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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Resident Scientists-In-Schools: Harnessing Altruism In Stem, Alison Sloat Jan 2023

Resident Scientists-In-Schools: Harnessing Altruism In Stem, Alison Sloat

UNLV Best Teaching Practices Expo

The Resident Scientists-in-Schools and the STEM Teacher Development Academy program helps to diversify and expand the STEM pipeline in CCSD schools.


Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Dec 2022

Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet synthesizes data on drought levels within Nevada counties from the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) in 2022. The information presented in this document focuses on the breakdown of the number of Nevada residents affected by the droughts within each county and the drought experience in each county.


How Dynamic Adsorption Controls Surfactant‑Enhanced Boiling, Mario R. Mata, Brandon Ortiz, Dhruv Luhar, Vesper Evereux, H. Jeremy Cho Oct 2022

How Dynamic Adsorption Controls Surfactant‑Enhanced Boiling, Mario R. Mata, Brandon Ortiz, Dhruv Luhar, Vesper Evereux, H. Jeremy Cho

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Beyond Functional Diversity: The Importance Of Trophic Position To Understanding Functional Processes In Community Evolution, Roxanne M. W. Banker, Ashley A. Dineen, Melanie G. Sorman, Carrie L. Tyler, Peter D. Roopnarine Oct 2022

Beyond Functional Diversity: The Importance Of Trophic Position To Understanding Functional Processes In Community Evolution, Roxanne M. W. Banker, Ashley A. Dineen, Melanie G. Sorman, Carrie L. Tyler, Peter D. Roopnarine

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Ecosystem structure—that is the species present, the functions they represent, and how those functions interact—is an important determinant of community stability. This in turn a􀀀ects how ecosystems respond to natural and anthropogenic crises, and whether species or the ecological functions that they represent are able to persist. Here we use fossil data from museum collections, literature, and the Paleobiology Database to reconstruct trophic networks of Tethyan paleocommunities fromthe Anisian and Carnian (Triassic), Bathonian (Jurassic), and Aptian (Cretaceous) stages, and compare these to a previously reconstructed trophic network from a modern Jamaican reef community. We generated model food webs consistent with …


How Facial Features Convey Attention In Stationary Environments, Janelle Domantay, Brendan Morris Aug 2022

How Facial Features Convey Attention In Stationary Environments, Janelle Domantay, Brendan Morris

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

Awareness detection technologies have been gaining traction in a variety of enterprises; most often used for driver fatigue detection, recent research has shifted towards using computer vision technologies to analyze user attention in environments such as online classrooms. This paper aims to extend previous research on distraction detection by analyzing which visual features contribute most to predicting awareness and fatigue. We utilized the open-source facial analysis toolkit OpenFace in order to analyze visual data of subjects at varying levels of attentiveness. Then, using a Support-Vector Machine (SVM) we created several prediction models for user attention and identified the Histogram of …


Acreage Of Foreign Owned Farmland In The Mountain West, 2020, Geneva Martin, Saha Salahi, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Aug 2022

Acreage Of Foreign Owned Farmland In The Mountain West, 2020, Geneva Martin, Saha Salahi, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet examines foreign-owned farmland in the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, as originally reported by the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Farm Service Agency.


Renewable Energy Legislation In Nevada: 2017 - 2021, Peter Grema, Zachary Walusek, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Aug 2022

Renewable Energy Legislation In Nevada: 2017 - 2021, Peter Grema, Zachary Walusek, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

The purpose of this fact sheet is to summarize legislative actions from the biennial 79th, 80th, and 81st Nevada Legislative Sessions (2017, 2019, and 2021) regarding solar energy production and state efforts to reach 50 percent energy production from renewable sources by 2030. By 2050, Nevada has a statutorily mandated obligation to be a net-zero carbon producer in fulfilling energy production needs from large scale utility services.


Artificial Intelligence In The Radiomic Analysis Of Glioblastomas: A Review, Taxonomy, And Perspective, Ming Zhu, Sijia Li, Yu Kuang, Virginia B. Hill, Amy B. Heimberger, Lijie Zhai, Shenjie Zhai Aug 2022

Artificial Intelligence In The Radiomic Analysis Of Glioblastomas: A Review, Taxonomy, And Perspective, Ming Zhu, Sijia Li, Yu Kuang, Virginia B. Hill, Amy B. Heimberger, Lijie Zhai, Shenjie Zhai

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Radiological imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), are the standard-of-care non-invasive diagnostic approaches widely applied in neuro-oncology. Unfortunately, accurate interpretation of radiological imaging data is constantly challenged by the indistinguishable radiological image features shared by different pathological changes associated with tumor progression and/or various therapeutic interventions. In recent years, machine learning (ML)-based artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been widely applied in medical image processing and bioinformatics due to its advantages in implicit image feature extraction and integrative data analysis. Despite its recent rapid development, ML technology still faces many hurdles for its broader applications …


Wildfire Risk In Mountain West States, 2017-2021, Olivia K. Cheche, Corryn Richardson, Zachary Billot, Miguel Soriano Ralston, Vanessa Booth, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jul 2022

Wildfire Risk In Mountain West States, 2017-2021, Olivia K. Cheche, Corryn Richardson, Zachary Billot, Miguel Soriano Ralston, Vanessa Booth, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet examines data on wildfire destruction in the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The original report from the Insurance Information Institute presents findings on percent of properties at risk of wildfire destruction, the number of wildfires by state, and numbers of acres burned per state.


Steel Module-To-Concrete Core Connection Methods In High Rise Modular Buildings: A Critical Review, Bishal Poudel, Seungtaek Lee, Jin Ouk Choi Jun 2022

Steel Module-To-Concrete Core Connection Methods In High Rise Modular Buildings: A Critical Review, Bishal Poudel, Seungtaek Lee, Jin Ouk Choi

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

Modularization in a high-rise building is different from a small building, as it is exposed to more lateral forces like wind and earthquakes. The integrity, robustness, and overall stability of the modules and their performance is based on the joining techniques and strong structural systems. High lateral stiff construction structures like concrete shear walls and frames, braced steel frames, and steel moment frames are used for the stability of high-rise modular buildings. Similarly, high-rise stick-built buildings have concrete cores and perimeter frames for lateral load strength and stiffness. Methods for general steel-concrete connections are available in many works of literature. …


A Generalized Family Of Exponentiated Composite Distributions, Bowen Liu, Malwane Ananda Jun 2022

A Generalized Family Of Exponentiated Composite Distributions, Bowen Liu, Malwane Ananda

Mathematical Sciences Faculty Publications

In this paper, we propose a new family of distributions, by exponentiating the random variables associated with the probability density functions of composite distributions. We also derive some mathematical properties of this new family of distributions, including the moments and the limited moments. Specifically, two special models in this family are discussed. Three real datasets were chosen, to assess the performance of these two special exponentiated-composite models. When fitting to these three datasets, these three special exponentiated-composite distributions demonstrate significantly better performance, compared to the original composite distributions.


Evaluating The Behaviour Of Centrally Perforated Unreinforced Masonry Walls: Applications Of Numerical Analysis, Machine Learning, And Stochastic Methods, Mohsen Khaleghi, Javid Salimi, Visar Farhangi, Mohammad Javad Moradi, Moses Karakouzian May 2022

Evaluating The Behaviour Of Centrally Perforated Unreinforced Masonry Walls: Applications Of Numerical Analysis, Machine Learning, And Stochastic Methods, Mohsen Khaleghi, Javid Salimi, Visar Farhangi, Mohammad Javad Moradi, Moses Karakouzian

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

The presence of openings greatly affects the response of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls. This topic greatly attracts the attention of many researchers. Perforated unreinforced masonry (PURM) walls under in-plane loads through the truss discretization method (TDM) along with several machine learning approaches such as Multilayer perceptron (MLP), Group of Method Data Handling (GMDH), and Radial basis function (RBF) are described in this paper. A new method named Multi-pier (MP) that is fast and accurate, is used to determine the behavior of PURM walls. The results of the MP method are expressed as a ratio of lateral load-bearing capacity and initial …


The Dissolution And Recovery Of Critical Materials (Li2co3 And Uf6) From Ionic Liquid, Cassara Higgins May 2022

The Dissolution And Recovery Of Critical Materials (Li2co3 And Uf6) From Ionic Liquid, Cassara Higgins

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lithium and uranium are critical materials in both the energy industry and for national security. Lithium is necessary for the next generation of batteries and 6Li is valuable for the production of tritium necessary for both fusion energy and to maintain our nuclear stockpiles. Uranium is a fuel source or precursor fuel source for commercially operating nuclear fission power. The monitoring of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) enrichment at foreign facilities is important for the monitoring of nuclear safeguards and enforcement of non-proliferation treaties. Recovery methods for lithium at the end of life of batteries are necessary to ensure abundance of the …


Effects Of Distributed Energy Resources On The Bulk Electric System, Stryder Loveday May 2022

Effects Of Distributed Energy Resources On The Bulk Electric System, Stryder Loveday

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The traditional power grid was designed with a centralized resource distribution in mind, with a relatively small number of large power generation facilities supplying the vast majority of load. With recent efforts to further diversify the power grid as well as an increased interest in renewable energy sources, there has been an unprecedented amount of new DistributedEnergy Resources (DERs) added to the grid within the last decade. This often heavily influences the local demand where these resources are installed, often causing power to flow in ways not anticipated by the original design of the grid. This thesis reviews the potential …


Radiomic Features To Predict Overall Survival Time For Patients With Glioblastoma Brain Tumors Based On Machine Learning And Deep Learning Methods, Lina Chato May 2022

Radiomic Features To Predict Overall Survival Time For Patients With Glioblastoma Brain Tumors Based On Machine Learning And Deep Learning Methods, Lina Chato

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Machine Learning (ML) methods including Deep Learning (DL) Methods have been employed in the medical field to improve diagnosis process and patient’s prognosis outcomes. Glioblastoma multiforme is an extremely aggressive Glioma brain tumor that has a poor survival rate. Understanding the behavior of the Glioblastoma brain tumor is still uncertain and some factors are still unrecognized. In fact, the tumor behavior is important to decide a proper treatment plan and to improve a patient’s health. The aim of this dissertation is to develop a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis system (CADiag) based on ML/DL methods to automatically estimate the Overall Survival Time (OST) for …


Quality Assurance Procedures Implementation For Varian Truebeam, Yongquan Jiang May 2022

Quality Assurance Procedures Implementation For Varian Truebeam, Yongquan Jiang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Department of radiation oncology of Oncology Nevada updated its linear accelerator (LINAC) from Varian Clinac iX to a newer model known as Varian TrueBeam. The Varian TrueBeam LINAC includes 6x, 6xFFF (i.e., 6x without flattening filter known as flattening filter free), 10x, 10xFFF, 15x photon beams and 6e, 9e, 12e MeV electron beams. This system is also equipped with a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) couch, RapidArc, kV on board imager, MV portal imager and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) imaging. This system allows the clinical delivery of modern image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) modalities such as IMRT/VMAT, and SRS/SRT/SBRT. The …


Positive Solutions To Semilinear Elliptic Equations With Logistic-Type Nonlinearities And Harvesting In Exterior Domains, Eric Jameson May 2022

Positive Solutions To Semilinear Elliptic Equations With Logistic-Type Nonlinearities And Harvesting In Exterior Domains, Eric Jameson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Existing results provide the existence of positive solutions to a class of semilinear elliptic PDEs with logistic-type nonlinearities and harvesting terms both in RN and in bounded domains U ⊂ RN with N ≥ 3, when the carrying capacity of the environment is not constant. We consider these same equations in the exterior domain Ω, defined as the complement of the closed unit ball in RN , N ≥ 3, now with a Dirichlet boundary condition. We first show that the existing techniques forsolving these equations in the whole space RN can be applied to the exterior domain with some …


Physics Of Electromagnetic Counterparts Of Binary-Neutron-Star Mergers, Shunke Ai May 2022

Physics Of Electromagnetic Counterparts Of Binary-Neutron-Star Mergers, Shunke Ai

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are supposed to be the sources of a variety of astrophysical transients, including both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals. The types and properties of the post-merger central product contain crucial information for many unsolved physical problems. Since the current GW detectors are not sensitive enough in kHz, only GWs from the inspiral phase can be detected, so that one cannot directly study the central products from GWs. EM signals can serve as probes to infer the type and properties of the central product. When a long-lived neutron star (NS) is formed after the …


Terrestrial Planet Formation In M-Dwarf And Binary Star Systems, Anna C. Childs May 2022

Terrestrial Planet Formation In M-Dwarf And Binary Star Systems, Anna C. Childs

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

I examine circumbinary terrestrial planet formation in a gas free environment around various binary systems and terrestrial planet formation in a gaseous environment around M-dwarfs. While terrestrial cirumbinary planets have yet to be observed, this is likely due to observational bias. Motivated by recent observations of highly misaligned circumbinary gas disks, I perform a suite of n-body studies to understand the properties of terrestrial planets around various binary systems. In a polar alignment, a circumbinary disk is inclined by 90 degrees relative to the binary orbital plane. I find that terrestrial planet formation in a polar configuration may be as …


Built Environment, Land Use, And Crime: A Las Vegas Study, Stacey Lynn Clouse May 2022

Built Environment, Land Use, And Crime: A Las Vegas Study, Stacey Lynn Clouse

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examined land use and crime against persons and crime against property in Las Vegas, Nevada at varying spatial levels of analysis. Using crime data provided by the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department and the Clark County Assessor’s office, results at the macro-level of analysis reveal that property crime rates concentrated on commercial, transportation, communication and utilities, and industrial land use, whereas violent crime concentrated at commercial, multi-residential, and civic, institutional, and recreational land use. Upon examining the subtypes of land use that generate or radiate more crime, property crime concentrated on transportation land use, class 1 resorts, and …


The Effects Of Winds On Accretion Disks And Spectra Of X-Ray Binaries And Active Galactic Nuclei, Shalini Ganguly May 2022

The Effects Of Winds On Accretion Disks And Spectra Of X-Ray Binaries And Active Galactic Nuclei, Shalini Ganguly

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs) contain at their cores supermassive black holes (SMBH), and stellar mass black holes or neutron stars, respectively. These objects bind matter gravitationally, leading to the formation of accretion disks. The accretion of matter leads to efficient conversion of gravitational potential energy into radiation. When the force and/or energy imparted by this radiation on matter exceeds the attractive force due to the local gravitational field, it leads to the launching of matter in the form of outflows or winds. These outflows produce blueshifted (and occasionally redshifted) emission or absorption components in the spectra …


Towards Highly Sensitive Capacitance Measurements Of A Quantum Anomalous Hall Phase In Van Der Waal Heterostructures, Kayla Cerminara May 2022

Towards Highly Sensitive Capacitance Measurements Of A Quantum Anomalous Hall Phase In Van Der Waal Heterostructures, Kayla Cerminara

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

One of the pioneering achievements in condensed matter physics of the 20th century is the observation of the quantum Hall e↵ect (QHE) in which the Hall resistance in a two-dimensional (2D) sample takes on quantized values in the presence of a strong perpendicular magnetic field. The precise quantization of the hall resistance to one part in a billion has provided a practical, worldwide resistance standard. A long-standing goal has been to realize a similar state of matter but without the need of a strong quantizing magnetic field. The quantum anomalous Hall e↵ect (QAHE) is such a state that is predicted …


A Survey Of The Br´Ezis-Nirenberg Problem And Related Theorems, Edward Huynh May 2022

A Survey Of The Br´Ezis-Nirenberg Problem And Related Theorems, Edward Huynh

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations on bounded domains arise in several different areas of mathematics that include geometry, mathematical physics, and the calculus of variations. The Br ́ezis-Nirenberg problem is concerned with a boundary-value problem that is intimately connected to the existence of positive solutions of the Yamabe problem, of non-minimal solutions to Yang-Mills functionals, and of extremal functions to several important inequalities. Results on existence and uniqueness have been obtained in cases when the exponent is sub-critical, but such results have not been obtained when the exponent is critical due to a lack of compactness. The earliest results obtained …


Miocene Ichnofaunas And Mammalian Communities In The Great Basin Region, Nevada And California, Annmarie R. Jones May 2022

Miocene Ichnofaunas And Mammalian Communities In The Great Basin Region, Nevada And California, Annmarie R. Jones

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this dissertation is to document and interpret three new ichnofaunas and two fossil assemblages from the Neogene of Nevada and California. Ichnofossils are important for understanding behavior and geographical range of animals in the distant past and are key to locating and preserving sensitive material for future studies. I examined ichnofauna at three localities: two within the Mio-Pliocene Muddy Creek Formation of Nevada, and one within the Miocene China Ranch Beds of California. My research focuses primarily on (1) camelid and ursid ichnotaxa and how these new localities help in understanding the evolutionary history of these taxa …


Viability Of Energy And Fuel Sources For Interstellar Travel; Design And Feasibility Of The Construction Of Manned Interstellar Space Shuttles, Lukas Mittelman May 2022

Viability Of Energy And Fuel Sources For Interstellar Travel; Design And Feasibility Of The Construction Of Manned Interstellar Space Shuttles, Lukas Mittelman

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The importance of proving the viability of interstellar transport and addressing its potential hazards and pitfalls is immense. If we do not look toward the future and examine what could be waiting for us, we are doing our children, our children’s children, and so on, a disservice. Here we must attempt to lay the groundwork for our future scientists, engineers, and adventurers. Asking and answering questions like, which propulsion and energy systems must we incorporate to send us through the cosmos? Will we utilize technologies known today, such as fossil fuel rockets, fission or fusion rockets, and antimatter drives (pion …


Low-Cost Adsorbent For Disinfection Byproduct Removal From Drinking Water, Savanna Vacek, Suraj Pochampally Apr 2022

Low-Cost Adsorbent For Disinfection Byproduct Removal From Drinking Water, Savanna Vacek, Suraj Pochampally

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are harmful contaminants that are unintentionally created in disinfected water after chlorination. Activated carbon, often expensive and difficult to acquire in low-income and rural areas, has previously been used to remove DBPs from drinking water. Biochar is made from agricultural waste (i.e. feedstock) and has been identified as a low-cost yet effective adsorbent to remote contaminants from drinking water. This work focuses on the efficacy of biochar and activated carbon to remove DBPs from drinking water for the purpose of treating drinking water after emergency chlorination. This study has the potential to help water distributors and disadvantaged …


Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, Kaylee Freitas Apr 2022

Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, Kaylee Freitas

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. HCC is associated with cirrhosis. Poor survival rate of HCC is due to diagnosis of HCC at late stage.


Powering A Sustainable Electric Vehicle Future, Harmony Ruth, Jordan Brickman Apr 2022

Powering A Sustainable Electric Vehicle Future, Harmony Ruth, Jordan Brickman

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Electric vehicle sales account for roughly 20% of total sales world wide and are projected to be 80% by 2050. China's electric vehicle market holds a 13.3% market share. China exported 550,000 electric vehicles in 2021. China represents a 54% share of the world's coal consumption as of 2020. Why study China on this issue? China is a major player in the World Economy.


Synthesis Of Modified Walnut Shell Biochar And Material Characterization In Ground Water Treatment, Maaike Parajes, Suraj Pochampally Apr 2022

Synthesis Of Modified Walnut Shell Biochar And Material Characterization In Ground Water Treatment, Maaike Parajes, Suraj Pochampally

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich material synthesized from the pyrolysis of biomasses and developed to remove soil and wastewater contaminants. The pyrolysis process involves thermally decomposing the organic materials in the absence of oxygen. Biochar has the potential to be an eco-friendly and effective adsorbent for heavy metals and toxic organic compounds. An adsorbent is a material that attracts other substances on its surface, chemically and physically. Walnut shells were chosen for the biochar modification to improve the surface morphology, pore structure, and adsorption capability.


Biochar Hydrophilicity Characterization By A Smartphone-Based Apparatus: Design, Construction, And Measurement Calibration, Emma Letourneau, Suraj Pochampally Apr 2022

Biochar Hydrophilicity Characterization By A Smartphone-Based Apparatus: Design, Construction, And Measurement Calibration, Emma Letourneau, Suraj Pochampally

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Water contact angles are used to determine hydrophilicity, which is a material's attraction to water. A water contact angle of greater than 90 degrees indicates a hydrophobic material that repels water, whereas a contact angle of less than 90 degrees indicates a hydrophilic material [Fig. 1]. Water contact angles are measured through a goniometer, which can cost between $2000 to $10,000.

Biochar is a porous carbon material created from biological waste products, that is pyrolyzed (i.e. burned) in a low-oxygen, high heat environment. Biochar can be used to remove contaminants from water and remediate soil while reusing waste, making it …