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Articles 1 - 30 of 10784

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Pre-Tertiary Subcrop Rocks In The Nebraska Panhandle, Conservation Annd Survey Division Jan 9999

Pre-Tertiary Subcrop Rocks In The Nebraska Panhandle, Conservation Annd Survey Division

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Configuration Of The Base Of The Principal Aquifer, Conservation And Survey Division Jan 9999

Configuration Of The Base Of The Principal Aquifer, Conservation And Survey Division

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Inferred Areal Extent Of The Oligocene (White River Group) Chadron Basal Sand, Conservation And Survey Division Jan 9999

Inferred Areal Extent Of The Oligocene (White River Group) Chadron Basal Sand, Conservation And Survey Division

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Theory Of An Automatic Seepage Meter And Ramifications For Applications, V. A. Zlotnik, D. K. Solomon, D. P. Genereux, T. E. Gilmore, C. E. Humphrey, A. R. Mittelstet, A. V. Zlotnik May 2024

Theory Of An Automatic Seepage Meter And Ramifications For Applications, V. A. Zlotnik, D. K. Solomon, D. P. Genereux, T. E. Gilmore, C. E. Humphrey, A. R. Mittelstet, A. V. Zlotnik

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Rice Biomass Response To Various Phosphorus Fertilizers In A Phosphorus-Deficient Soil Under Simulated Furrow-Irrigation, Jonathan B. Brye May 2024

Rice Biomass Response To Various Phosphorus Fertilizers In A Phosphorus-Deficient Soil Under Simulated Furrow-Irrigation, Jonathan B. Brye

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Wastewater-recovered phosphorus (P), in the form of the mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4⋅6H2O), may provide a sustainable alternative to rapidly decreasing rock phosphate reserves. Struvite can be generated via chemical and/or electrochemical precipitation methods, potentially reducing the amount of P runoff to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this greenhouse tub study was to evaluate the effects of chemically- and electrochemically precipitated struvite (CPST and ECST, respectively) on above- and belowground plant response in a hybrid rice cultivar (Gemini 214, RiceTec) grown using furrow-irrigation compared to other common fertilizer-P sources [i.e., triple super phosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP)] in a P-deficient silt …


Soil Reclamation Strategies In Construction Disturbed Soil, Alexis Koelling May 2024

Soil Reclamation Strategies In Construction Disturbed Soil, Alexis Koelling

All Graduate Reports and Creative Projects, Fall 2023 to Present

The rapid urbanization occurring in arid environments like the Intermountain West region of the U.S. significantly alters soil conditions. Construction of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure leads to the disturbance of soil structure, nutrient depletion, and reduced fertility. This research addresses the need for sustainable soil management practices that may restore soil health post-construction. In this study, the effectiveness of various soil amendments and application methods on specific soil parameters and turfgrass establishment in construction-disturbed soils was evaluated. The study highlights the critical role of soil amendments, particularly municipal solid waste (MSW) compost, in improving soil quality and plant growth. …


Sustainable Fertilizer Management Practices For Container Nursery Production, Saroj Burlakoti May 2024

Sustainable Fertilizer Management Practices For Container Nursery Production, Saroj Burlakoti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Growing nursery plants in containers requires a timely supply of mineral nutrients for optimum growth. However, there is a misconception among growers that the application of higher doses of fertilizers hastens plant growth; instead, it can lead to runoff and leaching loss of nutrients. Reducing fertilizer application while sustaining healthy plants can not only negate environmental consequences but also save fertilizer costs. For example, two ground covers, Lysimachia nummularia (creeping jenny, moneywort) and Vinca minor 'Bowles' (periwinkle), can be grown for three months by applying 6 mg/L of phosphorus (P) as reduction of P to single application of 6 mg/L …


An Analysis Of Pollution In Liverpool, Uk, Luke W. Lawson Apr 2024

An Analysis Of Pollution In Liverpool, Uk, Luke W. Lawson

Honors Theses

Within this experiment the different levels of pollution in areas around Liverpool were tested. These areas were Stanley Park, Lunt Meadows, and Woolton Road. At Stanley Park one of two transects had a geochemical analysis as well as magnetic measurements run to investigate source attribution within the urban environment resulting in data showing high variability in soil properties among the transect. With data supporting evidence of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic properties in soil along the same transect. At Lunt Meadows, through the use of XRF for soil samples and nitrate and phosphate testing for water samples, it was found that …


Influence Of Low-Level Condensed Tannins Concentrations In Temperate Forages On Sheep Performace, F Montossi, F Liu, J Hodgson, S T. Morris, T N. Barry, D F. Risso Apr 2024

Influence Of Low-Level Condensed Tannins Concentrations In Temperate Forages On Sheep Performace, F Montossi, F Liu, J Hodgson, S T. Morris, T N. Barry, D F. Risso

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Results from a series of six comparative lamb grazing trials with temperate forages are summarised, and compared with results from the literature. Condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in the diet ranged from 0.12% to 0.47% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Values were generally similar for Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum), each grown with white clover (Trifolium repens), in similar circumstances. Concentrations for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)/white clover pastures were relatively low, but may have been artefacts. Drenching with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to bind …


Tannin Contents Of Some Indigenous Browse Plants Of Botswana, A A. Aganga, C M. Tsopito, K M. Morake Apr 2024

Tannin Contents Of Some Indigenous Browse Plants Of Botswana, A A. Aganga, C M. Tsopito, K M. Morake

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A study was carried out to evaluate the tannin content and crude protein degradation of leaves and twigs from indigenous browsable trees which provide feed for grazing livestock on natural rangelands of Botswana. These browses include the families Leguminosae (Acacias), Capparidaceae (Boscias), Combretaceae (Combretum) and Tiliaceae (Grewias). These were found to be of good nutritive value, with the leaves having a high content of crude protein (9 - 16%) and a wide range of dry matter digestibility (37 - 69.82%). The correlation between crude protein disappearance and tannin content was found to be negative (-0.582) and significant (P<0.05).


Effect Of Tannin In Animal Diet On Nitrification Rate Of Pasture Soil Under Dung Patches, J R. Crush Apr 2024

Effect Of Tannin In Animal Diet On Nitrification Rate Of Pasture Soil Under Dung Patches, J R. Crush

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The rate of formation of nitrate and ammonium in the soil under dung patches was compared for dung from animals fed either ryegrass (Lolium perenne)/white clover (Trifolium repens) or ryegrass/Lotus pedunculatus forage. Tannin derived from the Lotus did not inhibit ammonification in the soil under dung but nitrate formation was strongly inhibited. The results support the theory that polyphenolics may bind to nitrite in acid soils and cause immobilisation of mineral nitrogen. Apart from their effect of reducing the proportion of dietary nitrogen excreted in urine, tannins in animal diets may make a further contribution to …


Condensed Tannins In Tropical Legumes: Concentration, Astringency And Effects On The Nutrition Of Ruminants, R Barahona, C E. Lascano, R C. Cochran, J L. Morrill, E C. Titgemeyer Apr 2024

Condensed Tannins In Tropical Legumes: Concentration, Astringency And Effects On The Nutrition Of Ruminants, R Barahona, C E. Lascano, R C. Cochran, J L. Morrill, E C. Titgemeyer

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of extractable condensed tannins (ECT) concentration and tannin astringency in tropical legumes on nitrogen (N) digestion by sheep. Test legumes were Desmodium ovalifolium (Do) and Flemingia macrophylla (Fm) which had similar concentrations of Extractable CT (9% DM) but tannins with different degree of astringency (Do, 0.6 and Fm, 0.3 g protein bound/g of ECT). Chopped sun-dried forage of each legume was sprayed with either water (control) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, 3.5% DM) to reduce ECT and fed to 8 sheep with ruminal and duodenal canulas arranged in a replicated 4 …


Effect Of Condensed Tannin In Lotus Corniculatus And Lotus Pedunculatus On Digestion Of Rubisco In The Rumen, W C. Mcnabb, R J. Aerts, A Brand, J S. Peters, Y L. Foo, G C. Waghorn Apr 2024

Effect Of Condensed Tannin In Lotus Corniculatus And Lotus Pedunculatus On Digestion Of Rubisco In The Rumen, W C. Mcnabb, R J. Aerts, A Brand, J S. Peters, Y L. Foo, G C. Waghorn

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The in vitro precipitation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by condensed tannin (CT) extracted from Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus and the effect of these CT on the in vitro rumen degradation of Rubisco was used to compare the reactivity of these CT. The chemical structure of CT from Lotus corniculatus was homogenous with epicatechin stereochemistry and mostly procyanidin units. The CT from Lotus pedunculatus was heterogenous with mostly prodelphinidin units. The amount of CT required to precipitate all the Rubisco when total soluble leaf protein was incubated with CT from Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus was similar. Although CT from …


Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye Apr 2024

Nitrogen And Fiber Digestion In Sheep Fed Fresh-Frozen And Field-Dried High And Low Tannin Sericea Lespedeza, T H. Terrill, W R. Windham, C S. Hoveland, H E. Amos, B Kouakou, S Gelaye

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Field-drying reduces extractable condensed tannin (CT) of sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours) G. Don], but effects on specific bound and unbound forms of CT and the relationship to protein and fiber digestion in ruminants are unclear. Intake and digestibility of fresh-frozen and field-dried high- and low-tannin sericea were investigated in a feeding trial with sheep (Ovis spp.). Field-drying had no effect on crude protein (CP) and fiber content of sericea, but shifted CT from extractable to bound forms. Digestion coefficients for CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were lower for high-tannin sericea than the low-tannin …


Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani Apr 2024

Alteration Of Condensed Tannin Sythesis In Transgenic Forage Legumes, F Paolocci, G Tanner, S Arcioni, F Damiani

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The transformation of Lotus corniculatus plants with the maize gene Sn, reorganizes the tissue specificity of condensed tannins accumulation. In particular the transformed plants show an increase of tannin content in roots and a decrease in leaves. Molecular and enzymatic analyses suggest that the transgene can functionally substitute an endogenous unknown gene not expressed in roots and induces its silencing when it is expressed. These findings could have applications for reducing tannin content in unpalatable plants and for cloning genes involved in tannin synthesis.


Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. Mcmahon, M Goto, T A. Mcallister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng Apr 2024

Comparison Of The In Vitro Fermentation Characteristic Of Fractionated Alfalfa And Sainfoin, L R. Mcmahon, M Goto, T A. Mcallister, G A. Jones, K J. Cheng

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Alfalfa and sainfoin leaves were lyophilized and ground (A, S, respectively) or were fractionated into soluble (ASOL, SSOL) and insoluble (AINS, SINS)components and lyophilized and incubated in vitro with diluted ruminal fluid for 24h. Whole leaf and soluble fractions were also incubated with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG). Gas production (GP), ammonia concentration [NH3] and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production were lower (P< 0.05) from S and SSOL than from A and ASOL Insoluble fractions differed only in [NH3] (SINS < AINS, P < 0.05). Inclusion of PEG increased (P < 0.05) GP, [NH3] and VFA production from whole leaf and soluble fractions of sainfoin, but not alfalfa. Inactivating the condensed tannins in sainfoin with PEG overcame differences in degradability between these two forages.


Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya Apr 2024

Differences In Chemical Composition Among Provenances Of Tree Fodder Species In A Subhumid Environment: Relation To Use As Supplements, B H. Dzowela, L Hove, P L. Mafongoya

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Studies were initiated in a subhumid Southern African environment to assess the chemical composition and nutritive value of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Calliandra calothyrsus Meiss. and Leucaena species. The objective was to determine variability in crude protein (CP) concentration, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and soluble and insoluble proanthocyanidins from fodder samples of species, subspecies and provenances. A wide range was found in these parameters. The implications of these chemical composition factors, especially proanthocyanidins, on the use of these browse fodders in livestock feeding systems are discussed.


Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker Apr 2024

Nutritional Implications Of Bound Proanthocyanidins, H P.S Makkar, K Becker

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The correlation between protein binding capacity of proanthocyanidin-rich neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and their proanthocyanidin (PAs) content was very low (r = -0.21; n = 6). These PAs-rich NDF did not affect growth of a tannin-sensitive strain of Clostridium perfringens. A substantial amount of bound PAs (75 to 92 %) disappeared from the NDF in 24 h of fermentation in an in vitro incubation medium containing rumen microbes. Addition of a tannin-binding agent, polyethylene glycol to the incubation medium containing rumen microbes and browses made free of extractable tannins or NDF rich in bound PAs increased the gas production up …


Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit Apr 2024

Environmental Effect On New Released Genotypes Of Graminaceous And Leguminous Forage Perennial Crops, P Martiniello, G Genier, R Allerit

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Genotypes of perennial leguminous (alfalfa) and graminaceous (cocksfoot and tall fescue) were evaluated for adaptability in a typical Mediterranean environment (Foggia, southern Italy). The species were field evaluated to detect biomass yield potential under different types of watering. Irrigations were applied considering rainfall and FAO cultural growth coefficient for reintegrating the 75% of the evaporated water from Class A water pan. The forage harvest was applied when the shoots of the varieties reached the 10 and 50% of flowering and heading stage for leguminous and graminaceous, respectively. A split-plot experimental design, with irrigation in the main plot, was adopted. The …


Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor Apr 2024

Plant Tannins- Their Role In Forage Legume Quality, J A. Alokan, V A. Aletor

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Forage legumes, especially browse plants, are important in the maintenance and survival of ruminant animals. However many browse species contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds including tannins. The effects of tannins on the quality of forages are reviewed. These include reduction in palatability and intake of feeds, growth rate, digestion of fibre fractions and nitrogen utilization by animals.


Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood Apr 2024

Genetic Manipulation Of Sainfoin Leaf Tannins, M Y. Gruber, P Auser, G Lees, A D. Muir, M Wood

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

An isogenic population of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) plants was developed by two methods; regeneration after long term tissue culture and plant transformation with an antisense chalcone synthase gene. Tannin (proanthocyanidin) content could be dramatically increased in untransformed callus by long term culture, but was not significantly altered in regenerating plantlets. Some of the mature transgenic plants had dramatically reduced levels of leaf tannin. The antisense gene was eliminated from all transgenic plants later in development.


Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D Von Wettstein Apr 2024

Induction Of Mutants With Ectopic Expression Of Condensed Tannins, M Y. Gruber, B Skadhauge, P Auser, A D. Muir, K K. Thomsen, J Stougaard, B Coulman, D Von Wettstein

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Leaves of 47,000 Lotus japonicus plants were screened using a butanol:HCl histochemical test to select “gain of function” mutants. These plants were progeny from L. japonicus lines which were transformed with T-DNA constructs containing either the maize Ds or Ac transposon (Thykjaer et al., 1995). Among 21 putative leaf tannin mutants, five (tan1-5) were characterized for synthesis of condensed tannins, leucocyanidin reductase activity and the presence of Ac and the selectable marker gene, nptII . A range of leaf tannin content among other Lotus species was also characterized.


A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven Apr 2024

A Revised Method Of Condensed Tannin Analysis In Leucaena Spp., S A. Dalzell, G L. Kerven

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The proanthocyanidin (butanol-HCl) assay was used to measure condensed tannin (CT) in extracts from Leucaena spp. at the University of Queensland. Inconsistent results were found to be caused by the iron catalyst in the butanol/HCl reagent and the presence of ascorbic acid in the sample matrix which enhanced anthocyanidin development. In addition, preparation of sample extracts by back extraction with organic solvents reduced CT recoveries. An accurate and rapid technique was developed that measures CT directly in 70% aqueous acetone 0.1% (w/v) sodium metabisulphite plant extracts.


The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka Apr 2024

The Effect Of Condensed Tannins In Lotus Spp. On The Lesser Migratory Grasshopper, C F. Hinks, G L. Lees, M Y. Gruber, A D. Muir, J Soroka

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Hatchling grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes Fab.) fed one accession of field grown big trefoil (Lotus uliginosis Schkuhr) containing a tannin content of 56 mg. g-1 FW, had a significantly lower mean weight than hatchlings fed field grown Lotus species and accessions with lower tannin content. Adult female grasshoppers fed L. uliginosis foliage with 32.3 mg.g-1 FW tannin also ate more feed and had a 2-fold higher gut trypsin and chymotrypsin activity than adults fed low tannin L. corniculatus foliage (0.13 mg.g-1 FW tannin). In more controlled experiments, growth at 20o C or 30o C was used to increase tannin …


Developmental Characteristics And Renovating Pattern Of Reed Canarygrass Shoots In A Sward, M Ito, S Mizuno, T Otani, S Kobayashi Apr 2024

Developmental Characteristics And Renovating Pattern Of Reed Canarygrass Shoots In A Sward, M Ito, S Mizuno, T Otani, S Kobayashi

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Developmental and renovating traits of shoots were investigated ecomorphologically in a reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., cv. Palaton) sward harvested 3 times per year. Reed canarygrass shoots exhibited notably high growth rates both in the 1st and 2nd crops together with rapid leaf formation (around 7 days/leaf) and active internode elongation. Vigorously growing shoots, which regenerated soon after the 1st cutting and dominated in the 2nd crop canopy, mainly originated from the stubble formed with 3 to 4 phytomers that developed after the beginning of spring growth, thus resulting in higher shoot density than that of the 1st crop. …


Canopy Changes In Healthlands (Erica-Ulex) Grazed By Sheep Or Goats, R Celaya, K Osoro Apr 2024

Canopy Changes In Healthlands (Erica-Ulex) Grazed By Sheep Or Goats, R Celaya, K Osoro

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The grazing effects of sheep and goats on vegetation dominated by heaths (Erica spp) and gorse (Ulex gallii) were studied for two years. Two plots were grazed from May to October 1992 by 7 ewes or 7 does and in the following year each plot was subdivided into two subplots subsequently grazed either by sheep or by goats in a factorial design. During the first grazing season both sheep and goats reduced similarly the cover percentage of shrubs since the herbaceous content was scarce, although goats reduced more the height of the shrubs than sheep. The cover …


Effect Of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium And Cutting On The Regrowth And Insect Infestation Of A Sorghum And Berseem Clover In Egypt, M B. Attia Apr 2024

Effect Of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium And Cutting On The Regrowth And Insect Infestation Of A Sorghum And Berseem Clover In Egypt, M B. Attia

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of this study was to determine the minimum quantities of phosphorus and potassium which must be applied with varying amounts of nitrogen in order to maintain maximum hay production and minimum level of insect infestation. This was more pronounced at the higher N rates and caused a significant N x K interaction during each of these years. There was no yield response to applied phosphorus at any N rate. Relation between levels of nitrogen and infestation percentage was positive but infestation rate decreased with the increase of potassium levels while there was no relation between levels of phosphorus …


An Overview Of The Physiology And Biochemistry Of N Reserves Mobilization In Forage Species, F Le Dily, A Ourry, J Boucaud Apr 2024

An Overview Of The Physiology And Biochemistry Of N Reserves Mobilization In Forage Species, F Le Dily, A Ourry, J Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Recent works focusing on the physiological and biochemical events associated to perennial forages sustainability (re-growth after defoliation, winter survival), provided evidence that vegetative storage proteins (VSPs, ca proteins stored in remaining organs and specifically mobilized) were key organic compounds for shoot regrowth. Attempts to elucidate environmental conditions involved in VSPs deposit ability of different species are under progress today. In contrast, mechanisms of spring- or cut-induced proteolysis are investigated at a lesser extend. This contribution is an opportunity to summarize our knowledge of N-reserves mobilization and to set the question of VSPs breakdown regulation.


Intraspecific Competition In Lucerne And Relationships With Reserve Availability, Jean Christophe Avice, Alain Ourry, Gilles Lemaire, Jeffrey J. Volenec, Jean Boucaud Apr 2024

Intraspecific Competition In Lucerne And Relationships With Reserve Availability, Jean Christophe Avice, Alain Ourry, Gilles Lemaire, Jeffrey J. Volenec, Jean Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Below-ground reserves are thought to provide an indication of a forage potential for shoot regrowth after defoliation. The aim of this work was to re-evaluate the causal relationships existing between organic reserves (non-structural carbohydrates and N reserves) and shoot regrowth of alfalfa. The variations brought about by cultivar differences (cv Lodi or Europe), length of the previous regrowth period (30 or 45 d), or by intraspecific competition for light within a dense canopy, were studied. Field grown plants were harvested at weekly intervals, and separated as dominant, intermediate and suppressed plants. Shoot regrowth yield was determined and taproot were analyzed …


Seasonal Fluctuations Of Vegetative Storage Proteins And Starch Concentrations In Stolons Of Trifolium Repens L., V Bouchart, A Ourry, J C. Simon, J Boucaud Apr 2024

Seasonal Fluctuations Of Vegetative Storage Proteins And Starch Concentrations In Stolons Of Trifolium Repens L., V Bouchart, A Ourry, J C. Simon, J Boucaud

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The seasonal pattern of nitrogen, starch and vegetative storage protein (VSP) concentrations was studied in the stolons of two Trifolium repens L. genotypes (cv Aran and Rivendel). Maximum concentrations of starch were found in summer months; its hydrolysis occurred in winter, at the time, where VSP and nitrogen were accumulated. The decrease of nitrogen and VSP concentrations occurred during spring, and an inverse relationship was found between VSP concentrations in stolons and mean temperatures. The causal implications of starch and VSP availability on spring regrowth potential are discussed in relation with regulatory mechanism inducing VSP synthesis.