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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Active Learning With Cybersecurity, Carole Shook May 2022

Active Learning With Cybersecurity, Carole Shook

Publications and Presentations

A global campus grant was obtained in Spring 2020 to develop modules for Cybersecurity. This presentation encompasses the use of Cyberciege and case studies that require active learning of students.


Comparison Of Carbon Footprints Of School Lunches In Dangriga, Belize, And Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Greenwood May 2022

Comparison Of Carbon Footprints Of School Lunches In Dangriga, Belize, And Northwest Arkansas, Lauren Greenwood

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The original purpose of this study was to investigate differences in carbon footprints of school lunches by comparing a school in Arkansas, USA, and a school in Belize. Due to complications imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose was revised to gathering preliminary data about the school lunch program at a school in Northwest Arkansas; data were to be used to estimate CO2-equivalent emissions for cafeteria energy use, meal ingredients from the two most popular meals served, and food transportation at the last point in the supply chain (food service delivery to school). This study highlights the intersection of food ...


Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini May 2022

Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cattle are known to have an effect on water quality in various bodies of water. Studying how cattle impact water quality along various streams and tributaries is important to understanding how certain water parameters may be affected at the individual farm level. It is known that unrestricted access to a cattle crossing has been shown to increase the occurrence of downstream pollutants such as E. coli, ammonium, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and turbidity. However, many studies focus on large-scale operations and neglect the individual farm level. In this study, samples were collected twice for each parameter ...


Justification For An Apparel-Based Sustainability Course At The University Of Arkansas, Sydney Taylor May 2022

Justification For An Apparel-Based Sustainability Course At The University Of Arkansas, Sydney Taylor

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

The University of Arkansas' Apparel Merchandising and Product Development program does not currently offer a course on sustainability in the apparel and textile sector. Due to a lack of sustainability information, students may not have a thorough understanding of their degree. If students had the opportunity to learn about current sustainability-related topics before entering the workforce, they would have a new perspective and a deeper understanding of the industry, allowing them to potentially make good change.

By elaborating on the need for an apparel-based sustainability course to be offered at the University of Arkansas in the Apparel Merchandising and Product ...


Demonstration Of Cyberattacks And Mitigation Of Vulnerabilities In A Webserver Interface For A Cybersecure Power Router, Benjamin Allen May 2022

Demonstration Of Cyberattacks And Mitigation Of Vulnerabilities In A Webserver Interface For A Cybersecure Power Router, Benjamin Allen

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cyberattacks are a threat to critical infrastructure, which must be secured against them to ensure continued operation. A defense-in-depth approach is necessary to secure all layers of a smart-grid system and contain the impact of any exploited vulnerabilities. In this undergraduate thesis a webserver interface for smart-grid devices communicating over Modbus TCP was developed and exposed to SQL Injection attacks and Cross-Site Scripting attacks. Analysis was performed on Supply-Chain attacks and a mitigation developed for attacks stemming from compromised Content Delivery Networks. All attempted attacks were unable to exploit vulnerabilities in the webserver due to its use of input sanitization ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings May 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


Analysis Of Gpu Memory Vulnerabilities, Jarrett Hoover May 2022

Analysis Of Gpu Memory Vulnerabilities, Jarrett Hoover

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Graphics processing units (GPUs) have become a widely used technology for various purposes. While their intended use is accelerating graphics rendering, their parallel computing capabilities have expanded their use into other areas. They are used in computer gaming, deep learning for artificial intelligence and mining cryptocurrencies. Their rise in popularity led to research involving several security aspects, including this paper’s focus, memory vulnerabilities. Research documented many vulnerabilities, including GPUs not implementing address space layout randomization, not zeroing out memory after deallocation, and not initializing newly allocated memory. These vulnerabilities can lead to a victim’s sensitive data being leaked ...


Diffusion Of A Salt In An Aqueous Media, Aldaly Pineda Hernandez May 2022

Diffusion Of A Salt In An Aqueous Media, Aldaly Pineda Hernandez

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Diffusion is defined as the net transfer of a molecule from a high concentration region to a low concentration region. The concept of diffusion is used in a very important process called "desalination." Desalination is a separation process used to reduce the salt content dissolved in brackish water to make it suitable for human consumption, irrigation, and industrial use.

In desalination plants, it is important to monitor the constantly changing salt content of water, partly due to the diffusive effect. The main purpose of this experiment was to study the diffusion of NaCl in water at two NaCl concentrations. The ...


Ransomware And Malware Sandboxing, Byron Denham May 2022

Ransomware And Malware Sandboxing, Byron Denham

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The threat of ransomware that encrypts data on a device and asks for payment to decrypt the data affects individual users, businesses, and vital systems including healthcare. This threat has become increasingly more prevalent in the past few years. To understand ransomware through malware analysis, care must be taken to sandbox the ransomware in an environment that allows for a detailed and comprehensive analysis while also preventing it from being able to further spread. Modern malware often takes measures to detect whether it has been placed into an analysis environment to prevent examination. In this work, several notable pieces of ...


A Versatile Python Package For Simulating Dna Nanostructures With Oxdna, Kira Threlfall May 2022

A Versatile Python Package For Simulating Dna Nanostructures With Oxdna, Kira Threlfall

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to synthesize custom DNA molecules has led to the feasibility of DNA nanotechnology. Synthesis is time-consuming and expensive, so simulations of proposed DNA designs are necessary. Open-source simulators, such as oxDNA, are available but often difficult to configure and interface with. Packages such as oxdna-tile-binding pro- vide an interface for oxDNA which allows for the ability to create scripts that automate the configuration process. This project works to improve the scripts in oxdna-tile-binding to improve integration with job scheduling systems commonly used in high-performance computing environments, improve ease-of-use and consistency within the scripts compos- ing oxdna-tile-binding, and move ...


An Investigation Into, And The Construction Of, An Operable Windows Notifier, Grey Hixson May 2022

An Investigation Into, And The Construction Of, An Operable Windows Notifier, Grey Hixson

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Office of Sustainability at the University of Arkansas identified that building occupants that have control over operable windows may open them at inappropriate times. Windows opened in a building with a temperature and air differential leads to increased HVAC operating costs and building occupant discomfort. This led the Associate Vice Chancellor of Facilities at the University of Arkansas to propose the construction of a mobile application that a building occupant can use to make an informed decision before opening their window. I have formulated a series of research objectives in conjunction with the Director of the Office of Sustainability ...


A Study Of Software Development Methodologies, Kendra Risener May 2022

A Study Of Software Development Methodologies, Kendra Risener

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Software development methodologies are often overlooked by software engineers as aspects of development that are handled by project managers alone. However, if every member of the team better understood the development methodology being used, it increases the likelihood that the method is properly implemented and ultimately used to complete the project more efficiently. Thus, this paper seeks to explore six common methodologies: the Waterfall Model, the Spiral Model, Agile, Scrum, Kanban, and Extreme Programming. These are discussed in two main sections in the paper. In the first section, the frameworks are isolated and viewed by themselves. The histories, unique features ...


Using Bluetooth Low Energy And E-Ink Displays For Inventory Tracking, David Whelan May 2022

Using Bluetooth Low Energy And E-Ink Displays For Inventory Tracking, David Whelan

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The combination of Bluetooth Low energy and E-Ink displays allow for a low energy wire-less display. The application of this technology is far reaching especially given how the Bluetooth Low Energy specification can be extended. This paper proposes an extension to this specification specifically for inventory tracking. This extension combined with the low energy E-Ink display results in a smart label that can keep track of additional meta data and inventory counts for physical inventory. This label helps track the physical inventory and can help mitigate any errors in the logical organization of inventory.


Sensory Comparison Of Beer Carbonated Using Forced Carbonation And The Carbo Rock-It, Michala Smith May 2022

Sensory Comparison Of Beer Carbonated Using Forced Carbonation And The Carbo Rock-It, Michala Smith

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Craft brewing is a growing market which represents over 12% of beer produced in the United States. Dr. G Scott Osborn, PE invented the Carbo Rock-It™ to improve the carbonation process for craft breweries. The invention allows for shorter carbonation time and uses less CO2, saving companies money and time. Because of the lack of gas losses through bubbling, Osborn theorized that the Carbo Rock-It could also prevent the “stripping of the nose” that can occur in traditional forced carbonation. Existing research supports the mechanism, as beer flavor and aroma volatiles have been detected during the release of CO ...


Side-Channel Analysis On Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms, Tristen Teague May 2022

Side-Channel Analysis On Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms, Tristen Teague

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The advancements of quantum computers brings us closer to the threat of our current asymmetric cryptography algorithms being broken by Shor's Algorithm. NIST proposed a standardization effort in creating a new class of asymmetric cryptography named Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC). These new algorithms will be resistant against both classical computers and sufficiently powerful quantum computers. Although the new algorithms seem mathematically secure, they can possibly be broken by a class of attacks known as side-channels attacks (SCA). Side-channel attacks involve exploiting the hardware that the algorithm runs on to figure out secret values that could break the security of the ...


Comparative Study Of Snort 3 And Suricata Intrusion Detection Systems, Cole Hoover May 2022

Comparative Study Of Snort 3 And Suricata Intrusion Detection Systems, Cole Hoover

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are one layer of defense that can be used to protect a network from cyber-attacks. They monitor a network for any malicious activity and send alerts if suspicious traffic is detected. Two of the most common open-source NIDS are Snort and Suricata. Snort was first released in 1999 and became the industry standard. The one major drawback of Snort has been its single-threaded architecture. Because of this, Suricata was released in 2009 and uses a multithreaded architecture. Snort released Snort 3 last year with major improvements from earlier versions, including implementing a new multithreaded architecture ...


Gauging The State-Of-The-Art For Foresight Weight Pruning On Neural Networks, Noah James May 2022

Gauging The State-Of-The-Art For Foresight Weight Pruning On Neural Networks, Noah James

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The state-of-the-art for pruning neural networks is ambiguous due to poor experimental practices in the field. Newly developed approaches rarely compare to each other, and when they do, their comparisons are lackluster or contain errors. In the interest of stabilizing the field of pruning, this paper initiates a dive into reproducing prominent pruning algorithms across several architectures and datasets. As a first step towards this goal, this paper shows results for foresight weight pruning across 6 baseline pruning strategies, 5 modern pruning strategies, random pruning, and one legacy method (Optimal Brain Damage). All strategies are evaluated on 3 different architectures ...


Using A Bert-Based Ensemble Network For Abusive Language Detection, Noah Ballinger May 2022

Using A Bert-Based Ensemble Network For Abusive Language Detection, Noah Ballinger

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over the past two decades, online discussion has skyrocketed in scope and scale. However, so has the amount of toxicity and offensive posts on social media and other discussion sites. Despite this rise in prevalence, the ability to automatically moderate online discussion platforms has seen minimal development. Recently, though, as the capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) continue to improve, the potential of AI-based detection of harmful internet content has become a real possibility. In the past couple years, there has been a surge in performance on tasks in the field of natural language processing, mainly due to the development of ...


Implementing The Cms+ Sports Rankings Algorithm In A Javafx Environment, Luke Welch May 2022

Implementing The Cms+ Sports Rankings Algorithm In A Javafx Environment, Luke Welch

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Every year, sports teams and athletes get cut from championship opportunities because of their rank. While this reality is easier to swallow if a team or athlete is distant from the cut, it is much harder when they are right on the edge. Many times, it leaves fans and athletes wondering, “Why wasn’t I ranked higher? What factors when into the ranking? Are the rankings based on opinion alone?” These are fair questions that deserve an answer. Many times, sports rankings are derived from opinion polls. Other times, they are derived from a combination of opinion polls and measured ...


Assessing The Influence Of Health Policy And Population Mobility On Covid-19 Spread In Arkansas, Tayden Barretto May 2022

Assessing The Influence Of Health Policy And Population Mobility On Covid-19 Spread In Arkansas, Tayden Barretto

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a major crisis across the world since its start in 2019, and its influence on every realm of society is undeniable. Globally, more than 500 million cases have been recorded since March 2020, with almost 6 million deaths. In the wake of this crisis, many governments and health organizations have taken steps and precautions to mitigate its spread. These steps involve public mandates of information, reducing frequency of personal contact, and use of masks to minimize the risk of transmission. Current access to mobility data released from Google detailing population movements has provided a ...


Root Phenotyping Of Peptide-Treated Glycine Max, Salem Jackson May 2022

Root Phenotyping Of Peptide-Treated Glycine Max, Salem Jackson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) – endogenous chains of amino acids involved in natural plant defense – have been shown to decrease damage from herbivores and pathogens by inducing an immune response, increasing the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), transcripts, and metabolites. Exogenous treatment of soybean seeds with plant elicitor peptide GmPep3 has been shown to induce these broad-spectrum defenses and offers a new method for increasing crop yield. However, the effects of GmPep3 on indicators of soybean health – root characteristics, growth stages, etc. – have not been fully realized.

Using the root-phenotyping platform RhizoVision Explorer, several root traits of soybean plants treated ...


Chandra Spectral Constraints Of The Low-Metallicity Collision Ring Cartwheel Galaxy, Chloë Benton May 2022

Chandra Spectral Constraints Of The Low-Metallicity Collision Ring Cartwheel Galaxy, Chloë Benton

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the sophistication of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, many observations of the behaviors of binary systems have been researched and studied. As an excellent example, for the low metallicity Cartwheel Galaxy, some fraction of the X-ray photons emitted from X-ray binaries have been intercepted by the detectors on the telescope and have been compiled into “events file.” When modeled properly, this data can produce insight into the behavior of the stellar populations in this object. The primary goal of this project is to use these events files to measure the X-ray properties of the X-ray binaries in the Cartwheel Galaxy ...


How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson May 2022

How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of environments and ecosystems is a highly valued area of research. This study focuses on the interactions between the biotic component of predation and foraging of certain stream fish species and the abiotic component of the flow regime that those species reside in. Gut content analysis followed by statistical calculations in the form of t-tests and chi -quared tests were performed on two fish species who both inhabited a stream with a groundwater flashy flow regime as well as a stream with a runoff flashy flow regime. The research showed that ...


The Effect Of Changing Land Use On Streamflow Statistics And Flood Flows Across Select Gages In Northwest Arkansas, Timothy Mcmullen May 2022

The Effect Of Changing Land Use On Streamflow Statistics And Flood Flows Across Select Gages In Northwest Arkansas, Timothy Mcmullen

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since 1901, heavy rainfall events have increased in the United States in both intensity and frequency, and population in the United States has increased, resulting in significant land use changes. Both of these trends could explain an increase in observed flood magnitude and frequency. In order to determine if a relationship exists between land use/land cover and changing stream flows in northwest Arkansas, this study analyzed temporal changes in various flow statistics for fourteen stream gages and compared the rates of change in flow statistics from gages on streams with watersheds that have varying land uses, i.e. urban ...


How Blockchain Solutions Enable Better Decision Making Through Blockchain Analytics, Sammy Ter Haar May 2022

How Blockchain Solutions Enable Better Decision Making Through Blockchain Analytics, Sammy Ter Haar

Information Systems Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the founding of computers, data scientists have been able to engineer devices that increase individuals’ opportunities to communicate with each other. In the 1990s, the internet took over with many people not understanding its utility. Flash forward 30 years, and we cannot live without our connection to the internet. The internet of information is what we called early adopters with individuals posting blogs for others to read, this was known as Web 1.0. As we progress, platforms became social allowing individuals in different areas to communicate and engage with each other, this was known as Web 2.0 ...


3-Uniform 4-Path Decompositions Of Complete 3-Uniform Hypergraphs, Rachel Mccann May 2022

3-Uniform 4-Path Decompositions Of Complete 3-Uniform Hypergraphs, Rachel Mccann

Mathematical Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The complete 3-uniform hypergraph of order v is denoted as Kv and consists of vertex set V with size v and edge set E, containing all 3-element subsets of V. We consider a 3-uniform hypergraph P7, a path with vertex set {v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6, v7} and edge set {{v1, v2, v3}, {v2, v3, v4}, {v4, v5, v6}, {v5, v6, v7}}. We provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a decomposition of Kv ...


“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal May 2022

“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to alleviate the effects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The brain-penetrant PET radioligand [18F]EKZ-001 has high affinity and selectivity towards HDAC6 and therefore suggests great promise in therapeutic treatment studies and development for neurodegenerative diseases. “Translation of HDAC6 PET imaging using [18F]EKZ-001 – cGMP production and measurement of HDAC6 target occupancy in NHPs” has achieved an effective, fully automated method of producing [18F]EKZ-001 in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to support the translation of [18F]EKZ-001 PET for first-in-human ...


Scale-Free Behavioral Dynamics Directly Linked With Scale-Free Cortical Dynamics, Sabrina Jones May 2022

Scale-Free Behavioral Dynamics Directly Linked With Scale-Free Cortical Dynamics, Sabrina Jones

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In organisms, an interesting phenomenon occurs in both behavior and neuronal activity: organization with fractal, scale-free fluctuations over multiple spatiotemporal orders of magnitude (1,2). In regard to behavior, this sort of complex structure-- which manifests itself from small scale fidgeting to purposeful, full body movements-- may support goals such as foraging (3-6), visual search (4), and decision making (7,8). Likewise, the presence of this sort of structure in the cerebral cortex in the form of spatiotemporal cascades, coined “neuronal avalanches,” may offer optimal information transfer (9). Thus, when considering the functional relationship between the cerebral cortex and movements ...


Ongoing Calculus In The Cerebral Cortex, Luke Long May 2022

Ongoing Calculus In The Cerebral Cortex, Luke Long

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

Various modes of neuronal computations have long been theorized to be possible based on the structure and geometry of the brain. These computations also seem necessary for many of the integral functions of the brain, like information processing and regulatory processes in the body. However, experimental data directly supporting these claims have been rare.

In this study, data collected in mice from a large number of neurons over a long period of time provided the opportunity to search for some of these computations, specifically change detection and squaring calculations. Using Matlab, the goal of this analysis was to find statistically ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson May 2022

Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have gained a lot of attention due to their potential applications in devices and their promise to revolutionize technology. In our group, we are capable of synthesizing such materials and study their properties. I have discovered a new material of the tin-phosphorus family that displays the 2D layered structure and therefore shows potential to be used in future devices due to this reduced dimensionality from the typical three-dimensional counterpart. This 2D structure may allow for new phenomena to emerge as there is no longer any interatomic interactions along the z- axis. Under this motivation ...