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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Enhancing Vanadium Redox Battery Performance Using Tungsten-Bismuth-Based Oxide Nanostructures As Electrode Modifiers, Taher Al Najjar Jun 2022

Enhancing Vanadium Redox Battery Performance Using Tungsten-Bismuth-Based Oxide Nanostructures As Electrode Modifiers, Taher Al Najjar

Theses and Dissertations

Renewable energy power plants require high efficiency conversion and storage systems that can store high amounts of energy and can be integrated with the electrical grid. Vanadium redox flow batteries are very promising for this application. However, one major drawback of VRFBs is their low power density which means that right now they cannot replace non-renewable energy sources. Different carbon materials are used as electrodes in VRFBs and each carbon material affects the battery’s performance in a different way. Modification of these electrodes can increase the power density of the battery. Some metal oxides like tungsten oxide can enhance ...


A Preliminary Investigation Of Neuroantibody Levels, Prevalence, And Environmental Factors In Patients With Neurological Dysfunction, Jihan Azar May 2022

A Preliminary Investigation Of Neuroantibody Levels, Prevalence, And Environmental Factors In Patients With Neurological Dysfunction, Jihan Azar

Theses and Dissertations

Nervous system damage comprises a large proportion of diseases worldwide. It is also the most difficult to diagnose. Biomarkers for nervous system damage are needed in order to diagnose these diseases early enough to allow for intervention. In this study, we recruited patients from two Egyptian hospitals with MCI, ET and NMS and health references. Serum autoantibody levels against neural proteins and heavy metals were analyzed and compared. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against neurofilament H (NFH), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and alpha synuclein (a-SYN) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against neurofilament light (NFL) were among ...


Use Of Mobile Phones For Hiv Prevention And Testing Information Needs By Emerging Adult Male Population In Rural Kenya. A Qualitative Study, Augustine Boswony Kiplagat May 2022

Use Of Mobile Phones For Hiv Prevention And Testing Information Needs By Emerging Adult Male Population In Rural Kenya. A Qualitative Study, Augustine Boswony Kiplagat

Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS) among young people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a serious public health issue which needs urgent cost-effective interventions locally, regionally, and internationally. HIV and AIDS is currently the leading cause of death among young people in SSA, calling for strategic HIV prevention approaches applicable to emerging adults. While most studies have focused on young women, studies focusing on emerging male adults are lacking. The purpose of this dissertation study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the needs, barriers, and facilitators of using mobile phone to access HIV prevention and ...


Stat3 Dysregulation Of Xrcc1 Results On Altered Base Excision Repair, Griffin Wright May 2022

Stat3 Dysregulation Of Xrcc1 Results On Altered Base Excision Repair, Griffin Wright

Theses and Dissertations

Base Excision Repair (BER) is a critical DNA repair pathway, repairing base damage, the spontaneous decay of bases, abasic sites, and single-strand DNA breaks. BER requires the sequential action of multiple proteins, including poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), and DNA polymerase beta (POL đť›˝). Expression changes and polymorphisms in BER proteins alter the response of cancer cells to multiple DNA damaging chemotherapeutics, with overexpression of XRCC1 increasing chemoresistance in gastric, gallbladder, and ovarian cancer. However, the transcriptional regulation of XRCC1 remains largely understudied. Here, we identify the signal transducer and activator of transcription ...


Relationship Between Eye Movements During Reading And Severity Of Language Impairment In Persons With Aphasia, Sarah C. Mcwilliams May 2022

Relationship Between Eye Movements During Reading And Severity Of Language Impairment In Persons With Aphasia, Sarah C. Mcwilliams

Theses and Dissertations

Eye movements reflect cognitive-linguistic processing of neurotypical readers. Numerous reading related eye movement measures are associated with language processing, including saccades, fixations, word skipping, and regressions. Eye movements have also been used to examine language processing and reading in disordered populations including persons with aphasia. This study examined whether eye movement measures (i.e., fixation duration, gaze duration, total viewing time, skipping rate, saccade amplitude, regression path duration) obtained from connected text paragraph reading were associated with language severity (WAB-R) and reading comprehension skills (RCBA-2) in persons with various subtypes of aphasia as well as whether those same eye movement ...


The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez May 2022

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer ...


Impact Of Telecoaching On The Emergent Literacy Skills Of Four-Year Old Children, De'asia Jackson May 2022

Impact Of Telecoaching On The Emergent Literacy Skills Of Four-Year Old Children, De'asia Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of a 8-week virtual text-message based parent training program on the emergent literacy skills of four-year-old children. Prior to the training children were screened for typically developing language skills and completed measures of a variety of emergent literacy skills then eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to two groups. Each parent was provided specific strategies over 8-weeks to facilitate the development of various emergent literacy skills. Five parents received code-based strategies to facilitate Inside-Out skills such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness and print concepts, while 3 parent-child dyads received meaning-based ...


Laryngeal Vestibular Closure In Healthy, Non-Dysphagic Adults, Courtney Petersen May 2022

Laryngeal Vestibular Closure In Healthy, Non-Dysphagic Adults, Courtney Petersen

Theses and Dissertations

This retrospective study quantified normal LVC (laryngeal vestibular closure) variance and how influential factors (age category, sex, and swallow task) influence normative ranges. A total of 195 healthy, non-dysphagic participants, including 85 males and 110 females from the ages of 21 to 89 years, participated in a modified barium swallow study. Seven swallow tasks, with varying viscosities and volumes, per participant were analyzed to measure two temporal LVC measures: LVCrt (reaction time) and dLVC (duration). Descriptive and inferential analyses were provided. Significant findings included longer dLVC in older age categories, longer dLVC in females compared to males, only in the ...


Technology Use In Schizotypy Utilizing The Domains Of Technology Use Survey (Dotus), Devin Massaro Apr 2022

Technology Use In Schizotypy Utilizing The Domains Of Technology Use Survey (Dotus), Devin Massaro

Theses and Dissertations

The diathesis stress model for schizophrenia posits that genetics and prenatal factors confer vulnerability (diathesis) for mental illness which then may be activated through exposure to environmental stressors during life. One component of our contemporary environment involves technology use which has demonstrated risk and beneficial capabilities in regards to the schizophrenia spectrum. Using an online and in-person survey, this study aimed to elucidate the manner in which time spent on technology related to schizotypy, problematic technology use (PTU), and health behaviors in 227 undergraduate students (aged 18-30). We hypothesized that levels of schizotypy, as well as time spent on social ...


Effect Of Covid-19 On The Wellbeing Of Healthcare Professionals In Public Isolation Hospitals In Egypt, Shaimaa Sabbah Feb 2022

Effect Of Covid-19 On The Wellbeing Of Healthcare Professionals In Public Isolation Hospitals In Egypt, Shaimaa Sabbah

Theses and Dissertations

One of the most vulnerable groups severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic has been the Healthcare Professionals (HCPs), especially the physicians, pharmacists, and nurses who work in public Isolation hospitals. The Egyptian medical syndicate declared the death of more than 600 physicians from February 2020 till January 2022. In the meantime, the Egyptian government has worked on different policies for relieving the negative effects of the pandemic on this vulnerable group; however, easing restrictions, no total lockdown implementation, and monitoring bureaucracy has negatively affected the wellbeing of those HCPs. The study aims to figure out recommended policies to protect HCPs ...


A Predictive Model For Geographical Location Using Microbiome Composition And Covid-19 Based Analysis, Ahmed Adel Aboushanab Jan 2022

A Predictive Model For Geographical Location Using Microbiome Composition And Covid-19 Based Analysis, Ahmed Adel Aboushanab

Theses and Dissertations

The human microbiome is a main contributor for the health and welfare of the human body. It is affected by many factors like diet and hygiene. These factors differ between different populations. Testing the population-microbiome differences using healthy samples from different countries is the first objective of this study. This data was then used in training and testing machine learning models (Random Forest and L2-logistic Regression Classifiers) for the prediction of the geographical location based on the microbiome data. Random Forest Classifier had the highest accuracy. Feature importance analysis showed that the data for Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes improved the ...


Selective Small Molecule Targeting Of Mcl-1 In Multiple Myeloma, Omar S. Al Odat Jan 2022

Selective Small Molecule Targeting Of Mcl-1 In Multiple Myeloma, Omar S. Al Odat

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a deadly blood malignancy, characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of aberrantly differentiated plasma cells. MM is challenging to diagnose and treat, accounting for approximately 12% of hematologic malignancies. The overexpression of anti-apoptotic group of Bcl-2 family proteins, particularly Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MM. The overexpression of Mcl-1 is associated with drug resistance and overall poor prognosis. Thus, inhibition of the Mcl-1 protein is an attractive therapeutic strategy against myeloma cells. Over the last decade, the development of selective Mcl-1 inhibitors has seen remarkable advancement. In this project ...


Dia.Ries, Katherine A. Doyle Jan 2022

Dia.Ries, Katherine A. Doyle

Theses and Dissertations

dia.ries is a pilot episode of an episodic series that offers insight into the lives of a few of the 500 million people around the world with diabetes—otherwise normal, everyday people who happen to be living each day with an “invisible illness.” Produced through video diaries and other user-generated content, the series tells stories from first-person points of view along thematic lines, using a collaborative approach rooted in Third Cinema.


Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Child Anxiety Symptoms: The Influence Of The Caregiver-Child Relationship, Rebecca Hoppe Jan 2022

Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Child Anxiety Symptoms: The Influence Of The Caregiver-Child Relationship, Rebecca Hoppe

Theses and Dissertations

Research suggests that youth are dealing with a myriad of worries during the COVID-19 pandemic (Ellis et al., 2020), which highlights the need for investigations focused on child anxiety. However, to date little research has examined children’s anxiety in the COVID-19 pandemic nor the potential protective effects of the caregiver-child relationship. Therefore, this research aimed to contribute to the literature by investigating the influence of COVID-19 related stressors in younger children and leveraging children’s report of their own attachment security within their relationship with their caregiver and mental health. The current study used a national, quantitative survey of ...


What Does It Mean To Be Black And A Woman? An Investigation Of Recollected Racial Socialization Messages And Racial Identity Development On Subjective Gender Role Stress, April Berry Jan 2022

What Does It Mean To Be Black And A Woman? An Investigation Of Recollected Racial Socialization Messages And Racial Identity Development On Subjective Gender Role Stress, April Berry

Theses and Dissertations

Black American women face unique challenges in their identity development and gender role experiences. Research has explored the impact of racial socialization messages on racial identity development, but there are significant gaps in the literature on how gendered racial socialization messages (i.e., the intersectionality of messages regarding both racial and gender identities; Brown et al., 2017) are associated with Black racial identity and subjective gender role stress (i.e., experiences of stress associated with events related to the female gender role; Shea et al., 2014) in Black women. This current study addresses this gap. A sample of 564 self-identified ...


Finding Benefit And Feeling Strain In Parenting A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Haley C. Adams Jan 2022

Finding Benefit And Feeling Strain In Parenting A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Haley C. Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Female caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, often report higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression which are often related to increased levels of caregiver strain, as well as the frequency and severity of child problem behaviors (CPB). Despite negative aspects of caring for a child with ASD, caregivers have also found benefit. The current study extended the caregiver benefit finding (CBF) and caregiver strain literature by exploring the role that these variables play in the mental health of female caregivers of children with ASD (n = 259), by assessing caregiver strain as a mediator between CPB and caregiver distress ...


Parental Psychological Control, Attachment, And Perpetration Of Psychological Aggression, Damion Drew Whittington Jan 2022

Parental Psychological Control, Attachment, And Perpetration Of Psychological Aggression, Damion Drew Whittington

Theses and Dissertations

Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be considered a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 25% of women, and 10% of men in the United States experience some form of IPV. Previous research has provided evidence that individuals’ attachment orientations predict their perpetration of psychological aggression toward romantic partners. Furthermore, it is also known that experiences of parental psychological control (PPC) are related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, and indirectly related to perpetration of psychological aggression. However, little previous research has been conducted on disorganized attachment in adulthood, and therefore the current investigation was focused on the relation ...


Budget Impact Analysis Of Upadacitinib For The Management Of Moderate-To-Severe Atopic Dermatitis In Patients Treated With Systemic Therapies In The United States, Haya O. Alobaid Jan 2022

Budget Impact Analysis Of Upadacitinib For The Management Of Moderate-To-Severe Atopic Dermatitis In Patients Treated With Systemic Therapies In The United States, Haya O. Alobaid

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: This study evaluated the budget impact of introducing upadacitinib for patients with uncontrolled moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) from a United States (U.S.) private payer perspective.

Methods: The model estimated costs before and after the adoption of upadacitinib for a hypothetical one million covered lives over 3 years. The model included immunosuppressant agents and dupilumab. Market uptake was assumed to be 2% per year. Treatments incur a cost for drug acquisition, and the costs associated with drug administration, laboratory testing, and clinic visits. The model calculated the impact on the budget in 2022 U.S. dollars. Various assumptions on ...


Estimating Weighted Panel Sizes For Primary Care Providers: An Assessment Of Clustering And Novel Methods Of Panel Size Estimation On Electronic Medical Records, Martin A. Lavallee Jan 2022

Estimating Weighted Panel Sizes For Primary Care Providers: An Assessment Of Clustering And Novel Methods Of Panel Size Estimation On Electronic Medical Records, Martin A. Lavallee

Theses and Dissertations

Primary Care is on the frontlines of healthcare, thus they see the most diverse set of patients. In order to achieve high functioning primary care, a practice must establish empanelment, the pairing of patients to providers. Enumeration of empanelment, or estimating panel sizes, helps ensure that the demands of the patients demand the supply of providers and optimize the balance of primary care resources to improve quality of care. Further we can adjust panel sizes by using patient-level data on healthcare utilization and complexity extracted from the electronic medial record to determine the amount of care or burden of work ...


Mathematical Models Of Infection Prevention Programs In Hospital Settings, Kelly A. Reagan Jan 2022

Mathematical Models Of Infection Prevention Programs In Hospital Settings, Kelly A. Reagan

Theses and Dissertations

Hospitals play a vital role in providing for the healthcare needs of a community. Patients can develop hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) during their hospitalization due to exposure to foreign bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Infection prevention programs target and reduce HAIs, but implementing the infection prevention programs often comes with a cost. The goal of my research is to use mathematical models to quantify the impact of infection prevention programs on cases of HAIs and total healthcare costs. First, I use a Markov chain model to quantify how one infection prevention program reduces general HAIs in the hospital. Then, I calculate the ...


Viral Overexpression Of Rprd2 In Mouse Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior And Regulates Genes Associated With Microtubule Transport, Claire Nuhad Atiyeh Jan 2022

Viral Overexpression Of Rprd2 In Mouse Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior And Regulates Genes Associated With Microtubule Transport, Claire Nuhad Atiyeh

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illness in the United States with many individuals underdiagnosed and undertreated (Anxiety & Depression Association of America, 2021; Bandelow et al., 2017). While stress is a known risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, there is emerging evidence that biological variability in the expression of key proteins in the brain may contribute to regulating an organism’s stress-related behaviors. Earlier work from our laboratory identified a protein, called Regulation of Nuclear Pre-mRNA Domain Containing 2 (RPRD2), that was differentially expressed in the brain of mice stratified in terms of their phenotypic response to chronic stress (Hamilton et al., 2020). RPRD2 ...


Varied Levels Of Fructose Consumption Induce Physiological, Cognitive, And Mitochondrial Alterations In Aged Female Rats, Emilie L. Bjerring Jan 2022

Varied Levels Of Fructose Consumption Induce Physiological, Cognitive, And Mitochondrial Alterations In Aged Female Rats, Emilie L. Bjerring

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1970s, fructose consumption has dramatically increased within the United States, as well as the world. While adolescents tend to be the largest consumer of fructose, mostly seen in the form of sugary beverages, the consequences of a high fructose diet started in adulthood can also have severe implications on physiological parameters as well as cognition. Several studies have linked fructose consumption to metabolic syndrome, a clustering of symptoms related to overall health, with particular emphasis placed on obesity, type II diabetes, and the relationship with Alzheimer’s Disease. These findings largely stem from the outcomes of studies on ...


Detailing The Genetic And Environmental Influences Shared Between Conventional And Electronic Cigarette Use Across Measures Of Initiation And Past 12-Month Use, James Clifford Jan 2022

Detailing The Genetic And Environmental Influences Shared Between Conventional And Electronic Cigarette Use Across Measures Of Initiation And Past 12-Month Use, James Clifford

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Tobacco use is a public health crisis with nearly 500,000 Americans suffering premature mortality attributable to tobacco use in 2014. New development efforts have created new nicotine delivery systems whose health consequences are not yet fully understood such as electronic cigarettes (ECIG). It is possible there are shared genetic and environmental factors that influence an individual’s liability to initiate cigarette (CIG) or ECIG use, as both systems are designed to deliver nicotine.

Methods. Four study designs were used to resolve the genetic and environmental influences that underlie CIG and ECIG initiation. A twin study, scoping review, genome-wide ...


Family Relationships And Academic Performance Via Belongingness Among Cuban Medical Students: Examining Family Legacy And Sex As Moderators, Maria J. Cisneros-Elias Jan 2022

Family Relationships And Academic Performance Via Belongingness Among Cuban Medical Students: Examining Family Legacy And Sex As Moderators, Maria J. Cisneros-Elias

Theses and Dissertations

Medical diplomacy is a foundational part of Cuban domestic and foreign policy (Feinsilver, 2010). Cuba has an abundance of doctors, encouraged by the country’s free medical education program (Hand et al., 2020), and has made a significant impact with its well-established healthcare system, provision of healthcare for all of its citizens, and healthcare support internationally. The current study aims to focus on processes underlying Cuban medical students’ academic performance, as they are a critical component of this successful system, and a population that has received limited empirical attention. Thus, the current study used path analyses to examine the relations ...


Exploring Dynamic Navigation For Palatally Impacted Canine Uncovery Surgery., Daniel Joseph Hall Jan 2022

Exploring Dynamic Navigation For Palatally Impacted Canine Uncovery Surgery., Daniel Joseph Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the exposure/uncovery of palatally impacted canines via the use of dynamic navigation guidance to the traditional freehand approach. Outcomes evaluated include the time to plan and perform exposure, area/size of initial access to locate the impacted tooth and the final size of the osteotomy to completely uncover the impacted tooth.

Methods: In order to simulate various frequently encountered clinical scenarios, three different model types were used. Six plastic models of each model type were fabricated from epoxy resin. Each model contained 2 bilaterally, palatally impacted canines, that were randomly ...


Defiantly Childlike: Using Aesthetic Resistance To Heal, Sarah K. Reagan Jan 2022

Defiantly Childlike: Using Aesthetic Resistance To Heal, Sarah K. Reagan

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines an alternative processing mechanism surrounding the act of healing after traumatic experiences in life. Using a methodology of iterative patterning and tool-pathing, a collection of inflatable garments and wooden mannequins analyzes defense mechanisms learned in early childhood development. This work highlights an essential body of recent scholarship that takes cuteification seriously to restore a childlike approach to mastering fear. This paper will review the definitions of cuteness and childlike humor and then describe how visual culture has implemented these components to subvert established power.


Exploring Predictors In The Receipt Of Patient/Family-Centered Care, Arami Anwell Jan 2022

Exploring Predictors In The Receipt Of Patient/Family-Centered Care, Arami Anwell

Theses and Dissertations

Study 1

OBJECTIVES: The research aim of this study was to identify predictors associated with the receipt of PFCC among U.S. children/families

METHODS: Caregivers of 38,803 non-institutionalized children, aged 0 to 17 years, were surveyed by the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) 2018–20019. Patient/family-centered care (PFCC) was measured using five components of health care delivery that were answered on a 4-point Likert scale. Logistic regression models were analyzed for the overall receipt of PFCC and each component of PFCC, with survey weighting added to adjust for complex sampling design.

RESULTS: Many predictors were ...


Chronic Adolescent Stress As A Predictive Factor For The Risk Of Developing Ptsd-Like Symptoms In Adulthood, Grace K. Young Jan 2022

Chronic Adolescent Stress As A Predictive Factor For The Risk Of Developing Ptsd-Like Symptoms In Adulthood, Grace K. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a stress and trauma based psychological disorder that is defined by the DSM-IV as an anxiety disorder that affects approximately 7.8% of people in the United States. PTSD is when those who suffer a traumatic event have intense and distressing feelings, emotions, and memories for a prolonged period of time after the event. A prominent feature of PTSD is the impaired ability to properly extinguish a fear response after a dangerous trigger or stressor is no longer present, also known as safety learning. Stressors are threats perceived within the environment that activate a response within ...


The Role Of Human Dopamine Transporter Threonine 261 And Serine 262 In Amphetamine Regulation Of Transporter Function And Surface Expression, Sina Abdollahi Jan 2022

The Role Of Human Dopamine Transporter Threonine 261 And Serine 262 In Amphetamine Regulation Of Transporter Function And Surface Expression, Sina Abdollahi

Theses and Dissertations

Amphetamine (AMPH) has been used clinically and recreationally around the world for years. A 2021 study reports a 67.5% rise in AMPH use from 2010-2017 across all fifty states. Study also shows that 30% of patients with AMPH-induced psychosis end up with primary psychosis over time. AMPH works by inhibiting monoamine (Norepinephrine (NE), Serotonin (5-HT), and Dopamine (DA) reuptake followed by triggering transporter mediated monoamine release and consequently increases monoamine concentrations in extracellular synaptic space. AMPH also works as a substrate for monoamine transporters, enters the neuron, and once its inside the neuron, it will prevent the storage of ...


The Economic Value Of Pharmacist-Physician Collaborative Care Models In Hypertension Management, Jessica S. Jay Jan 2022

The Economic Value Of Pharmacist-Physician Collaborative Care Models In Hypertension Management, Jessica S. Jay

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hypertension is highly prevalent in the United States, affecting nearly half of all adults (43%). Studies have shown that pharmacy-physician collaborative care models (PPCCM) for hypertension management significantly improve blood pressure (BP) control rates and provide consistent control of BP. Time in target range (TTR) for systolic BP is a novel measure of BP control consistency that is independently associated with decreased cardiovascular (CV) risk. There is no evidence observed improvement in TTR for systolic BP with PPCCM is cost effective.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PPCCM with usual care for the management of hypertension ...