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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Automatically Inferring Image Bases Of Arm32 Binaries, Daniel T. Chong Jan 2022

Automatically Inferring Image Bases Of Arm32 Binaries, Daniel T. Chong

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Reverse engineering tools rely on the critical image base value for tasks such as correctly mapping code into virtual memory for an emulator or accurately determining branch destinations for a disassembler. However, binaries are often stripped and therefore, do not explicitly state this value. Currently available solutions for calculating this essential value generally require user input in the form of parameter configurations or manual binary analysis, thus these methods are limited by the experience and knowledge of the user. In this thesis, we propose a user-independent solution for determining the image base of ARM32 binaries and describe our implementation. Our …


Locality Analysis Of Patched Php Vulnerabilities, Luke N. Holt Jan 2022

Locality Analysis Of Patched Php Vulnerabilities, Luke N. Holt

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The size and complexity of modern software programs is constantly growing making it increasingly difficult to diligently find and diagnose security exploits. The ability to quickly and effectively release patches to prevent existing vulnerabilities significantly limits the exploitation of users and/or the company itself. Due to this it has become crucial to provide the capability of not only releasing a patched version, but also to do so quickly to mitigate the potential damage. In this thesis, we propose metrics for evaluating the locality between exploitable code and its corresponding sanitation API such that we can statistically determine the proximity of …


Realistic Virtual Human Character Design Strategy And Experience For Supporting Serious Role-Playing Simulations On Mobile Devices, Sindhu Kumari Jan 2022

Realistic Virtual Human Character Design Strategy And Experience For Supporting Serious Role-Playing Simulations On Mobile Devices, Sindhu Kumari

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Promoting awareness of social determinants of health (SDoH) among healthcare providers is important to improve the patient care experience and outcome as it helps providers understand their patients in a better way which can facilitate more efficient and effective communication about health conditions. Healthcare professionals are typically educated about SDoH through lectures, questionaries, or role-play-based approaches; but in today’s world, it is becoming increasingly possible to leverage modern technology to create more impactful and accessible tools for SDoH education. Wright LIFE (Lifelike Immersion for Equity) is a simulation-based training tool especially created for this purpose. It is a mobile app …


Fabrication And Characterization Of Novel Agnps Functionalized With Chlorothymol (C@Agnps), Lirim Sopaj Jan 2022

Fabrication And Characterization Of Novel Agnps Functionalized With Chlorothymol (C@Agnps), Lirim Sopaj

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In this study, novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized and functionalized with an antibacterial agent, namely chlorothymol (denoted C@AgNPs). The resulting colloid (C@AgNPs) was purified by two comparative methods: ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. Ultrafiltration proved to be more efficient in purifying and size selecting (10 kD filter) and concentrating the C@AgNPs than ultracentrifugation. The physicochemical properties of the filtered C@AgNPs were then characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Raman spectroscopy, Cytoviva hyperspectral imaging, and Scanning electron microscopy. These measurements confirmed the functionalization of the core AgNPs with chlorothymol and suggest the proposed mechanism of …


Secure Authenticated Key Exchange For Enhancing The Security Of Routing Protocol For Low-Power And Lossy Networks, Sarah Mohammed Alzahrani Jan 2022

Secure Authenticated Key Exchange For Enhancing The Security Of Routing Protocol For Low-Power And Lossy Networks, Sarah Mohammed Alzahrani

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The current Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) standard provides three security modes Unsecured Mode (UM), Preinstalled Secure Mode (PSM), and Authenticated Secure Mode (ASM). The PSM and ASM are designed to prevent external routing attacks and specific replay attacks through an optional replay protection mechanism. RPL's PSM mode does not support key replacement when a malicious party obtains the key via differential cryptanalysis since it considers the key to be provided to nodes during the configuration of the network. This thesis presents an approach to implementing a secure authenticated key exchange mechanism for RPL, which ensures …


Harmful Algal Blooms In Caesar Creek Lake And Their Relationship To Riparian Cover, Morgan C. Grunden Jan 2022

Harmful Algal Blooms In Caesar Creek Lake And Their Relationship To Riparian Cover, Morgan C. Grunden

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Caesar Creek Lake (CCL) in Warren County, OH has recently been experiencing harmful algal blooms (HABs) which are most likely attributed to an excess of phosphorus (P) from fertilizers and manures applied to surrounding fields. Sediments act as a sink for P later supplying a source of P in lakes for HABs when waters become thermally stratified and anoxic. This study seeks to determine the relationship between HABs in CCL and riparian cover at the main tributaries, Anderson Fork and Caesar Creek. In order to do this, sediment samples were collected from four sample sites along Anderson Fork and three …


Building An Understanding Of Human Activities In First Person Video Using Fuzzy Inference, Bradley A. Schneider Jan 2022

Building An Understanding Of Human Activities In First Person Video Using Fuzzy Inference, Bradley A. Schneider

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Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s) are the activities that people perform every day in their home as part of their typical routine. The in-home, automated monitoring of ADL’s has broad utility for intelligent systems that enable independent living for the elderly and mentally or physically disabled individuals. With rising interest in electronic health (e-Health) and mobile health (m-Health) technology, opportunities abound for the integration of activity monitoring systems into these newer forms of healthcare. In this dissertation we propose a novel system for describing ’s based on video collected from a wearable camera. Most in-home activities are naturally defined by …


Has Winter Weather In Southwest Ohio Been Affected By The El Niño Southern Oscillation, The North Atlantic Oscillation, The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, And The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation?, John A. Blue Jan 2022

Has Winter Weather In Southwest Ohio Been Affected By The El Niño Southern Oscillation, The North Atlantic Oscillation, The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, And The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation?, John A. Blue

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Winter temperature and precipitation in Southwest Ohio over the last century were examined for anomalies attributable to teleconnections with large-scale atmospheric perturbations caused by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The record of temperature gives evidence of a teleconnection with the NAO, ENSO, and PDO, with the strongest link being for phases of the NAO. Most winters during positive NAO phases had mean monthly temperature warmer than the century long mean, and the majority of negative NAO phase winters had colder temperatures. The difference …


Detection And Identification Of Prevalent Cutting Agents In 'Street' Samples Utilizing Handheld And Benchtop Raman Spectroscopy And Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (Sers), Nicole Kenny Jan 2022

Detection And Identification Of Prevalent Cutting Agents In 'Street' Samples Utilizing Handheld And Benchtop Raman Spectroscopy And Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (Sers), Nicole Kenny

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Illicit and licit drugs continue to have a negative impact on the public’s health even with new regulations and laws. At local, state, and federal levels, crime laboratories analyze samples in a variety of mixtures and concentrations. Raman spectroscopy is a molecular fingerprinting, multiplex technique, which is considered a category A forensic characterization tool by the Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs (SWGDRUG). The sensitivity of the Raman technique can be further enhanced down to the single-molecule detection level when analytes of interest are located at the interstitial sites of aggregated silver nanoparticles (i.e., the “hot spots” …


Validating Software States Using Reverse Execution, Nathaniel Christian Boland Jan 2022

Validating Software States Using Reverse Execution, Nathaniel Christian Boland

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A key feature of software analysis is determining whether it is possible for a program to reach a certain state. Various methods have been devised to accomplish this including directed fuzzing and dynamic execution. In this thesis we present a reverse execution engine to validate states, the Complex Emulator. The Complex Emulator seeks to validate a program state by emulating it in reverse to discover if a contradiction exists. When unknown variables are found during execution, the emulator is designed to use constraint solving to compute their values. The Complex Emulator has been tested on small assembly programs and is …


Detection Of Benzotriazole And Related Analogues In Surface Samples Collected Near An Ohio Airpark, Clara Leedy Jan 2022

Detection Of Benzotriazole And Related Analogues In Surface Samples Collected Near An Ohio Airpark, Clara Leedy

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Benzotriazoles are a class of contaminant of emerging concern which are commonly used as anticorrosive agents in aircraft deicer and anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The analogues 1H-benzotriazole (BTZ), 4-methyl-1H-benzotrizole (4m-BTZ), and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5m-BTZ) are commonly found in environmental occurrence together. The two methylated isomers, collectively known as tolytriazole (TTZ), have different toxicity and stability. These contaminants are highly water soluble and resistant to biodegradation, making them persistent through water treatment. Benzotriazoles have been detected worldwide; this investigation focuses on monitoring three sites near a small airpark in Wilmington, Ohio. Two sites that receive runoff from the airpark, Lytle Creek and Indian …


Using Network Analysis To Contrast Three Models Of Student Forum Discussions, Hannah N. Benston Jan 2022

Using Network Analysis To Contrast Three Models Of Student Forum Discussions, Hannah N. Benston

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There is much research about how actors and events in social networks affect each other. In this research, three network models were created for discussion forums in three semesters of undergraduate general physics courses. This study seeks to understand what social network measures are most telling of a online forum classroom dynamic. That is, I wanted to understand more about things like what students are most central to the networks and whether this is consistent across different network models. I also wanted to better understand how students may or may not group together. What relationships (student to student, student to …


Gene Vectors With Fluorescence Tracking Capabilities, Sophia Despina Angelopoulos Jan 2022

Gene Vectors With Fluorescence Tracking Capabilities, Sophia Despina Angelopoulos

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This project focuses on the optimization of benzothiazole-based chromophores to utilize them as fluorescent tags functionalized onto stimuli-responsive, or “smart,” polymers as non-viral gene delivery vectors for gene therapy applications. Blue-fluorescent emissive chromophores will allow tracking capabilities for the transfection pathway of the vector to be monitored as it delivers the DNA payload within intercellular space. The most appropriate chromophore must be covalently bound to a free amine within the vector, which is accomplished through NAS chemistry from fluorophenyl-benzothiazoles (F-BTZ-CBz) derivatives to amidated hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine)(HPEI-IBAm0.61). HPEI is considered to be a synthetic polycation, which promotes tunable solubility through characteristics of …


Mercury Concentrations And Mercury Methylation Along The Freshwater To Marine Continuum, Lindsay D. Starr Jan 2022

Mercury Concentrations And Mercury Methylation Along The Freshwater To Marine Continuum, Lindsay D. Starr

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Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin that can have detrimental impacts on the human nervous system and on brain development in infants. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most toxic form of Hg and can concentrate to potentially harmful levels in higher levels of marine food webs. Production of MeHg in oxic water columns is poorly understood due to lack of knowledge of the mechanisms of formation and distribution. Recent work has reported widespread, putative Hg methylation genes in nitrite oxidizers, but any relationship with nitrifiers is unknown. This work focuses on Hg water column distribution, speciation, and methylation. The aims of this …


Synthetic Aperture Ladar Automatic Target Recognizer Design And Performance Prediction Via Geometric Properties Of Targets, Jacob W. Ross Jan 2022

Synthetic Aperture Ladar Automatic Target Recognizer Design And Performance Prediction Via Geometric Properties Of Targets, Jacob W. Ross

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Synthetic Aperture LADAR (SAL) has several phenomenology differences from Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) making it a promising candidate for automatic target recognition (ATR) purposes. The diffuse nature of SAL results in more pixels on target. Optical wavelengths offers centimeter class resolution with an aperture baseline that is 10,000 times smaller than an SAR baseline. While diffuse scattering and optical wavelengths have several advantages, there are also a number of challenges. The diffuse nature of SAL leads to a more pronounced speckle effect than in the SAR case. Optical wavelengths are more susceptible to atmospheric noise, leading to distortions in formed …


Ufuzzer: Lightweight Detection Of Php-Based Unrestricted File Upload Vulnerabilities Via Static-Fuzzing Co-Analysis, Jin Huang, Junjie Zhang, Jialun Liu, Chuang Li Oct 2021

Ufuzzer: Lightweight Detection Of Php-Based Unrestricted File Upload Vulnerabilities Via Static-Fuzzing Co-Analysis, Jin Huang, Junjie Zhang, Jialun Liu, Chuang Li

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Unrestricted file upload vulnerabilities enable attackers to upload malicious scripts to a web server for later execution. We have built a system, namely UFuzzer, to effectively and automatically detect such vulnerabilities in PHP-based server-side web programs. Different from existing detection methods that use either static program analysis or fuzzing, UFuzzer integrates both (i.e., static-fuzzing co-analysis). Specifically, it leverages static program analysis to generate executable code templates that compactly and effectively summarize the vulnerability-relevant semantics of a server-side web application. UFuzzer then “fuzzes” these templates in a local, native PHP runtime environment for vulnerability detection. Compared to static-analysis-based methods, UFuzzer preserves …


Impact Of Wastes On Some Properties Of Soil Around An Active Dumpsite In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Oluwayemisi Samuel Olokeogun, Idayat Adewunmi Bodede Aug 2021

Impact Of Wastes On Some Properties Of Soil Around An Active Dumpsite In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Oluwayemisi Samuel Olokeogun, Idayat Adewunmi Bodede

Journal of Bioresource Management

Recently most farmers in developing country like Nigeria has resulted to the use of solid wastes as compost to replenish the deteriorated soils while some are farming on the abandoned waste dumpsite due to their richness in organic matter. This study assessed the soil nutrient and fertility status by investigating the influence of wastes (if any) on physical and chemical properties of soils in and around Lapite dumpsite for environmental sustainability. Ten soil samples each collected from three locations: dumpsite, downslope and upslope sites at depth of 0-20cm were analyzed for soil texture, bulk density, porosity, electrical conductivity, pH, organic …


Hydrochemical Assessment Of Groundwater Around Lapite Dumpsite For Irrigation Water Quality In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Adewunmi Idayat Bodede, Oluwatoyin Oluwatoyin Adekoya, Kekinde O. Babatunde May 2021

Hydrochemical Assessment Of Groundwater Around Lapite Dumpsite For Irrigation Water Quality In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Adewunmi Idayat Bodede, Oluwatoyin Oluwatoyin Adekoya, Kekinde O. Babatunde

Journal of Bioresource Management

Due to the increase in population and industrialization growth, most countries in the world depend on groundwater to meet agriculture demands for food production. The increase in water contamination due to indiscriminate solid wastes has necessitated the assessment of water quality and its suitability for agricultural usage. Twenty four groundwater and ten stream water samples were randomly collected from the downslope and upslope side of the dumpsite for all the major physio-chemical parameters. The pH of water samples indicates slightly acidic to alkaline in nature. High concentrations of nitrate, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity suggest the impact of the …


The Wright State – Lake Campus 2020 – 2021 Scholarly Review, Wright State University - Lake Campus Apr 2021

The Wright State – Lake Campus 2020 – 2021 Scholarly Review, Wright State University - Lake Campus

Lake Campus Research Symposium Reports

This report provides a listing of the scholarly endeavors from Lake Campus during the 2020 calendar year, spanning across disciplines.

This document contains the Annual Research Report from 2020 and the Research Symposium Program from 2021.


Computer Modeling Of Solar Thermal System With Underground Storage Tank For Space Heating, Mohammad Yousef Mousa Naser Jan 2021

Computer Modeling Of Solar Thermal System With Underground Storage Tank For Space Heating, Mohammad Yousef Mousa Naser

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Space heating is required in almost every dwelling across the country for different periods of time. The thermal energy needed to meet a heating demand can be supplied using different conventional and/or renewable technologies. Solar energy is one example of a renewable resource that can be used for supplying heating needs. It can be utilized either by using photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, that in turn can be used to operate heaters, or by using solar thermal panels. Solar thermal panels obtain higher operating efficiencies than photovoltaic panels, but solar energy for heating purposes suffers from a mismatch between supply …


Analysis Of Classifier Weaknesses Based On Patterns And Corrective Methods, Nicholas Skapura Jan 2021

Analysis Of Classifier Weaknesses Based On Patterns And Corrective Methods, Nicholas Skapura

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Classification is an important branch of machine learning that impacts many areas of modern life. Many classification algorithms (classifiers for short) have been developed. They have highly different levels of sophistication and classification accuracy. Classification problems often have highly different levels of hardness and complexity. Practitioners of classification modeling need better understanding of those algorithms in order to select the optimal algorithm for given classification problems. Researchers of classification need new insight on how given classifiers are weak and how they can be improved by correcting their classification errors. This dissertation introduces new tools and concepts to analyze classifier weakness …


Structural Analysis And Link Prediction Algorithm Comparison For A Local Scientific Collaboration Network, Denys Guriev Jan 2021

Structural Analysis And Link Prediction Algorithm Comparison For A Local Scientific Collaboration Network, Denys Guriev

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Scientific collaboration between researchers is very common and much influential and ground-breaking research is performed by teams comprised of scientist from different fields and organizations. In this thesis, we analyze and model a small scientific collaboration network limited to two organizations: Wright State University and the Air Force Research Laboratory. Research paper co-authorship is used for establishing the network structure. We analyze several network properties and compare them to past results from analysis of larger and more diverse collaboration networks. We show that the two-organization network we explored exhibits properties similar to those of larger networks. Guided by advances in …


Recommending Collaborations Using Link Prediction, Nikhil Chennupati Jan 2021

Recommending Collaborations Using Link Prediction, Nikhil Chennupati

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Link prediction in the domain of scientific collaborative networks refers to exploring and determining whether a connection between two entities in an academic network may emerge in the future. This study aims to analyze the relevance of academic collaborations and identify the factors that drive co-author relationships in a heterogeneous bibliographic network. Using topological, semantic, and graph representation learning techniques, we measure the authors' similarities w.r.t their structural and publication data to identify the reasons that promote co-authorships. Experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully infer the co-author links by identifying authors with similar research interests. Such a system …


Adaptive Two-Stage Edge-Centric Architecture For Deeply-Learned Embedded Real-Time Target Classification In Aerospace Sense-And-Avoidance Applications, Nicholas A. Speranza Jan 2021

Adaptive Two-Stage Edge-Centric Architecture For Deeply-Learned Embedded Real-Time Target Classification In Aerospace Sense-And-Avoidance Applications, Nicholas A. Speranza

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With the growing number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, current network-centric architectures present limitations in meeting real-time and time-critical requirements. Current methods utilizing centralized off-platform processing have inherent energy inefficiencies, scalability challenges, performance concerns, and cyber vulnerabilities. In this dissertation, an adaptive, two-stage, energy-efficient, edge-centric architecture is proposed to address these limitations. A novel, edge-centric Sense-and-Avoidance architecture framework is presented, and a corresponding prototype is developed using commercial hardware to validate the proposed architecture. Instead of a network-centric approach, processing is distributed at the logical edge of the sensors, and organized as Detection and Classification Subsystems. Classical machine vision algorithms are …


A Rebellion Framework With Learning For Goal-Driven Autonomy, Zahiduddin Mohammad Jan 2021

A Rebellion Framework With Learning For Goal-Driven Autonomy, Zahiduddin Mohammad

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Modeling an autonomous agent that decides for itself what actions to take to achieve its goals is a central objective of artificial intelligence. There are various approaches used to build autonomous agents including neural networks, state machines, utility functions, learning agents, and cognitive architectures. In this thesis, we focus on cognitive architectures. Our approach uses specific knowledge of the world, the goals they pursue, and the actions being performed. Most agents do what they are told (i.e., achieve the goals given to them by a human), but a genuinely autonomous agent does more. It can formulate its own goal or …


Power Scaling Of Ice Floe Sizes In The Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean, Tristan J. Coffey Jan 2021

Power Scaling Of Ice Floe Sizes In The Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean, Tristan J. Coffey

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The cumulative number versus floe area distribution of seasonal ice floes from four satellite images covering the Summer season (November - February) in the Weddell Sea Antarctica during the summer breakup and melting is fit by two scale-invariant power scaling regimes for the floe areas ranging from 7 to 20 x 108 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for larger floe areas range from -1.5 to -1.7 with an average of -1.6 for floe areas ranging from 6 x 106 to 55 x 107 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for smaller floe areas range from -0.8 to -0.9 with an average of -0.85 …


Analysis Of Amur Honeysuckle Stem Density As A Function Of Spatial Clustering, Horizontal Distance From Streams, Trails, And Elevation In Riparian Forests, Greene County, Ohio, Greg Michael Grierson Jr. Jan 2021

Analysis Of Amur Honeysuckle Stem Density As A Function Of Spatial Clustering, Horizontal Distance From Streams, Trails, And Elevation In Riparian Forests, Greene County, Ohio, Greg Michael Grierson Jr.

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The non-native invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder (Gorchov and Trisel, 2003), is one of the most prolific invasive plant species across Midwestern and Northeastern landscapes of the United States. The locations of 2,095 individual Amur honeysuckle stems were geolocated using handheld GPS units in the understory of mixed growth forests at two study sites located approximately 5 km apart in northwestern Greene County, OH. Each site has undergone different levels of anthropogenic disturbance through time. The stem position data was used to measure the spatial clumping distribution and the density of Amur honeysuckle. The spatial clumping of …


Effect Of Cloud Cover On Optimum Orientations Of Fixed Solar Panels For Maximum Yearly Energy Collection, Prethew Prasad Jan 2021

Effect Of Cloud Cover On Optimum Orientations Of Fixed Solar Panels For Maximum Yearly Energy Collection, Prethew Prasad

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The amount of cloud cover present in the sky is a significant factor when determining the solar radiation impinging on a solar panel. The optimum tilt required to achieve maximum energy impingement on a surface is also influenced by the amount of cloud cover. This work presents a method for determining the optimum tilt angle for a fixed solar panel when a set amount of cloud cover is present in the sky. Fixed tilt angles that have the most incident solar energy over the course of a year as a function of cloud cover, latitude, and azimuthal angle orientation are …


Diversity And Function Of Algal Biofilms In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Leon R. Katona Jan 2021

Diversity And Function Of Algal Biofilms In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Leon R. Katona

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Attached algae are ubiquitous components of lake benthic habitats wherever sufficient light reaches submerged surfaces. Attached algae interact with heterotrophic bacteria and fungi to form complex biofilms (“periphyton”) that provide a nutritious food source for consumers and influence biogeochemical cycling by regulating redox potential at the sediment-water interface. Despite their ecological importance, there are limited data on the role of periphyton in the Laurentian Great Lakes. I quantified wave exposure and light availability in rocky nearshore habitats in Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Periphyton biomass and productivity in nearshore Lake Erie was very high while algal biomass and productivity in …


Sediment-Water Fluxes Of Phosphorus And Trace Metals In The Maumee River, Northwest Ohio, Emily L. Holliday Jan 2021

Sediment-Water Fluxes Of Phosphorus And Trace Metals In The Maumee River, Northwest Ohio, Emily L. Holliday

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Excess phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the western basin of Lake Erie drive annual cyanobacteria blooms and associated hypoxia events. The Maumee River inputs ~5% of the water load into the western basin and ~50% of annual P loadings. I quantified seasonal variability of net P and metals fluxes from sediments in the Maumee River at four stations from Defiance, Ohio, to Maumee Bay. Upriver sediments were, on average, a total and filtered P sink throughout the year (−19 ± 7 and −6 ± 3, respectively; all fluxes represent `net flux’ reported in µmol m−2 h−1). At the river …