan 2021

Covid-19 And Biocybersecurity's Increasing Role On Defending Forward, Xavier Palmer, Lucas N. Potter, Saltuk Karahan

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The evolving nature of warfare has been changing with cybersecurity and the use of advanced biotechnology in each aspect of the society is expanding and overlapping with the cyberworld. This intersection, which has been described as “biocybersecurity” (BCS), can become a major front of the 21st-century conflicts. There are three lines of BCS which make it a critical component of overall cybersecurity: (1) cyber operations within the area of BCS have life threatening consequences to a greater extent than other cyber operations, (2) the breach in health-related personal data is a significant tool for fatal attacks, and (3) health-related misinformation ...