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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Impact Of Wastes On Some Properties Of Soil Around An Active Dumpsite In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Oluwayemisi Samuel Olokeogun, Idayat Adewunmi Bodede Aug 2021

Impact Of Wastes On Some Properties Of Soil Around An Active Dumpsite In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Oluwayemisi Samuel Olokeogun, Idayat Adewunmi Bodede

Journal of Bioresource Management

Recently most farmers in developing country like Nigeria has resulted to the use of solid wastes as compost to replenish the deteriorated soils while some are farming on the abandoned waste dumpsite due to their richness in organic matter. This study assessed the soil nutrient and fertility status by investigating the influence of wastes (if any) on physical and chemical properties of soils in and around Lapite dumpsite for environmental sustainability. Ten soil samples each collected from three locations: dumpsite, downslope and upslope sites at depth of 0-20cm were analyzed for soil texture, bulk density, porosity, electrical conductivity, pH, organic ...


Hydrochemical Assessment Of Groundwater Around Lapite Dumpsite For Irrigation Water Quality In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Adewunmi Idayat Bodede, Oluwatoyin Oluwatoyin Adekoya, Kekinde O. Babatunde May 2021

Hydrochemical Assessment Of Groundwater Around Lapite Dumpsite For Irrigation Water Quality In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, Oluwatoyin Opeyemi Akintola, Gabriel Oladapo Adeyemi, Adewunmi Idayat Bodede, Oluwatoyin Oluwatoyin Adekoya, Kekinde O. Babatunde

Journal of Bioresource Management

Due to the increase in population and industrialization growth, most countries in the world depend on groundwater to meet agriculture demands for food production. The increase in water contamination due to indiscriminate solid wastes has necessitated the assessment of water quality and its suitability for agricultural usage. Twenty four groundwater and ten stream water samples were randomly collected from the downslope and upslope side of the dumpsite for all the major physio-chemical parameters. The pH of water samples indicates slightly acidic to alkaline in nature. High concentrations of nitrate, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity suggest the impact of the ...


The Wright State – Lake Campus 2020 – 2021 Scholarly Review, Wright State University - Lake Campus Apr 2021

The Wright State – Lake Campus 2020 – 2021 Scholarly Review, Wright State University - Lake Campus

Lake Campus Research Symposium Reports

This report provides a listing of the scholarly endeavors from Lake Campus during the 2020 calendar year, spanning across disciplines.

This document contains the Annual Research Report from 2020 and the Research Symposium Program from 2021.


Analysis Of Classifier Weaknesses Based On Patterns And Corrective Methods, Nicholas Skapura Jan 2021

Analysis Of Classifier Weaknesses Based On Patterns And Corrective Methods, Nicholas Skapura

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Classification is an important branch of machine learning that impacts many areas of modern life. Many classification algorithms (classifiers for short) have been developed. They have highly different levels of sophistication and classification accuracy. Classification problems often have highly different levels of hardness and complexity. Practitioners of classification modeling need better understanding of those algorithms in order to select the optimal algorithm for given classification problems. Researchers of classification need new insight on how given classifiers are weak and how they can be improved by correcting their classification errors. This dissertation introduces new tools and concepts to analyze classifier weakness ...


Investigation Into The Source Of Contamination Of Surface Waters Flowing Through The Wright State University Woods, Nnadozie Kennedy Okeke Jan 2021

Investigation Into The Source Of Contamination Of Surface Waters Flowing Through The Wright State University Woods, Nnadozie Kennedy Okeke

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This investigative research was carried out with the purpose of determining the source of contaminants present in the surface waters flowing through the Wright State University woods. Five sample sites going from upstream to downstream namely; Inflow to Nutter Center Pond (INNCP), Nutter Center Pond (NCP), Outfall 21 (OTF 21), Burley, and Outfall 15 (OTF 15), were sampled over a time period spanning from June 2020 to January 2021. Samples collected were analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) using 3M™ Petrifilm™ E. coli/Coliform Count (EC) plates, select anions (Phosphate PO43-, Nitrate NO3-, Sulfate SO42-, Fluoride F- and Chloride Cl- ...


Cytoviva Hyperspectral Imaging For Comparing The Uptake And Transformation Of Agnps And Ag+ In Mitochondria, Kristina Steingass Jan 2021

Cytoviva Hyperspectral Imaging For Comparing The Uptake And Transformation Of Agnps And Ag+ In Mitochondria, Kristina Steingass

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Nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in the last decade, with applications in everyday products. Amongst all known nanomaterials in use, silver is the leading metal, present in 531 different types of products, owing to their unique optical, electrical, antimicrobial, and thermal properties. Though silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) come in contact regularly with the general population, there is little known about their toxicity mechanism due to limited techniques for thorough analysis. CytoViva Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) shows potential for filling these gaps. In this study, borohydride-capped AgNPs with an approximate diameter of 10 nm were synthesized using the modified Creighton method and characterized ...


A Deep Understanding Of Structural And Functional Behavior Of Tabular And Graphical Modules In Technical Documents, Michail Alexiou Jan 2021

A Deep Understanding Of Structural And Functional Behavior Of Tabular And Graphical Modules In Technical Documents, Michail Alexiou

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The rapid increase of published research papers in recent years has escalated the need for automated ways to process and understand them. The successful recognition of the information that is contained in technical documents, depends on the understanding of the document’s individual modalities. These modalities include tables, graphics, diagrams and etc. as defined in Bourbakis’ pioneering work. However, the depth of understanding is correlated to the efficiency of detection and recognition. In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for automatic processing of and understanding of tables and graphics images in technical document. Previous attempts on tables and graphics ...


Goal Management In Multi-Agent Systems, Venkatsampath Raja Gogineni Jan 2021

Goal Management In Multi-Agent Systems, Venkatsampath Raja Gogineni

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Autonomous agents in a multi-agent system coordinate to achieve their goals. However, in a partially observable world, current multi-agent systems are often less effective in achieving their goals. In much part, this limitation is due to an agent's lack of reasoning about other agents and their mental states. Another factor is the agent's inability to share required knowledge with other agents and the lack of explanations in justifying the reasons behind the goal. This research addresses these problems by presenting a general approach for agent goal management in unexpected situations. In this approach, an agent applies three main ...


Adaptive Two-Stage Edge-Centric Architecture For Deeply-Learned Embedded Real-Time Target Classification In Aerospace Sense-And-Avoidance Applications, Nicholas A. Speranza Jan 2021

Adaptive Two-Stage Edge-Centric Architecture For Deeply-Learned Embedded Real-Time Target Classification In Aerospace Sense-And-Avoidance Applications, Nicholas A. Speranza

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With the growing number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, current network-centric architectures present limitations in meeting real-time and time-critical requirements. Current methods utilizing centralized off-platform processing have inherent energy inefficiencies, scalability challenges, performance concerns, and cyber vulnerabilities. In this dissertation, an adaptive, two-stage, energy-efficient, edge-centric architecture is proposed to address these limitations. A novel, edge-centric Sense-and-Avoidance architecture framework is presented, and a corresponding prototype is developed using commercial hardware to validate the proposed architecture. Instead of a network-centric approach, processing is distributed at the logical edge of the sensors, and organized as Detection and Classification Subsystems. Classical machine vision algorithms are ...


Deep Learning For Compressive Sar Imaging With Train-Test Discrepancy, Morgan R. Mccamey Jan 2021

Deep Learning For Compressive Sar Imaging With Train-Test Discrepancy, Morgan R. Mccamey

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We consider the problem of compressive synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with the goal of reconstructing SAR imagery in the presence of under sampled phase history. While this problem is typically considered in compressive sensing (CS) literature, we consider a variety of deep learning approaches where a deep neural network (DNN) is trained to form SAR imagery from limited data. At the cost of computationally intensive offline training, on-line test-time DNN-SAR has demonstrated orders of magnitude faster reconstruction than standard CS algorithms. A limitation of the DNN approach is that any change to the operating conditions necessitates a costly retraining ...


Internal Loading Of Nitrogen (N) And Phosphorus (P), Reduced N Forms, And Periodic Mixing Support Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (Habs) In Shallow, Eutrophic Honeoye Lake (New York, Usa), Justin Adam Myers Jan 2021

Internal Loading Of Nitrogen (N) And Phosphorus (P), Reduced N Forms, And Periodic Mixing Support Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (Habs) In Shallow, Eutrophic Honeoye Lake (New York, Usa), Justin Adam Myers

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Cyanobacteria are important primary producers, but large cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (HABs) have many negative ecological and health impacts and are becoming increasingly common. Honeoye Lake (New York, USA) is a shallow, eutrophic lake characterized by increasingly frequent HABs. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads often drive HABs in lakes, and sediment processes can contribute to N removal (e.g., denitrification) or loading (e.g., N fixation, remineralization). Sediment cores and lake water were collected during May–October (2016–2018) at two sites and incubated with no amendments (controls) or 15N stable isotopes to measure sediment nutrient fluxes and N ...


Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion And Amplitude Variation With Offset (Avo) Attributes As Hydrocarbon Indicators In Carbonate Rocks: A Case Study From The Illinois Basin, Jacob T. Murchek Jan 2021

Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion And Amplitude Variation With Offset (Avo) Attributes As Hydrocarbon Indicators In Carbonate Rocks: A Case Study From The Illinois Basin, Jacob T. Murchek

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Amplitude anomalies in pre-stack seismic data have widely been used in the oil and gas industry as a risk analysis tool when exploring for hydrocarbons. AVO analysis is most often applied to poorly consolidated Tertiary rocks due to the compressibility of these strata when natural gas and porosity are present. In contrast, well-lithified carbonate rocks are less prone to producing a pre-stack amplitude response due to the rigidity of their frame. Pre-stack seismic data of a 2-D seismic profile were conditioned and interpreted to identify amplitude variation with offset (AVO) attributes corresponding to the presence of hydrocarbons within the North ...


Computational Simulation And Analysis Of Neuroplasticity, Madison E. Yancey Jan 2021

Computational Simulation And Analysis Of Neuroplasticity, Madison E. Yancey

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Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is the process by which neurons alter their activity in response to changes in network activity. Neuroscientists attempting to understand homeostatic synaptic plasticity have developed three different mathematical methods to analyze collections of event recordings from neurons acting as a proxy for neuronal activity. These collections of events are from control data and treatment data, referring to the treatment of neuron cultures with pharmacological agents that augment or inhibit network activity. If the distribution of control events can be functionally mapped to the distribution of treatment events, a better understanding of the biological processes underlying homeostatic synaptic ...


Sediment Nutrient Dynamics In Fondriest Agricultural Settling Pond, Marie Grace Bezold Jan 2021

Sediment Nutrient Dynamics In Fondriest Agricultural Settling Pond, Marie Grace Bezold

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Excess loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is a serious global problem and has numerous negative impacts on water quality of aquatic ecosystems including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. Anthropogenic activities (such as the Haber-Bosch process, burning of fossil fuels, sewage treatment, and manure reuse) have led to excess N loading to aquatic systems. Sediment N dynamics were examined from Oct 2019 – Oct 2020 in an agricultural settling pond connected to a constructed wetland adjacent to an agricultural field. Intact sediment cores were amended with 15N for continuous-flow incubations to measure denitrification and N fixation rates, as well ...


Mathematical Formula Recognition And Automatic Detection And Translation Of Algorithmic Components Into Stochastic Petri Nets In Scientific Documents, Elisavet Elli Kostalia Jan 2021

Mathematical Formula Recognition And Automatic Detection And Translation Of Algorithmic Components Into Stochastic Petri Nets In Scientific Documents, Elisavet Elli Kostalia

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A great percentage of documents in scientific and engineering disciplines include mathematical formulas and/or algorithms. Exploring the mathematical formulas in the technical documents, we focused on the mathematical operations associations, their syntactical correctness, and the association of these components into attributed graphs and Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). We also introduce a formal language to generate mathematical formulas and evaluate their syntactical correctness. The main contribution of this work focuses on the automatic segmentation of mathematical documents for the parsing and analysis of detected algorithmic components. To achieve this, we present a synergy of methods, such as string parsing according ...


Analysis Of Amur Honeysuckle Stem Density As A Function Of Spatial Clustering, Horizontal Distance From Streams, Trails, And Elevation In Riparian Forests, Greene County, Ohio, Greg Michael Grierson Jr. Jan 2021

Analysis Of Amur Honeysuckle Stem Density As A Function Of Spatial Clustering, Horizontal Distance From Streams, Trails, And Elevation In Riparian Forests, Greene County, Ohio, Greg Michael Grierson Jr.

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The non-native invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder (Gorchov and Trisel, 2003), is one of the most prolific invasive plant species across Midwestern and Northeastern landscapes of the United States. The locations of 2,095 individual Amur honeysuckle stems were geolocated using handheld GPS units in the understory of mixed growth forests at two study sites located approximately 5 km apart in northwestern Greene County, OH. Each site has undergone different levels of anthropogenic disturbance through time. The stem position data was used to measure the spatial clumping distribution and the density of Amur honeysuckle. The spatial clumping ...


Sample Mislabeling Detection And Correction In Bioinformatics Experimental Data, Soon Jye Kho Jan 2021

Sample Mislabeling Detection And Correction In Bioinformatics Experimental Data, Soon Jye Kho

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Sample mislabeling or incorrect annotation has been a long-standing problem in biomedical research and contributes to irreproducible results and invalid conclusions. These problems are especially prevalent in multi-omics studies in which a large set of biological samples are characterized by multiple types of omics platforms at different times or different labs. While multi-omics studies have demonstrated tremendous value in understanding disease biology and improving patient outcomes, the complexity of these studies may increase opportunities for human error. Fortunately, the interrelated nature of the data collected in multi-omics studies can be exploited to facilitate the identification and, in some cases, correction ...


Sediment-Water Fluxes Of Phosphorus And Trace Metals In The Maumee River, Northwest Ohio, Emily L. Holliday Jan 2021

Sediment-Water Fluxes Of Phosphorus And Trace Metals In The Maumee River, Northwest Ohio, Emily L. Holliday

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Excess phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the western basin of Lake Erie drive annual cyanobacteria blooms and associated hypoxia events. The Maumee River inputs ~5% of the water load into the western basin and ~50% of annual P loadings. I quantified seasonal variability of net P and metals fluxes from sediments in the Maumee River at four stations from Defiance, Ohio, to Maumee Bay. Upriver sediments were, on average, a total and filtered P sink throughout the year (−19 ± 7 and −6 ± 3, respectively; all fluxes represent `net flux’ reported in µmol m−2 h−1). At the river ...


Texture-Driven Image Clustering In Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Alexander H. Groeger Jan 2021

Texture-Driven Image Clustering In Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Alexander H. Groeger

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The additive manufacturing (AM) field is striving to identify anomalies in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) using multi-sensor in-process monitoring paired with machine learning (ML). In-process monitoring can reveal the presence of anomalies but creating a ML classifier requires labeled data. The present work approaches this problem by printing hundreds of Inconel-718 coupons with different processing parameters to capture a wide range of process monitoring imagery with multiple sensor types. Afterwards, the process monitoring images are encoded into feature vectors and clustered to isolate groups in each sensor modality. Four texture representations were learned by training two convolutional neural network ...


Diversity And Function Of Algal Biofilms In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Leon R. Katona Jan 2021

Diversity And Function Of Algal Biofilms In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Leon R. Katona

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Attached algae are ubiquitous components of lake benthic habitats wherever sufficient light reaches submerged surfaces. Attached algae interact with heterotrophic bacteria and fungi to form complex biofilms (“periphyton”) that provide a nutritious food source for consumers and influence biogeochemical cycling by regulating redox potential at the sediment-water interface. Despite their ecological importance, there are limited data on the role of periphyton in the Laurentian Great Lakes. I quantified wave exposure and light availability in rocky nearshore habitats in Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Periphyton biomass and productivity in nearshore Lake Erie was very high while algal biomass and productivity in ...


Finite Different Time-Domain Simulation Of Terahertz Waves Propagation Through Unmagnetized Plasma, Aditha Srikantha Senarath Jan 2021

Finite Different Time-Domain Simulation Of Terahertz Waves Propagation Through Unmagnetized Plasma, Aditha Srikantha Senarath

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In order to support ongoing terahertz time-domain spectroscopic experiments involving plasma characterization, it is beneficial to simulate the interaction of THz pulses with varying plasma configurations. In this approach, a 1-D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model was constructed to simulate the interaction of terahertz radiation with a plasma medium. In order to incorporate the plasma properties into the simulation, a Z-transformation was applied. This model is capable of simulating the following properties of plasmas including electron density, collision frequency, and the interaction length of the plasma medium. The simulated model was characterized using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The effects of ...


Edge Processing Of Image For Uas Sense And Avoidance, Christopher J. Rave Jan 2021

Edge Processing Of Image For Uas Sense And Avoidance, Christopher J. Rave

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Today there is a large market for Unmanned Aerial Systems. Although most current systems are remotely piloted by operators on the ground, increasingly, many of these systems will use some sort of automatic flight controller to help mitigate new challenges, due to their deployment at growing scale. These challenges include, but are not limited to, shortage of FAA-certified UAS pilots, transmission bandwidth and delay constraints and cyber security threats associated with wireless networking, profitability of operations constrained by energy capacity and efficiency and air dynamics planning, and etc. In order to address these rising challenges, this thesis is a part ...


North American Freshwater Snails As Paleoecologic Proxies In Crystal Lake, Medway, Ohio, Jaclyn R. Manker Jan 2021

North American Freshwater Snails As Paleoecologic Proxies In Crystal Lake, Medway, Ohio, Jaclyn R. Manker

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This study combines various paleoecological proxies found within a sediment core extracted from Crystal Lake, Medway, Ohio in order to assess the lake’s sensitivity to past climate changes and how that may have affected lake water levels. Crystal Lake is a natural kettle lake formed at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. It is now surrounded by approximately 500 residential homes and is privately owned by the HOA of Crystal Lake. A sediment core was extracted from Crystal Lake in 2007 and has been carbon dated to 18000 years before present, indicating that it contains a complete sedimentary history ...


Structural Analysis And Link Prediction Algorithm Comparison For A Local Scientific Collaboration Network, Denys Guriev Jan 2021

Structural Analysis And Link Prediction Algorithm Comparison For A Local Scientific Collaboration Network, Denys Guriev

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Scientific collaboration between researchers is very common and much influential and ground-breaking research is performed by teams comprised of scientist from different fields and organizations. In this thesis, we analyze and model a small scientific collaboration network limited to two organizations: Wright State University and the Air Force Research Laboratory. Research paper co-authorship is used for establishing the network structure. We analyze several network properties and compare them to past results from analysis of larger and more diverse collaboration networks. We show that the two-organization network we explored exhibits properties similar to those of larger networks. Guided by advances in ...


Computer Modeling Of Solar Thermal System With Underground Storage Tank For Space Heating, Mohammad Yousef Mousa Naser Jan 2021

Computer Modeling Of Solar Thermal System With Underground Storage Tank For Space Heating, Mohammad Yousef Mousa Naser

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Space heating is required in almost every dwelling across the country for different periods of time. The thermal energy needed to meet a heating demand can be supplied using different conventional and/or renewable technologies. Solar energy is one example of a renewable resource that can be used for supplying heating needs. It can be utilized either by using photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, that in turn can be used to operate heaters, or by using solar thermal panels. Solar thermal panels obtain higher operating efficiencies than photovoltaic panels, but solar energy for heating purposes suffers from a mismatch between ...


Human-Ai Teaming For Dynamic Interpersonal Skill Training, Xavian Alexander Ogletree Jan 2021

Human-Ai Teaming For Dynamic Interpersonal Skill Training, Xavian Alexander Ogletree

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In almost every field, there is a need for strong interpersonal skills. This is especially true in fields such as medicine, psychology, and education. For instance, healthcare providers need to show understanding and compassion for LGBTQ+ and BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and People of Color), or individuals with unique developmental or mental health needs. Improving interpersonal skills often requires first-person experience with expert evaluation and guidance to achieve proficiency. However, due to limited availability of assessment capabilities, professional standardized patients and instructional experts, students and professionals currently have inadequate opportunities for expert-guided training sessions. Therefore, this research aims to demonstrate leveraging ...


Recommending Collaborations Using Link Prediction, Nikhil Chennupati Jan 2021

Recommending Collaborations Using Link Prediction, Nikhil Chennupati

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Link prediction in the domain of scientific collaborative networks refers to exploring and determining whether a connection between two entities in an academic network may emerge in the future. This study aims to analyze the relevance of academic collaborations and identify the factors that drive co-author relationships in a heterogeneous bibliographic network. Using topological, semantic, and graph representation learning techniques, we measure the authors' similarities w.r.t their structural and publication data to identify the reasons that promote co-authorships. Experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully infer the co-author links by identifying authors with similar research interests. Such ...


A Rebellion Framework With Learning For Goal-Driven Autonomy, Zahiduddin Mohammad Jan 2021

A Rebellion Framework With Learning For Goal-Driven Autonomy, Zahiduddin Mohammad

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Modeling an autonomous agent that decides for itself what actions to take to achieve its goals is a central objective of artificial intelligence. There are various approaches used to build autonomous agents including neural networks, state machines, utility functions, learning agents, and cognitive architectures. In this thesis, we focus on cognitive architectures. Our approach uses specific knowledge of the world, the goals they pursue, and the actions being performed. Most agents do what they are told (i.e., achieve the goals given to them by a human), but a genuinely autonomous agent does more. It can formulate its own goal ...


Partial Facial Re-Imaging Using Generative Adversarial Networks, Derek Desentz Jan 2021

Partial Facial Re-Imaging Using Generative Adversarial Networks, Derek Desentz

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Existing facial recognition software relies heavily on using neural networks to extract key facial features to accurately classify known individuals. Some of these key features include the shape, size, and distance between an individual’s eyes, nose, and mouth. When these key features cannot be extracted due to facial coverings, existing applications become inaccurate and unreliable. The accuracy and reliability of these technologies are growing concerns as the facial recognition market continues to grow at an exponential rate. In this thesis, we have developed a web-based application service that is able to take in a partially covered face image and ...


Power Scaling Of Ice Floe Sizes In The Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean, Tristan J. Coffey Jan 2021

Power Scaling Of Ice Floe Sizes In The Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean, Tristan J. Coffey

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The cumulative number versus floe area distribution of seasonal ice floes from four satellite images covering the Summer season (November - February) in the Weddell Sea Antarctica during the summer breakup and melting is fit by two scale-invariant power scaling regimes for the floe areas ranging from 7 to 20 x 108 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for larger floe areas range from -1.5 to -1.7 with an average of -1.6 for floe areas ranging from 6 x 106 to 55 x 107 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for smaller floe areas range from -0.8 to -0.9 with ...