Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Astrophysics and Astronomy

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 8149

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Next Small Step, Samiya Henry May 2022

The Next Small Step, Samiya Henry

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

As of right now, NASA and other space programs are estimating that by 2026, there will be people living in Space. Whether it be the Moon or Mars, one cannot have a functional society without a proper source of laws, especially since no one country has ownership over space. "One Small Step" will produce this source of laws, called the “Space Bill of Rights,” that will outline important matters like the trade of resources, medical care, government officials, and will ensure the preservation of our physical and figurative footsteps in space. This Space Bill of Rights is made up of ...


To The Moon And Mars And Back To The Archives: Working With Modern Space Collections At The University Of Arizona Libraries, Molly Stothert-Maurer, Lisa E. Duncan May 2022

To The Moon And Mars And Back To The Archives: Working With Modern Space Collections At The University Of Arizona Libraries, Molly Stothert-Maurer, Lisa E. Duncan

Journal of Western Archives

With a long history at the University of Arizona with excellence in the lunar and planetary sciences, the University of Arizona Libraries Special Collections has increased its collecting of the History of Science and Technology. These large, modern space collections pose unique challenges and require specific needs to be addressed in order for the collections to be stored, processed and made available for access. It is essential for archivists working with these collections to ask their donors the right questions and learn the limitations and restrictions that often come with acquiring modern space collections. Archives around the country have started ...


Twisting Lasers With The Faraday Effect, Harrison Werrell May 2022

Twisting Lasers With The Faraday Effect, Harrison Werrell

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Our objective with this project was to create a system and procedure to quantify the magnetization of a material with polarized light by using the Faraday Effect, where the light is rotated according to the magnetization. This type of system has seen use in technologies such as magneto-optical drives and optical isolators, and is part of the study of optical materials, along with the similar MagnetoOptical Kerr Effect. Our system, specifically, is intended to be used as part of an advanced Physics Lab in the future. It uses an electromagnet to magnetize a sample, and a laser to observe the ...


Electrical Analysis Of A Pem Electrolysis Cell, Joey Wehrley, James Doyle May 2022

Electrical Analysis Of A Pem Electrolysis Cell, Joey Wehrley, James Doyle

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a form of electrolysis that is heavily used in commercial capacities. It functions by using a membrane and an electric charge in order to perform electrolysis water, splitting it into its component parts - Hydrogen and Oxygen. These parts can then be used in a number of different applications, including reversing the electrolysis process to regenerate some energy in the form of electricity. During this experiment, multiple currents were run through a PEM cell, and voltages across the membrane were measured. It was found that a standard R/C charging model can be fit to ...


Neutrino Oscillations In The Presence Of A Magnetic Field, Chinhsan Sieng May 2022

Neutrino Oscillations In The Presence Of A Magnetic Field, Chinhsan Sieng

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We calculate oscillation probabilities in the presence of an external magnetic field in a one-generation neutrino framework that includes both Majorana and Dirac mass terms. First, we write down the Euler-Lagrange equations and obtain a system of eight differential equations coupling together eight different neutrino states that can be distinguished by helicity, chirality, and particle/antiparticle-ness. We then solve this system of differential equations in various special cases, exhibiting different types of oscillations. When the magnetic field is in the direction of momentum, there are only four oscillation channels as helicity flip is forbidden. We observe that chirality flips are ...


The Impact Of Initial Abundances On Modeling The Weak S-Process, Lev S. Serxner May 2022

The Impact Of Initial Abundances On Modeling The Weak S-Process, Lev S. Serxner

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

No abstract provided.


The Survey Of Hi In Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs: New Results From Vla Imaging, Francesco Pecere, John M. Cannon, Damen Beverlin, Jackson Codd May 2022

The Survey Of Hi In Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs: New Results From Vla Imaging, Francesco Pecere, John M. Cannon, Damen Beverlin, Jackson Codd

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present new HI spectral line imaging of 19 galaxies in the “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) acquired for Large Program VLA/ 20A-330. Using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the C configuration, we produce images of the neutral interstellar medium (HI) on angular scales of 15 to 20 arcseconds (corresponding to physical resolutions of 200 to 1100 parsecs). The three-dimensional cubes probe the morphology and kinematics of the gas at a range of spatial and spectral resolutions. The cubes were collapsed to produce two-dimensional moment maps (representing HI ...


Hunting For Fast Radio Bursts From Messier 82: Exploring The Frb--Magnetar Connection, Susie Paine May 2022

Hunting For Fast Radio Bursts From Messier 82: Exploring The Frb--Magnetar Connection, Susie Paine

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short-duration radio pulses of cosmological origin. Among the most common sources predicted to explain this phenomenon are bright pulses from a class of extremely highly magnetized neutron stars known as magnetars. In 2020, a Galactic magnetar produced an FRB-like burst, allowing researchers to constrain the Galactic magnetar burst rate. We assume that the magnetar burst rate scales with star formation rate and test an important prediction for similar bursts in nearby galaxies. Messier 82 (M82) has a star formation rate 40 times that of the Milky Way, implying that the magnetar burst rate would be ...


Molecular Line Search In Archival Alma Imaging Of M87, Xueyi Li May 2022

Molecular Line Search In Archival Alma Imaging Of M87, Xueyi Li

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present a molecular line search in spectral imaging of the elliptical galaxy M87 using archival data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). The primary goal of this project is to verify and characterize possible CO transition lines, which can be used for future studies to determine the dynamics of the system, or the mass of the supermassive black hole (BH) in the center of the galaxy. After performing extensive atmospheric modeling, we found that most of the absorption features have a corresponding atmospheric ozone transition, so it is unlikely that these features are either Galactic or extragalactic ...


Lie Algebras And The Poincare Group, Jack Hempel Costello May 2022

Lie Algebras And The Poincare Group, Jack Hempel Costello

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

This paper will discuss my research with
Professor Tonnis ter Veldhuis on the Poincare Group
and other similar algebraic approaches based on the
Minkowski Metric. This paper will begin with an
introduction discussing group theory and expand on its
specific applications in theoretical physics.


Simulating Interactions Between Coronal Mass Ejections, Damen S. Beverlin, Tatiana Niembro May 2022

Simulating Interactions Between Coronal Mass Ejections, Damen S. Beverlin, Tatiana Niembro

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launch large amounts of plasma and magnetic fields into the interplanetary medium. Under the right initial conditions, this ejecta can reach Earth and cause issues with electronic devices. As such, we would like to have an accurate model that depicts how these CMEs propagate as they leave the sun. By using fluid dynamics and one-minute resolution in-situ solar wind data, we sought to simulate CME plasma propagation with analytical and numerical models. Because the interstellar medium contains other material and other events happen on the sun simultaneously, CMEs can interact with each other and other ejecta ...


Custom Calibration And Correction Of Photoemission Electron Microscope Images Using Graphene, Henry Bell May 2022

Custom Calibration And Correction Of Photoemission Electron Microscope Images Using Graphene, Henry Bell

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The Photoemission Electron Microscope (PEEM) is a full-field electron microscope that utilizes the photoelectric effect to image a surface. Due to a spatial resolution on the order of 10 nanometers and its ability to image both the morphology of a surface and its band structure, it is a useful tool for understanding the properties of materials for use in electronic devices. To correct for random sample misalignment and the experimental frame of reference in the spectroscopy mode of the PEEM, the 3D dataset must be rotated in both the momentum and energy coordinates which requires pixel calibration and energy alignment ...


Mastcam Multispectral Database From The Curiosity Rover’S Traverse In Gale Crater, Mars (Sols 0-2302), Melissa S. Rice May 2022

Mastcam Multispectral Database From The Curiosity Rover’S Traverse In Gale Crater, Mars (Sols 0-2302), Melissa S. Rice

Geology Faculty Publications

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has explored fluvio-deltaic, lacustrine, and aeolian strata as it climbed over 400 m in elevation over the first 2302 sols of its traverse. Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) instrument is a pair of multispectral imagers covering visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths (445 nm - 1013 nm). Mastcam spectra can broadly distinguish between iron phases and oxidation states, and in combination with chemical data from other instruments, Mastcam spectra can help constrain mineralogy, depositional origin, and diagenesis. This dataset includes representative Mastcam spectra from >600 multispectral observations acquired across Curiosity’s traverse through Vera Rubin ...


Helium-Like X-Ray Line Complexes Show That The Hottest Plasma On The Zeta Supergiant Puppis Is In Its Wind, David H. Cohen, Ariel M. Overdorff, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Marc Gagné, Veronique Petit, Alexandre David-Uraz May 2022

Helium-Like X-Ray Line Complexes Show That The Hottest Plasma On The Zeta Supergiant Puppis Is In Its Wind, David H. Cohen, Ariel M. Overdorff, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Marc Gagné, Veronique Petit, Alexandre David-Uraz

Earth & Space Sciences Faculty Publications

We present an analysis of Chandra grating spectra of key helium-like line complexes to put constraints on the location with respect to the photosphere of the hottest (T greater than or similar to 6 x 10(6) K) plasma in the wind of the O supergiant zeta Pup and to explore changes in the 18 yr between two sets of observations of this star. We fit two models - one empirical and one wind-shock-based - to the S XV, Si XIII, and Mg XI line complexes and show that an origin in the wind flow, above r approximate to 1.5 R ...


“Lasso The Moon? Is It Possible? What About Hack The Moon? Today’S International Framework For Activities On The Moon”, Diane M. Janosek, Armando Seay, Josa P. Natera May 2022

“Lasso The Moon? Is It Possible? What About Hack The Moon? Today’S International Framework For Activities On The Moon”, Diane M. Janosek, Armando Seay, Josa P. Natera

Military Cyber Affairs

The global interest in the moon and outer space continues to skyrocket. The current U.S. commercial investment in space is $350 billion annually, and it is expected to grow to $1 Trillion or more by 2040. The U.S. military investment in space defense and research likewise continues to grow, with the total investment amount remaining classified. With the frequent activity in space, as well as concerns about attacks to US space assets to and from space, the U.S, created the United States Space Command and its Space Force. With private space travel, nanosatellites, lunar exploration, and the ...


Chandra Spectral Constraints Of The Low-Metallicity Collision Ring Cartwheel Galaxy, Chloë Benton May 2022

Chandra Spectral Constraints Of The Low-Metallicity Collision Ring Cartwheel Galaxy, Chloë Benton

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the sophistication of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, many observations of the behaviors of binary systems have been researched and studied. As an excellent example, for the low metallicity Cartwheel Galaxy, some fraction of the X-ray photons emitted from X-ray binaries have been intercepted by the detectors on the telescope and have been compiled into “events file.” When modeled properly, this data can produce insight into the behavior of the stellar populations in this object. The primary goal of this project is to use these events files to measure the X-ray properties of the X-ray binaries in the Cartwheel Galaxy ...


Monitoring The M-Dwarf Host Stars Of Tess Exoplanet Candidates: Stellar Flares And Habitability, Ashley Lieber May 2022

Monitoring The M-Dwarf Host Stars Of Tess Exoplanet Candidates: Stellar Flares And Habitability, Ashley Lieber

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the search for life beyond our solar system, the study of M-dwarfs has become increasingly important due to their unique characteristics including their small size, flaring capabilities, and long lifespans. Their small size allows for exoplanet detection due to observable gravitational interactions, and the stellar flares could potentially trigger prebiotic life on exoplanets in the system. Lastly, their long lifespans may provide the conditions necessary to foster prebiotic life and the development of more complex organisms over time. Flare rate is a critical factor in determining the habitability of the exoplanet due to its potential to damage or incubate ...


A Monte Carlo Method For Evaluating Empirical Gyrochronology Models And Its Application To Wide Binary Benchmarks, Tomomi Otani, Ted Von Hippel, Derek Buzasi, Terry Oswalt, Alexander Stone-Martinez, Patrice Majewski May 2022

A Monte Carlo Method For Evaluating Empirical Gyrochronology Models And Its Application To Wide Binary Benchmarks, Tomomi Otani, Ted Von Hippel, Derek Buzasi, Terry Oswalt, Alexander Stone-Martinez, Patrice Majewski

Publications

No abstract provided.


Emergent Spectra Of Young X-Ray Emitting Populations Across Environments, Alex Siebenmorgen May 2022

Emergent Spectra Of Young X-Ray Emitting Populations Across Environments, Alex Siebenmorgen

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

We construct reasonably accurate models of the X-Ray spectra of a multitude of sources in M51. We construct both average and individual models for the sources, which are split into 16 groups as the counts per source increases. Then, we create a plot to show how the model-predicted values of column density (nH) and photon index (gamma) change with luminosity. These models will be used to create an accurate X-Ray stellar energy distribution (SED) for M51, and to better understand how the SED changes with environmental factors like metallicity and star formation rate (SFR).


Investigation Of Tertiary Impact Cratering And Relation To Impact Physics Theory, Mikayla Huffman May 2022

Investigation Of Tertiary Impact Cratering And Relation To Impact Physics Theory, Mikayla Huffman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Extraterrestrial impact crater formation is important in many subfields of planetary science, including geochronology, planetary formation, and dynamic fragmentation theory. Current dynamic fragmentation theory lacks scale dependence and relies heavily on terrestrial data. Exploring a range of impact and ejecta velocities as is produced by cratering events on the Moon may bridge the gap between heavily terrestrial-based theory and planetary data. The secondary craters of secondary craters deemed “tertiary craters,” have been theorized, but planetary images have not been of sufficient resolution to effectively search for them until recently. Tertiary craters are formed by relatively low-velocity fragments ejected by nearby ...


Using Supervised Learning Algorithms As A Follow-Up Method In The Search Of Gravitational Waves From Core-Collapse Supernovae, Javier M. Antelis, Marco Cavaglia, Travis Hansen, Mannuel D. Morales, Claudia Moreno, Soma Mukherjee, Marek J. Szczepańczyk, Michele Zanolin Apr 2022

Using Supervised Learning Algorithms As A Follow-Up Method In The Search Of Gravitational Waves From Core-Collapse Supernovae, Javier M. Antelis, Marco Cavaglia, Travis Hansen, Mannuel D. Morales, Claudia Moreno, Soma Mukherjee, Marek J. Szczepańczyk, Michele Zanolin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We present a follow-up method based on supervised machine learning (ML) to improve the performance in the search of gravitational wave (GW) bursts from core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) using the coherent WaveBurst (cWB) pipeline. The ML model discriminates noise from signal events by using a set of reconstruction parameters provided by cWB as features. Detected noise events are discarded yielding a reduction in the false alarm rate (FAR) and the false alarm probability thus enhancing the statistical significance. We tested the proposed method using strain data from the first half of the third observing run of advanced LIGO, and CCSNe GW ...


Determining The Sources Of The Zodiacal Cloud Using Relative Velocities Of Dust Particles From High-Resolution Spectroscopy, Philip B. Mann Iii Apr 2022

Determining The Sources Of The Zodiacal Cloud Using Relative Velocities Of Dust Particles From High-Resolution Spectroscopy, Philip B. Mann Iii

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

The zodiacal cloud is the Solar System debris disk in which the Earth’s orbit is located. The dust that comprises the cloud comes from cometary, asteroidal, interstellar, and other source populations, but the relative ratios have proven hard to determine. However, asteroidal and cometary particles typically have different types of orbits, with asteroidal particles having more circular and lower inclination orbits than cometary particles. Accordingly, the relative velocities of these groups of particles with respect to Earth are also different, and measurements of these relative velocities can help distinguish between the sources. The spectrum of the zodiacal light contains ...


The Solar-Electric Sail: Application To Interstellar Migration And Consequences For Seti, Gregory Matloff Apr 2022

The Solar-Electric Sail: Application To Interstellar Migration And Consequences For Seti, Gregory Matloff

Publications and Research

The Solar-Electric Sail accelerates by reflecting positively charged solar wind ions. If it is used to propel an interstellar migration mission, its interstellar cruise velocity relative to the home star cannot exceed the solar wind velocity. In an effort to analytically determine interstellar cruise velocity for a 107 kg generation ship, a constant solar wind velocity within the heliosphere of a Sun-like star of 600 km/s is assumed. The solar wind proton density at 1 AU is also considered constant at 10 protons per cubic centimeter. Solar wind density is assumed to decrease with the inverse square of solar ...


Mms Observations Of The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability And Associated Ion Scale Waves, Rachel C. Rice Apr 2022

Mms Observations Of The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability And Associated Ion Scale Waves, Rachel C. Rice

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

The detailed mechanisms coupling the solar wind to Earth's magnetosphere are not yet fully understood. Solar wind plasma is heated non-adiabatically as it penetrates the magnetosphere, and this process must span scale sizes. Reconnection alone is not able to account for the observed heating; other mechanisms must be at work. One potential process is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The KHI is a convective instability which operates at the fluid scale in plasmas, but is capable of driving secondary process at smaller scales. Previous work has shown evidence of magnetic reconnection, various ion scale wave modes, mode conversion, and turbulence ...


Speed Of Sound For Hadronic And Quark Phases In A Magnetic Field, Efrain J. Ferrer, A. Hackebill Apr 2022

Speed Of Sound For Hadronic And Quark Phases In A Magnetic Field, Efrain J. Ferrer, A. Hackebill

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

It is well known that for a fermion system with an isotropic equation of state (EOS), the square of the speed of sound (SOS)2 is a measure of the stiffness of the equation of state (EOS). It is also known that in the presence of a magnetic field the EOS becomes anisotropic with two different pressures arising, one directed parallel to the field direction and one perpendicular to it. Since the SOS in a medium is created by pressure oscillations, the anisotropy in the pressure should be transferred to the SOS. In this paper, we derive from first principles ...


Search For Gravitational Waves Associated With Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected By Fermi And Swift During The Ligo–Virgo Run O3b, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, Teviet Creighton, Mario C. Diaz, F. Llamas, Soma Mukherjee, Volker Quetschke, Wenhui Wang Apr 2022

Search For Gravitational Waves Associated With Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected By Fermi And Swift During The Ligo–Virgo Run O3b, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, Teviet Creighton, Mario C. Diaz, F. Llamas, Soma Mukherjee, Volker Quetschke, Wenhui Wang

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results ...


Are Long-Period Exoplants Around Cool Stars More Common Than We Thought?, Emily Jane Safron Mar 2022

Are Long-Period Exoplants Around Cool Stars More Common Than We Thought?, Emily Jane Safron

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Kepler mission has been the catalyst for discovery of nearly 5,000 confirmed and candidate exoplanets. The majority of these candidates orbit Sun-like stars, and have orbital periods comparable to or shorter than that of the Earth, due to the selection bias inherent in the transit method and the limitations of automated transit search algorithms. We aim to develop a richer understanding of the population of exoplanets around the lowest-mass stars, the M spectral type. We are particularly interested in exoplanets with long orbital periods, which are difficult or impossible to find using standard transit search algorithms. In our ...


The Spectra Of Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon Stars: The Effects Of Evolution And Nucleosynthesis, Courtney Lauren Crawford Mar 2022

The Spectra Of Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon Stars: The Effects Of Evolution And Nucleosynthesis, Courtney Lauren Crawford

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The rare class of stars known as the Hydrogen-deficient Carbon (HdC) stars includes the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables and the non-variable Dustless HdC (dLHdC) stars. These stars are believed to be formed via the merger of two white dwarf (WD) stars. They are known to exhibit many spectral peculiarities, such as partial helium burning products, enhancement of s-processed material and severe hydrogen-deficiency. In this work I explore many facets of HdC evolution. I begin by creating 18 HdC models in the stellar evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) by merging two WD progenitors and evolving the ...


Phase Transitions And Resilience Of The Mdcdw Phase At Finite Temperature And Density, William Gyory, Vivian De La Incera Mar 2022

Phase Transitions And Resilience Of The Mdcdw Phase At Finite Temperature And Density, William Gyory, Vivian De La Incera

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Westudy the phase transitions of the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW). This spatially inhomogeneous phase emerges in cold, dense QCD in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Starting from the generalized GL expansion of the free energy, we derive several analytical formulas that enable fast numerical computation of the expansion coefficients to arbitrary order, allowing high levels of precision in the determination of the physical dynamical parameters, as well as in the transition curves in the temperature vs. chemical potential plane at different magnetic fields. At magnetic fields and temperatures compatible with neutron star (NS) conditions, the MDCDW ...


Dayside Auroral Activity, Aine Merritt, Gerard J. Fasel Mar 2022

Dayside Auroral Activity, Aine Merritt, Gerard J. Fasel

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The dayside aurora is greatly influenced by the solar wind. Many different types of dayside auroral features have been identified, including poleward-moving auroral forms (PMAFs), throat aurora, shock aurora, and diffuse aurora. This study looks at the dayside auroral activity using the BACC ground-based all-sky-cameras located in both Longyearbyen (Kjell Henriksen Observatory) and Ny-Alesund, Svalbard. There are times when PMAFs peel off the dayside auroral oval in an ordered fashion, elongated east-west arcs moving poleward. At other times, the dayside aurora displays arcs that have extreme brightening moving through the arcs as they exhibit swirls and become a bit chaotic ...