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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Transformative Policies Supporting Equitable Workforce Progress, India Shiroma Perreira, Eo Hanabusa, Leaders 20/20 Mar 2024

Transformative Policies Supporting Equitable Workforce Progress, India Shiroma Perreira, Eo Hanabusa, Leaders 20/20

San Diego Regional Quality of Life Dashboard

As the need for Green Workforce jobs rises, it is essential that companies are transparent about pay. The California Pay Transparency Law (SB 1162) enforces job descriptions that explicitly outline employee compensation, which is also a step towards closing gender and race-based pay gaps. It also prohibits employers from using hiring practices that may be discriminatory against certain groups of people. SB 1162 builds honesty, trust, and equity in the workplace for job seekers today and for generations to come.


Navigating Sustainable Futures, Franziska Zimmermann Mar 2024

Navigating Sustainable Futures, Franziska Zimmermann

Asian Management Insights

A leadership imperative.


Genetic Modification – Applications For Forage And Grassland Production Systems, J. R. Caradus Feb 2024

Genetic Modification – Applications For Forage And Grassland Production Systems, J. R. Caradus

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Genetic modification has been extensively used in crops for 25 years but has rarely been a technology used to advance trait expression in forage and grassland species. The exceptions are the use of herbicide tolerance and low lignin traits in alfalfa which are currently commercially available. In crop species genetic modification has been a valuable option for delivering improved economic and environmental outcomes through providing solutions for many of the challenges facing mankind. There are a many beneficial characteristics that genetic modification has the potential to provide in forage and grassland species. Managing these in the environment and understanding consumer …


Environmental Co-Benefits Of Improved Forages In Smallholder Dairy Systems Of Kenya, A. Notenbaert, S. Mwendia, S. Burkart, P. Karimi, E. Mwema Feb 2024

Environmental Co-Benefits Of Improved Forages In Smallholder Dairy Systems Of Kenya, A. Notenbaert, S. Mwendia, S. Burkart, P. Karimi, E. Mwema

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Livestock play a major role across Kenya, especially in smallholder mixed farms through provision of household nutrition and income through milk and meat. Equally, fertilization of cropland benefits from livestock manure, and livestock often act as insurance and saving. Despite the opportunities and benefits livestock production presents, livestock systems are also key drivers of environmental degradation, including increased nutrient loads, GHG emissions, water use, grassland degradation and land-use conversion. Low livestock productivity, largely due to use of low-quality crop residues and natural grasses often not endowed with nutrients key for animal performance, limits the potential positive contributions of livestock and …


The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley Jan 2024

The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist Jan 2024

Raising Student Awareness Of Environmental Issues Via Writing Assignments With Differential Equations, Michelle L. Ghrist

CODEE Journal

In this paper, I discuss two environmentally-focused writing assignments that I developed and implemented in recent integral calculus and differential equations courses. These models of carbon storage and PCB’s in a river provide interesting applications of one-compartment mixing problems. The assignments were intended to focus student attention on sustainability concerns while also developing other essential skills. I discuss these assignments and their effect on my students’ technical writing and environmental awareness. Detailed introductory instructions and mostly complete solutions to these assignments appear in the appendices, to include sample student work.


2023 San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative Annual Report, San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative Jan 2024

2023 San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative Annual Report, San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

The San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative is a network for public agencies that serves the San Diego region to share expertise, leverage resources and advance comprehensive solutions to facilitate climate change planning. By partnering with academia, nonprofits, and businesses, the SDRCC also works to leverage the profile of regional leadership. This is the 2023 San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative Annual Report.


Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems In The Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Are An Unexploited Opportunity For Climate Change Mitigation, Vanessa Hatje, Margareth Copertino, Vinicius F. Patire, Ximena Ovando, Josiah Ogbuka, Beverly J. Johnson, Hilary Kennedy, Pere Masque, Joel C. Creed Dec 2023

Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems In The Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Are An Unexploited Opportunity For Climate Change Mitigation, Vanessa Hatje, Margareth Copertino, Vinicius F. Patire, Ximena Ovando, Josiah Ogbuka, Beverly J. Johnson, Hilary Kennedy, Pere Masque, Joel C. Creed

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Vegetated coastal ecosystems (mangroves, seagrasses, and saltmarshes, often called Blue Carbon ecosystems) store large carbon stocks. However, their regional carbon inventories, sequestration rates, and potential as natural climate change mitigation strategies are poorly constrained. Here, we systematically review organic carbon storage and accumulation rates in vegetated coastal ecosystems across the Central and Southwestern Atlantic, extending from Guyana (08.28°N) to Argentina (55.14°S). We estimate that 0.4 Pg organic carbon is stored in the region, which is approximately 2-5% of global carbon stores in coastal vegetated systems, and that they accumulate 0.5 to 3.9 Tg carbon annually. By ecosystem type, mangroves have …


Biodiversity And The Ecological Role Of Grasslands Environment And Territory, Elimane Lo, Makhmutov Serguei, Badim Almazov Nov 2023

Biodiversity And The Ecological Role Of Grasslands Environment And Territory, Elimane Lo, Makhmutov Serguei, Badim Almazov

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Biodiversity is all the living species that inhabit the planet: plants, animals, microorganisms, but also their genetic diversity and all the ecosystems in which they live. The preservation of biodiversity is vital, because the organisms that constitute it participate in the major ecological cycles of air, soil and water It is today recognized for its intrinsic value and for the functions it provides in ecosystems. The grassland and the hedges that surround them play a key role in carbon storage, water purification, biodiversity and the typicity of landscapes. They partly provide the plants necessary for feeding herds of herbivores (cattle, …


Water Efficiency & Sustainability In The Mountain West, 2022, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Oct 2023

Water Efficiency & Sustainability In The Mountain West, 2022, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet analyzes the effectiveness of state-level policies related to water usage, conservation, and sustainability for the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah in 2022. The original data are published in the “2022 State Policy Scorecard for Water Efficiency and Sustainability” report written by the Alliance for Water Efficiency.


Environmental And Socio-Economic Stress In The Mountain West, Ayda Atici, Caitlin J. Saladino, Fatma Nasoz, William E. Brown Jr. Aug 2023

Environmental And Socio-Economic Stress In The Mountain West, Ayda Atici, Caitlin J. Saladino, Fatma Nasoz, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet examines data on environmental and socio-economic risk metrics including which metrics pose the most risk for Nevada counties.The data are retrieved from “System for the Triage of Risks from Environmental and Socio-Economic Stressors” created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) joint program on the science and policy of global change.


Silvopastoral Systems: Analyses Of An Alternative To Open Swards, James H. Mcadam, M. R. Mosquera-Losada, V. Papanastasis, Andrea Pardini, M. L. Rigueiro-Rodríguez Aug 2023

Silvopastoral Systems: Analyses Of An Alternative To Open Swards, James H. Mcadam, M. R. Mosquera-Losada, V. Papanastasis, Andrea Pardini, M. L. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Silvopasture is a sustainable land use management practiced in most continents in the world including parts of southern Europe, but is not broadly used in northern and western Europe. The importance of this practice has been recognised and the last draft of the EU regulation by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (http://europa.eu.int/comm/agriculture/capreform/rurdevprop_en.pdf) includes specifically funding for establishment of agroforestry practices in Europe. This paper discusses the advantages of managing semi intensive grassland within a silvopastoral system from an ecological, productive and social point of view in the south, south-central and western countries of Europe.


New Zealand Pastoral Systems: A Current Perspective, F. R. Duder, R. B. Green, W. D. Catto, D. R. Woodfield, B. R. Guy Aug 2023

New Zealand Pastoral Systems: A Current Perspective, F. R. Duder, R. B. Green, W. D. Catto, D. R. Woodfield, B. R. Guy

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

New Zealand's diverse grassland resource of 13.5 M ha of permanent pasture, tussock or alpine grasslands underpin an intensive pastoral industry worth NZ$13 billion in 2004. The pastoral industry involves 37,000 farmers and a service industry of about 215,000 persons. It produces 27 M prime export lambs and 180,000 t of predominantly crossbred wool from 40 M ewes; 13 B litres of milk from 5.2 M dairy cattle; 800,000 t of beef from 4.7 M beef cattle and 33,000 t of venison from 2 M deer. Pastures and forage crops, mostly non- irrigated, are grazed 'in situ' by animals through …


Assessment And Monitoring Of Grazing Lands In The Northeastern United States, M. A. Sanderson, Sarah C. Goslee, J. B. Cropper, R. B. Bryant Aug 2023

Assessment And Monitoring Of Grazing Lands In The Northeastern United States, M. A. Sanderson, Sarah C. Goslee, J. B. Cropper, R. B. Bryant

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The Pasture Condition Score System (Cosgrove et al., 2001) was developed as a monitoring and management tool on grazing lands The system considers 10 indicators of soils, plants, and animals including percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, plant residue, plant vigor, percent legume, uniformity of use, livestock concentration areas, soil compaction, and soil erosion. The indicators are assigned a score according to detailed criteria and the scores are summed to give an overall score for a pasture, or relevant grazing unit. The score is then interpreted, indicating if some type of management change or treatment is necessary. We …


Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines And Natural Gas Facility At An Urban University, Mary Kate Ranii Aug 2023

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines And Natural Gas Facility At An Urban University, Mary Kate Ranii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fossil fuels generate the majority of the electricity in the United States and generate pollutants that negatively affect public and environmental health. Renewable energy projects serve as an opportunity for low-pollution and low-carbon electricity; small-scale projects, such as vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), provide opportunities for generation in urban areas close to consumers. Researchers collected wind speed and directional data from a potential turbine installation site at Duquesne University to better demonstrate the potential benefits in an urban university location. The data was used in a life cycle assessment framework and a social review to better understand the value of …


Bite-Sized Quantitative Reasoning Essays: A Review Of Numbers Don’T Lie: 71 Stories To Help Us Understand The Modern World (2020), By Vaclav Smil, Samuel L. Tunstall Jul 2023

Bite-Sized Quantitative Reasoning Essays: A Review Of Numbers Don’T Lie: 71 Stories To Help Us Understand The Modern World (2020), By Vaclav Smil, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

In Numbers Don’t Lie: 71 Stories to Help Us Understand the Modern World (2020), Vaclav Smil draws on his interdisciplinary background in science, public policy, and history to provide readers with 71 short essays that help us better understand aspects of the world–including its people, environment, energy consumption, and present crises (among other things). In most of his essays, Smil utilizes both data and reasoning with data to shed light on diverse topics, with issues ranging from happiness rankings and vaccine payoffs to chicken production and diesel engines. Though the book arguably has some flaws, its easy-to-digest essays–many of which …


Weather In Middle-Earth Or Tolkien: The Weather-Master?, Jonas Mertens Jul 2023

Weather In Middle-Earth Or Tolkien: The Weather-Master?, Jonas Mertens

Journal of Tolkien Research

Abstract

This article attempts to shed light on the use of weather in general and meteorological expressions in The Lord of the Rings, as J. R. R. Tolkien is well known to be a writer for whom the environment and natural world is closely intertwined with his storytelling. Both a manual count and a count which a digital text analysis tool were combined to find the frequency of previously selected weather terms. In total, more than 2,000 references were found in the books, with the words ‘sun’, ‘wind’ and ‘cold’ being the most abundant. Meteorological expressions are frequently encountered in …


Evaluating The Economic And Environmental Sustainability Of Integrated Farming Systems, C. A. Rotz, M. A. Sanderson, M. Wachendorf, F. Taube Jun 2023

Evaluating The Economic And Environmental Sustainability Of Integrated Farming Systems, C. A. Rotz, M. A. Sanderson, M. Wachendorf, F. Taube

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Economic and environmental sustainability has become a major concern for forage-based animal production in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. Development of more sustainable farming systems requires an assimilation of experimental and modelling research. Field research is critical for supporting the development and evaluation of models, and modelling is needed to integrate farm components for predicting the long-term effects and interactions resulting from farm management changes. Experimentally supported simulation provides a tool for evaluating and comparing farming strategies and predicting their effect on the watershed, region and beyond.


Planning For The Preservation Of Biodiversity And Environmental Assets In Support Of Sustainable Planning In Urban Areas, Case Study: Batu Licin City, Tanah Bumbu Regency, South Kalimantan, Dharma Kalsuma, Hendricus Andy Simarmata Jun 2023

Planning For The Preservation Of Biodiversity And Environmental Assets In Support Of Sustainable Planning In Urban Areas, Case Study: Batu Licin City, Tanah Bumbu Regency, South Kalimantan, Dharma Kalsuma, Hendricus Andy Simarmata

Smart City

Planning for preserving biodiversity and environmental assets in urban areas is crucial in supporting sustainable planning. This study aims to design a strategy for preserving biodiversity and environmental assets in Batu Licin, Tanah Bumbu Regency, South Kalimantan, to support sustainable urban planning. The method used is field observation and literature study. The results showed that the Batu Licin area has a relatively high potential for biodiversity and environmental assets. However, along with the growth of the Batu Licin urban area in the future, it will undoubtedly be a source of pressure on biodiversity. Several strategies can be implemented to overcome …


Pfas In News Media: A Quantitative And Qualitative Analysis, Madison Haley Jun 2023

Pfas In News Media: A Quantitative And Qualitative Analysis, Madison Haley

University Honors Theses

News media analysis allows for a greater understanding of mainstream public concerns throughout time. The history of US news articles covering per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a class of chemicals posing increasing threats to public health and the environment, demonstrates Americans' awareness and perceptions of these chemicals over time. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of PFAS-related national news articles in 2012-2022, this study discusses media representations and public perceptions of PFAS during the stated period. Results indicate an over 5700% increase in PFAS-related news articles over the 10-year timespan. Further, thematic analysis reveals that PFAS-related news articles are …


Environmental Contamination With Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile In Vietnam, Peng A. Khun, Long D. Phi, Huong T. T. Bui, Nguyen T. Bui, Quyen T. H. Vu, Luong D. Trinh, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley Jun 2023

Environmental Contamination With Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile In Vietnam, Peng A. Khun, Long D. Phi, Huong T. T. Bui, Nguyen T. Bui, Quyen T. H. Vu, Luong D. Trinh, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

AIMS: To investigate the prevalence, molecular type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridioides difficile in the environment in Vietnam, where little is known about C. difficile. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of pig faeces, soils from pig farms, potatoes, and the hospital environment were cultured for C. difficile. Isolates were identified and typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. The overall prevalence of C. difficile contamination was 24.5% (68/278). Clostridioides difficile was detected mainly in soils from pig farms and hospital soils, with 70%-100% prevalence. Clostridioides difficile was isolated from 3.4% of pig faecal samples and 5% of potato surfaces. The four …


Sustainability Analysis: Large-Scale Desalination Implications For Coastal California, Elizabeth H. Whitford May 2023

Sustainability Analysis: Large-Scale Desalination Implications For Coastal California, Elizabeth H. Whitford

Master's Projects and Capstones

In response to prolonged drought, desalination is gaining popularity as an alternative water production method for fresh water. However, water desalting technology poses concerns; the process is energy intensive, creates brine waste, and has the potential to damage sensitive coastal ecosystems. Significant research is available on the technological, economic, and energy efficiency aspects of desalination, while only a small percentage of the current literature focuses on environmental impacts. This research analyzes the desalination literature holistically in terms of both energy consumption and environmental impacts by conducting 1) a historical and current state review of the sector, 2) a technology analysis …


New Approaches To Clover Breeding, M. T. Abberton, T. A. Williams, T. P. T. Michaelson-Yeates, A. H. Marshall, C. Jones, E. Sizer-Coverdale, R. P. Collins Apr 2023

New Approaches To Clover Breeding, M. T. Abberton, T. A. Williams, T. P. T. Michaelson-Yeates, A. H. Marshall, C. Jones, E. Sizer-Coverdale, R. P. Collins

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (T. pratense) are the major forage legumes of temperate pastures. Breeding efforts have focused on overcoming the constraints to productivity and reliability in this species and thereby optimising their contribution to mixed swards. In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on livestock production and the efficient utilisation of forage material in the rumen. In this paper we report on a shift in the aims of forage legume breeding at IGER, building on a strong agronomic platform but giving greater consideration to the environmental footprint of our varieties …


Air Temperature And Diet Are Not Associated With Oxygen Consumption Rate In Banded Crickets, Gryllodes Sigillatus, Nicole Bailey, Connor Oakes, Rachel Sleeth, Mallorie Smith Apr 2023

Air Temperature And Diet Are Not Associated With Oxygen Consumption Rate In Banded Crickets, Gryllodes Sigillatus, Nicole Bailey, Connor Oakes, Rachel Sleeth, Mallorie Smith

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

All living organisms acclimate to their environments, with ectothermic species particularly susceptible to environmental change, specifically temperature. Ectothermic insects like crickets directly alter their physiological processes depending on the environment in which they live. Temperature is vital in regulating processes such as metabolism, respiration, and reproduction, among other things. What remains unclear is how a change in the environment, specifically extreme temperature change and dietary alterations, affects physiological processes. In this study, we performed experiments on ectothermic banded crickets to examine the effects of temperature change and the interaction of temperature and diet on oxygen consumption. For both experiments, we …


Recycling In The Mountain West, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Mar 2023

Recycling In The Mountain West, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet synthesizes data on rates of recycling from the March 2021 report "50 States of Recycling," sponsored by the Ball Corporation.The information presented in this document focuses on the effectiveness of recycling in total and by recyclable item, as well as the quantity of product recycled specifically within the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.


Environment And Sustainability: March 2023, Environment And Sustainability, Office Of The President Mar 2023

Environment And Sustainability: March 2023, Environment And Sustainability, Office Of The President

Environment and Sustainability

• Green tips campaign

• Green Events Guide

• Supplier workshop for climate action

• New solar panels in Karachi and Kampala

• Organic vegetables supplied to NFSD, Stadium Road

• And much more…


Environmental Clustering Of New Zealand Dairy Herds, J. R. Bryant, N. López-Villalobos, J. E. Pryce, C. W. Holmes Feb 2023

Environmental Clustering Of New Zealand Dairy Herds, J. R. Bryant, N. López-Villalobos, J. E. Pryce, C. W. Holmes

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Previous studies have found that milk yield (a proxy for feeding level) and temperature-humidity index (THI) are important factors in explaining genotype x environment (G x E) interactions, indicating differences between the abilities of genotypes to forage or consume concentrates effectively or to cope with thermal stress (Ravagnolo and Misztal, 2000; Zwald et al., 2003). The objective of this study was to quantify and cluster (CL) herd environments within New Zealand (NZ) based on production levels, a summer heat load index (HLI) and geographical location.


Challenges And Opportunities For Animal Production From Temperate Pastures, D. A. Clark Feb 2023

Challenges And Opportunities For Animal Production From Temperate Pastures, D. A. Clark

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Key points

  1. Temperate pastures offer a major opportunity to reduce the feed costs associated with ruminant production.

  2. Pastures offer unique opportunities for producing high value components in feedstuffs that are beneficial to human health.

  3. The increased use of pasture will not automatically lead to improved environmental outcomes – difficult challenges exist in reducing nitrogen and greenhouse gas pollution.

  4. Grazed pasture systems offer advantages in animal welfare, provided management avoids the problems associated with climatic extremes, and the toxins associated with some pastures.

  5. To remain competitive with total mixed ration systems, and environmentally acceptable, pastures with higher intake characteristics that allow …


New Insights Into The Nutritional Value Of Grass, D. H. Rearte Feb 2023

New Insights Into The Nutritional Value Of Grass, D. H. Rearte

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Key points

  1. The rumen environment in cattle grazing high quality forage is different to that reported for cattle fed indoors with diets based on processed feedstuffs.
  2. Temperate pasture is an excellent source of nutrients for ruminants but a high energy:protein imbalance can occur when it is offered at the stage of optimal digestion.
  3. Beef and milk produced on grass in temperate regions have a composition with nutritional advantages over beef or milk produced in indoor systems based on concentrate.
  4. Increasing water soluble carbohydrate content of grasses would diminish environmental contamination by reducing the excretion of urea through the urine.
  5. Increasing …


Animal Welfare - Environment - Sustainable Development Nexus: Scoping Study, Janice H. Cox Feb 2023

Animal Welfare - Environment - Sustainable Development Nexus: Scoping Study, Janice H. Cox

Nexus – UNEP – Animal Welfare, Environment, Sustainable Development

A detailed report on the links between animal welfare, environmental health and global sustainability. Issues discussed include climate change, biodiversity, pollution and waste management, one health, sustainable development and just transitions.