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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Session 12: Active Learning To Minimize The Possible Risk From Future Epidemics, Kc Santosh Feb 2023

Session 12: Active Learning To Minimize The Possible Risk From Future Epidemics, Kc Santosh

SDSU Data Science Symposium

In medical imaging informatics, for any future epidemics (e.g., Covid-19), deep learning (DL) models are of no use as they require a large dataset as they take months and even years to collect enough data (with annotations). In such a context, active learning (or human/expert-in-the-loop) is the must, where a machine can learn from the first day with minimum possible labeled data. In unsupervised learning, we propose to build pre-trained DL models that iteratively learn independently over time, where human/expert intervenes only when it makes mistakes and for only a limited data. In our work, deep features are used to …


2d Respiratory Sound Analysis To Detect Lung Abnormalities, Rafia Sharmin Alice, Kc Santosh Feb 2023

2d Respiratory Sound Analysis To Detect Lung Abnormalities, Rafia Sharmin Alice, Kc Santosh

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Abstract. In this paper, we analyze deep visual features from 2D data representation(s) of the respiratory sound to detect evidence of lung abnormalities. The primary motivation behind this is that visual cues are more important in decision-making than raw data (lung sound). Early detection and prompt treatments are essential for any future possible respiratory disorders, and respiratory sound is proven to be one of the biomarkers. In contrast to state-of-the-art approaches, we aim at understanding/analyzing visual features using our Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) tailored Deep Learning Models, where we consider all possible 2D data such as Spectrogram, Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients …


Mental Health In Pilots Ages 19-26: What Are The New Pilots Telling Us?, Jason T. Lorenzon, Diana Semilia Jan 2023

Mental Health In Pilots Ages 19-26: What Are The New Pilots Telling Us?, Jason T. Lorenzon, Diana Semilia

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Mental Health is stigma that reaches all professional pilots. After spending a considerable amount of money, a pilot is always afraid of losing his/her medical certification. This leads many pilots to not be honest and forthcoming about his/her own health situation or if he/she is forthcoming with any medical deficiency, the regulatory framework at the Federal Aviation Administration may put a further burden on the pilot to provide additional medical documentation, or the FAA may even amend, revoke, or suspend a pilot's medical certificate.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations,14 CFR Parts 61 and 67 and internal protocols creates a …


Reactive Chlorine Species Reversibly Inhibit Dnab Protein Splicing In Mycobacteria, Daniel R. Wahl, Christopher W. Lennon Jan 2023

Reactive Chlorine Species Reversibly Inhibit Dnab Protein Splicing In Mycobacteria, Daniel R. Wahl, Christopher W. Lennon

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Intervening proteins, or inteins, are mobile genetic elements that are translated within host polypeptides and removed at the protein level by splicing. In protein splicing, a self-mediated reaction removes the intein, leaving a peptide bond in place. While protein splicing can proceed in the absence of external cofactors, several examples of conditional protein splicing (CPS) have emerged. In CPS, the rate and accuracy of splicing are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Because the activity of the intein-containing host protein is compromised prior to splicing and inteins are highly abundant in the microbial world, CPS represents an emerging form of posttranslational …


Screenings To Decrease Pediatric Suicide, Jordan Bridges, Dana Schildmeyer, Amanda Austin, Laura Boesken Jan 2023

Screenings To Decrease Pediatric Suicide, Jordan Bridges, Dana Schildmeyer, Amanda Austin, Laura Boesken

Posters-at-the-Capitol

This project aimed to examine the current practice related to mental health and depression screenings in pediatric patients. The benefits of implementing screening in schools in identifying depression and suicide risks sooner were also considered. This project focused on the correlation between earlier mental health screening and identification of these mental health disorders earlier in the life of pediatric patients and suicide rates. Current, published literature notes mental health screening in the pediatric population in schools is an effective method to facilitate monitoring and early intervention in detecting a mental illness. Schools implementing mental health screenings can result in increased …


Home Visitation To Prevent And Reduce Postpartum Depression, Anna Bauer, Madison Polley, Laura Boesken Dnp, Msn, Rn Jan 2023

Home Visitation To Prevent And Reduce Postpartum Depression, Anna Bauer, Madison Polley, Laura Boesken Dnp, Msn, Rn

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 13-19% of women worldwide, and is a stigmatized medical condition affecting maternal and infantile long term outcomes. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to determine if women at high risk for PPD are affected by home visitation programs from discharge up to three years postpartum. CINHAL Ultimate, Google Scholar, and Medline databases were used. Current evidence supports the use of home-visitation programs for postpartum women to decrease the prevalence and the symptoms of PPD by allowing nurses access into homes to provide early intervention for PPD. In addition to providing care for prevention …


Uncovering The Role Of Cancer Associated Fibroblasts In Tumor Immunosuppression, Kamal Amirneni, Kavitha Yaddanapudi Jan 2023

Uncovering The Role Of Cancer Associated Fibroblasts In Tumor Immunosuppression, Kamal Amirneni, Kavitha Yaddanapudi

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Current advances in cancer immunotherapy are hindered by the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the TME that contribute to suppressing the immune response. Chemokines and cytokines released by CAFs, such as IL-6, attract circulating monocytes which are converted into myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs suppress T-cells and natural killer cell proliferation which inactivates the immune response and deters immunotherapy. Both Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been implicated in the CAF immunosuppressive pathway, but a causal link has yet to be established. We hypothesized …


The Factors That Influence Clinicians To Choose Rural Settings To Deliver Health Services, Julia Mattingly Jan 2023

The Factors That Influence Clinicians To Choose Rural Settings To Deliver Health Services, Julia Mattingly

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Years before the COVID-19 pandemic brought on a health care shortage in the United States, its rural areas were already struggling to obtain and attract primary care medical practitioners. The federal government has designed many programs with the intent of exposing clinicians to life in rural areas, but few have been successful at keeping medical practitioners in the long-term. Clinicians who are recruited to rural areas via loan repayment programs or other short-lived incentives often leave after only a few years.

In order to learn more about this long-running health policy problem, we set out to study the factors that …


Reducing Readmission (And Mortality) For Older Patients & Survivors Of Life-Threatening Conditions: A Study Using The Staarr Protocol, Akhenaten Amun Dec 2022

Reducing Readmission (And Mortality) For Older Patients & Survivors Of Life-Threatening Conditions: A Study Using The Staarr Protocol, Akhenaten Amun

Symposium of Student Scholars

Readmission rates for patients admitted for heart failure, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, a myocardial infarction, a hip or knee arthroplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery tend to have high readmission and mortality rates within 30 days of their discharge from a hospital. Starting in October 2012, the Healthcare Reimbursement Reduction Program enforced penalties on Medicare reimbursements for hospitals with readmission rates, for patients with the conditions above, were higher than averages based on facilities with similar characteristics and patient populations. Teach-back and verify (Klingbeil & Gibson, 2018), interdisciplinary teams that engage in patient care and support (Reiter-Palmon et al., …


Interventions To Decrease Readmission Rates In Lvad Patients, Karolina Jackson Dec 2022

Interventions To Decrease Readmission Rates In Lvad Patients, Karolina Jackson

Symposium of Student Scholars

Interventions to Decrease Readmission Rates in LVAD Patients

Karolina Jackson

WellStar School of Nursing, Kennesaw State University

NURS 4417: Advanced Clinical Practicum

Lynnda Campbell

October 21, 2022

Abstract

Background: Patients who have undergone implantation of a left ventricular assistive device are at a higher risk for readmission- whether that be due to driveline dressing infections, thrombosis, bleeding at the site of implantation, or electrolyte imbalances. These readmission rates in the LVAD population can be decreased through appropriate intervention methods. Literature Review: This study’s main purpose was to discover interventions healthcare facilities and core LVAD staff can implement in practice to …


Effects Of Educational Weight Loss Interventions On Knee Arthroplasty For Obese Patients, Ashley Tomasetto, Emily Anderson, Grace Hodgson, Annabelle Hudgins, Katelin Hartley Dec 2022

Effects Of Educational Weight Loss Interventions On Knee Arthroplasty For Obese Patients, Ashley Tomasetto, Emily Anderson, Grace Hodgson, Annabelle Hudgins, Katelin Hartley

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Obese patients (BMI > 30) with osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery are at an increased risk for operative failure, higher pain level, lengthier recovery time, and decreased mobility post-surgery.

Objective: To analyze and synthesize existing evidence to determine the efficacy of educational weight loss interventions prior to TKA on adult obese patients’ recovery time, pain level, and mobility post-surgery. Weight loss intervention education was provided to obese patients aged 35-55 years in the form of nutrition and exercise programs to encourage weight loss. The study group was compared to patients who did not receive this pre-surgical education.

Methods: …


The Evaluation Of Prevention Measures Against Hospital-Acquired C. Difficile, Lauryn Glover Dec 2022

The Evaluation Of Prevention Measures Against Hospital-Acquired C. Difficile, Lauryn Glover

Symposium of Student Scholars

Today, many hospitals struggle with the increase in hospital-acquired infections, but more specifically the spread of Clostridioides Difficile (C. Difficile) infections among patients. It has caused not only a burden on the patient’s health but has also created a financial burden on hospitals. Due to the spread of C. Diff infections in the hospital setting, many hospitals are implementing strategies to combat the spread of C.Diff. One essential prevention method starts with healthcare workers. Hospital staff is required to use hand sanitizer and frequent handwashing to prevent the spread of disease to their patients. The overall purpose of this research …


Impact Of Alarm Management Classes In Reducing Alarm Fatigue, Elizabeth Laegen Dec 2022

Impact Of Alarm Management Classes In Reducing Alarm Fatigue, Elizabeth Laegen

Symposium of Student Scholars

Alarm fatigue is becoming a more and more common problem for nurses working in inpatient hospital units, especially critical care units. Monitoring systems, ventilators, vital signs monitors, and other electronic devices designed to detect critical or pending critical values and alterations in patients have become more of a nuisance than the lifesaving systems they were designed to be. With alarms sounding frequently for what are typically nonactionable alerts, nurses to have developed a decrease in sensitivity to all alarms, regardless of importance. Research of alarm fatigue has shown that while the significance of the problem is clear and studies have …


In Adult Icu Patients With Central Lines, Does Improved Staff Adherence To The Clabsi Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines Reduce The Incidence Of Clabsis?, Job Waihiga Dec 2022

In Adult Icu Patients With Central Lines, Does Improved Staff Adherence To The Clabsi Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines Reduce The Incidence Of Clabsis?, Job Waihiga

Symposium of Student Scholars

A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a serious infection that occurs when bacteria or viruses enter the bloodstream through the central line. Background: This project is important because central line-associated bloodstream infections increase hospital mortality rates, lengths of stay, and 30-day readmission rates. They also impose heavy financial burdens on hospital systems. Furthermore, out of all the nosocomial infections, central line-associated bloodstream infections have the highest and most recent incidence rates in this adult ICU unit. Purpose: This project aims to identify an intervention to improve staff adherence to the CLABSI prevention bundle and decrease the rate of …


Reducing Noise Levels In Intensive Care Units Using Noise Monitoring Technology, Kayla Kloes Dec 2022

Reducing Noise Levels In Intensive Care Units Using Noise Monitoring Technology, Kayla Kloes

Symposium of Student Scholars

Intensive care units require many medical procedures, activities, machines, and staff that contribute to high levels of noise. These high noise levels have been found to cause adverse psychological and/or physiological health effects related to sleep disturbances, increased anxiety, and increased stress. These health effects may lead to decreased patient satisfaction. The purpose of this proposal is to explore the effectiveness of the SoundEar 3-300 device in decreasing levels of noise and as a result, increasing patient satisfaction. The current research indicates that the SoundEar 3-300 device is successful at reducing hospital noise levels. This device allows for the measurement …


Can Non-Pharmacological Interventions Effectively Reduce Anxiety And Pain In Chronic Pediatric Patients?, Kiara Harvey Dec 2022

Can Non-Pharmacological Interventions Effectively Reduce Anxiety And Pain In Chronic Pediatric Patients?, Kiara Harvey

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Pediatric anxiety and pain have been historically poorly managed. The failure of providers to adequately address medically-induced anxiety and pain in pediatric patients has been shown to prevent them from proactively seeking medical care in the future and has been linked with both altered brain development and increased risk of opioid abuse. Furthermore, poorly managed pain leads to sustained levels of cortisol and exposes patients to several long-term health risks like hypertension. Because non-pharmacological interventions are often preferred by providers, patients, and their caregivers, this research question poses an exploration of the efficacy of non-traditional methods in alleviating procedure-related …


Protocols For Postpartum Hemorrhage, Jackleen Chambers Dec 2022

Protocols For Postpartum Hemorrhage, Jackleen Chambers

Symposium of Student Scholars

The occurrence of postpartum hemorrhages (PH) within the healthcare system are on the rise. The detrimental effects that can occur are extremely serious and require an intervention of education and proper training. Labor and delivery units experience traumatic PHs due to lack of proper training regarding early warning signs and correct technical interventions needed for a quick turnaround. This project will use research from scholarly articles to take a closer look at statistical evidence based on the outcomes of being prepared versus underprepared. The project will discuss various methods on how to better prepare nurses to care for hemorrhagic situations. …


Postpartum Depression For Mothers With Early Fetal Death Or Stillbirths, Callie Goldman Dec 2022

Postpartum Depression For Mothers With Early Fetal Death Or Stillbirths, Callie Goldman

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Many times, prevention of early fetus death and stillbirths is possible; however, some mortality events are spontaneous or unavoidable. While existing research reveals the likelihood of postpartum depression for mothers following birth, few studies address the potential for postpartum depression of mothers of stillbirth or demised fetuses. The purpose of this study is to determine how mothers can be better prepared for the hardship of losing a baby during childbirth, while going through common difficulties, such as postpartum depression, following birth. Methods: A mixed method approach will be conducted to gather qualitative (interview) and quantitative (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale …


Impact Of Alarm Fatigue In Critical Care Nurses On Patient Outcomes, Addie Mctyre Dec 2022

Impact Of Alarm Fatigue In Critical Care Nurses On Patient Outcomes, Addie Mctyre

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background

Critical care units are equipped with extensive amounts of patient monitoring equipment that sound alarms to alert nursing staff to changes in the patient’s condition. The constant beeping of alarms can result in a phenomenon known as alarm fatigue, when nursing staff becomes accustomed to the continuous sound of alarms and either tune it out or ignore it completely. This can result in poor patient outcomes. The purpose of this project is to propose techniques to decrease false alarms to reduce the overall number of alarms during a shift. This will lead to a reduction in the occurrence of …


Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Interventions, Zola Lopeman Dec 2022

Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Interventions, Zola Lopeman

Symposium of Student Scholars

Muscle spasticity is a common spinal cord injury sequela that causes muscle stiffness, spasms, and painful involuntary contractions. Spasticity can result in difficulty walking, deformed joints, lack of head control, and impairment performing activities of daily living. Spasticity is dynamic and often requires a multifaceted approach to manage symptoms and achieve patient goals. The leading treatment for spasticity is oral Baclofen. Additional treatment methods include electrical stimulation and phenol injections. Oral baclofen is frequently prescribed in combination with these.

Research suggests SCI induced spasticity can cause changes in the muscle. Thus, it is important to assess neural and muscle impacts …


Improving Discharge Planning In The Nicu, Jessica Fleming Dec 2022

Improving Discharge Planning In The Nicu, Jessica Fleming

Symposium of Student Scholars

The birth of a child is an exciting time for parents. They spend months preparing for the arrival of their baby, but parents aren’t prepared for complications that can occur at birth. Events such as early arrival or respiratory issues can result in a newborn being admitted to the NICU. This can create stress and anxiety for parents. Once a child is admitted to the NICU, it is important that discharge planning and education begin promptly, to alleviate parental distress, prepare them to care for their child upon discharge, and improve patient outcome, but some NICUs struggle to provide and …


Reducing The Risk Of Chemotherapy Exposure, Miranda Susman Dec 2022

Reducing The Risk Of Chemotherapy Exposure, Miranda Susman

Symposium of Student Scholars

Concerns about antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs), also known as chemotherapy, began in the early 1970s by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Although ANPDs are used as a standard treatment for cancer, these drugs are considered hazardous due to their adverse health effects. About eight million healthcare workers are exposed to ANPDs and therefore essential that we continue to educate on ways to reduce the risk of exposure to occupational and home health hazards. The overall purpose of this study is to determine if additional education and use of surface wipe samplings reduce the risk of exposure. A literature …


Botulism Toxin And Its Affects On Spasticity, Paige Nicholas Dec 2022

Botulism Toxin And Its Affects On Spasticity, Paige Nicholas

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Spasticity is a symptom associated with spinal cord injury patients that is caused from an influx in excitatory and inhibitory signals controlling muscles and reflexes generating a pattern of spasms in a period of time. When not treated properly adverse effects include: contractures, respiratory arrest, pain, paralysis and decrease in efficiency of nursing and therapeutic care. Interventions including medications (i.e. baclofen, dantrolene, gabapentin), physical therapy, surgery and orthotic devices are used to decrease spasticity however show minimal effect, short duration and multiple side effects. These side effects include dizziness, weakness, confusion, headaches, nausea and constipation. Recent research has shown …


Training In The Use Of Interpretive Services For Patients With Limited English Proficiency, Kristina Wooten Dec 2022

Training In The Use Of Interpretive Services For Patients With Limited English Proficiency, Kristina Wooten

Symposium of Student Scholars

In clinical settings, there is a disconnect between health care professionals (HCPs) and patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). HCPs rely on ad hoc interpreters to communicate with patients with LEP (e.g. nurses using untrained friends and family or nursing students to interpret care information). Refusing to use or misusing professional interpreters and other interpretive services may lead patients with LEP to avoid seeking necessary care, misunderstand their diagnoses and treatment regimens, and fail to return for follow-up care. This increases the already existing health care disparity between patients who speak English and patients with LEP. Studies show that if …


Does The Use Of Machine Learning Algorithms Help Reduce Mortality Rates In Patients With Sepsis, Jacqueline Easter Dec 2022

Does The Use Of Machine Learning Algorithms Help Reduce Mortality Rates In Patients With Sepsis, Jacqueline Easter

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Background: Sepsis is the result of the body’s dysregulated response to an infection. The response can cause an inflammatory chain reaction which can lead to multiple organ dysfunction septic shock, and death. Early recognition and treatment of risk of sepsis is essential to control the disease. Each hour of delay treatment is associated with 3%-9% increase in mortality rate (Kuo et al., 2021). The current methods for prediction of sepsis such as SOFA have prediction rates low as 61% (van Doorn et al., 2021). Research using Machine Learning Algorithm has demonstrated prediction rates of 95% within an hour (Singh …


Intensive Care Unit (Icu) Delirium, Mckenna Redmond Dec 2022

Intensive Care Unit (Icu) Delirium, Mckenna Redmond

Symposium of Student Scholars

The purpose of this evidence-based practice project is to implement and evaluate an effective way to prevent intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. My research question is asking whether nonpharmacological or pharmacological therapies are effective for preventing intensive care unit delirium acquired during stay. Delirium is a mental state that occurs from a variety of reasons that creates changes in arousal, cognition, and in mental abilities. It results in confused thinking and a lack of awareness of someone's surroundings. Delirium during acute settings, such as the ICU, can cause an increased risk for mortality. Thorough evaluation of multiple studies exemplified that …


Understanding The Contributions Of Hormonal Contraceptives And Cortisol Levels To Fear Learning In Women, Sahil Bardai Dec 2022

Understanding The Contributions Of Hormonal Contraceptives And Cortisol Levels To Fear Learning In Women, Sahil Bardai

Symposium of Student Scholars

Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder than men. Eighty-five percent of women in the US will use hormonal contraceptives at some point in their lifetime. Women who use hormonal contraceptives show heightened startle reactivity to a threatening stimulus. Previous results from our lab showed a significant increase in fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in women who were on hormonal contraceptives compared to women who were naturally cycling. These results stayed consistent throughout three acquisition trials. Others have shown that the use of OCPs (oral contraceptive pills) is related to the dysregulation of the HPA-axis and elevated …


The Effects Of Hospital Policy And Procedure On Cauti Occurrence, Kevin Kaga, Michaela Morrison, Daniel John Dec 2022

The Effects Of Hospital Policy And Procedure On Cauti Occurrence, Kevin Kaga, Michaela Morrison, Daniel John

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Background: Clients that require indwelling catheterization often get bacterial infection causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections. These infections lead to longer hospital admissions and poorer outcomes for clients.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of the use of suggested hygiene methods from hospital policy/guidelines in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

Methods: Using the Kennesaw State Library search system, 10 articles were found to support that the use of consistent evidence based practices can prevent urinary tract infection occurrence.

Results: Our articles identified appropriate and inappropriate indications for catheterization and effective hygiene techniques used by nurses in the prevention of CAUTIs. These …


Effects Of Oral Care And Positioning On The Incidence Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Nneka Uwaekwe Dec 2022

Effects Of Oral Care And Positioning On The Incidence Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Nneka Uwaekwe

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung infection that is acquired after endotracheal intubation. It is associated with increased length of hospital stays, costs, and rate of mortality for mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. The role of oral care with chlorhexidine and patient positioning are being considered as interventions for VAP prevention, however, uncertainties remain regarding the benefits and harms of chlorhexidine and positioning for preventing VAP. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of positioning and the use of chlorhexidine for mechanically ventilated patients, on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia …


Effectiveness Of Non-Pharmacological Interventions When Treating Postpartum Depression In First-Time Mothers, Rudy Trujillo, Tamantha Minton-Damm, Ashley Muntean, Natalia Lack Dec 2022

Effectiveness Of Non-Pharmacological Interventions When Treating Postpartum Depression In First-Time Mothers, Rudy Trujillo, Tamantha Minton-Damm, Ashley Muntean, Natalia Lack

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

Non-pharmacological intervention alone or paired with pharmacological interventions is somewhat effective in treating and lowering rates of postpartum depression (PPD) in women. Undergraduate students reviewed studies of the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for postpartum depression. To narrow down results, the students based the review on studies completed within the last 10 years, focusing specifically on primiparas (first births) women. Responses ranged from no notable efficacy in reducing PPD measured against the Edinburgh Scale to marginal improvements when non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches were combined, and testing extended to other scales of motherhood and postpartum. The students discuss the …