Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Journal Articles

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 2957

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Performance Analysis Of Hybrid Deep Learning Framework Using A Vision Transformer And Convolutional Neural Network For Handwritten Digit Recognition, Vanita Agrawal, Jayant Jagtap, Shruti Patil, Ketan Kotecha Jun 2024

Performance Analysis Of Hybrid Deep Learning Framework Using A Vision Transformer And Convolutional Neural Network For Handwritten Digit Recognition, Vanita Agrawal, Jayant Jagtap, Shruti Patil, Ketan Kotecha

Journal Articles

Digitization created a demand for highly efficient handwritten document recognition systems. A handwritten document consists of digits, text, symbols, diagrams, etc. Digits are an essential element of handwritten documents. Accurate recognition of handwritten digits is vital for effective communication and data analysis. Various researchers have attempted to address this issue with modern convolutional neural network (CNN) techniques. Even after training, CNN filter weights remain unchanged despite the high identification accuracy. As a result, the process cannot flexibly adapt to input changes. Hence computer vision researchers have recently become interested in Vision Transformers (ViTs) and Multilayer Perceptrons (MLPs). The shortcomings of …


A Multitrait Genetic Study Of Hemostatic Factors And Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke Treatment, Cristina Gallego-Fabrega, Gerard Temprano-Sagrera, Jara Cárcel-Márquez, Elena Muiño, Natalia Cullell, Miquel Lledós, Laia Llucià-Carol, Jesús M Martin-Campos, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Mònica Millán, Lucía Muñoz-Narbona, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Jose Alvarez-Sabin, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Silvia Tur, Victor Obach, Juan F Arenillas, Tomas Segura, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Joan Marti-Fabregas, Marimar Freijo-Guerrero, Francisco Moniche, Maria Del Mar Castellanos, Alanna C Morrison, Nicholas L Smith, Paul S De Vries, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Maria Sabater-Lleal Apr 2024

A Multitrait Genetic Study Of Hemostatic Factors And Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke Treatment, Cristina Gallego-Fabrega, Gerard Temprano-Sagrera, Jara Cárcel-Márquez, Elena Muiño, Natalia Cullell, Miquel Lledós, Laia Llucià-Carol, Jesús M Martin-Campos, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Mònica Millán, Lucía Muñoz-Narbona, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Jose Alvarez-Sabin, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Silvia Tur, Victor Obach, Juan F Arenillas, Tomas Segura, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Joan Marti-Fabregas, Marimar Freijo-Guerrero, Francisco Moniche, Maria Del Mar Castellanos, Alanna C Morrison, Nicholas L Smith, Paul S De Vries, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Maria Sabater-Lleal

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Thrombolytic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) treatment is the only pharmacologic intervention available in the ischemic stroke acute phase. This treatment is associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhages, known as hemorrhagic transformations (HTs), which worsen the patient's prognosis.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between genetically determined natural hemostatic factors' levels and increased risk of HT after r-tPA treatment.

METHODS: Using data from genome-wide association studies on the risk of HT after r-tPA treatment and data on 7 hemostatic factors (factor [F]VII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor [VWF], FXI, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator), we performed …


Unraveling Trends In Schistosomiasis: Deep Learning Insights Into National Control Programs In China, Qing Su, Cici Xi Chen Bauer, Robert Bergquist, Zhiguo Cao, Fenghua Gao, Yi Hu, Zhijie Zhang Mar 2024

Unraveling Trends In Schistosomiasis: Deep Learning Insights Into National Control Programs In China, Qing Su, Cici Xi Chen Bauer, Robert Bergquist, Zhiguo Cao, Fenghua Gao, Yi Hu, Zhijie Zhang

Journal Articles

OBJECTIVES: To achieve the ambitious goal of eliminating schistosome infections, the Chinese government has implemented diverse control strategies. This study explored the progress of the 2 most recent national schistosomiasis control programs in an endemic area along the Yangtze River in China.

METHODS: We obtained village-level parasitological data from cross-sectional surveys combined with environmental data in Anhui Province, China from 1997 to 2015. A convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a hierarchical integro-difference equation (IDE) framework (i.e., CNN-IDE) was used to model spatio-temporal variations in schistosomiasis. Two traditional models were also constructed for comparison with 2 evaluation indicators: the mean-squared …


What's Going Well: A Qualitative Analysis Of Positive Patient And Family Feedback In The Context Of The Diagnostic Process., Stephen K Liu, Fabienne Bourgeois, Joe Dong, Kendall Harcourt, Elizabeth Lowe, Liz Salmi, Eric J Thomas, Natalie Riblet, Sigall K Bell Feb 2024

What's Going Well: A Qualitative Analysis Of Positive Patient And Family Feedback In The Context Of The Diagnostic Process., Stephen K Liu, Fabienne Bourgeois, Joe Dong, Kendall Harcourt, Elizabeth Lowe, Liz Salmi, Eric J Thomas, Natalie Riblet, Sigall K Bell

Journal Articles

OBJECTIVES: Accurate and timely diagnosis relies on close collaboration between patients/families and clinicians. Just as patients have unique insights into diagnostic breakdowns, positive patient feedback may also generate broader perspectives on what constitutes a "good" diagnostic process (DxP).

METHODS: We evaluated patient/family feedback on "what's going well" as part of an online pre-visit survey designed to engage patients/families in the DxP. Patients/families living with chronic conditions with visits in three urban pediatric subspecialty clinics (site 1) and one rural adult primary care clinic (site 2) were invited to complete the survey between December 2020 and March 2022. We adapted the …


Human Whole-Exome Genotype Data For Alzheimer's Disease., Yuk Yee Leung, Adam C Naj, Yi-Fan Chou, Otto Valladares, Michael Schmidt, Kara Hamilton-Nelson, Nicholas Wheeler, Honghuang Lin, Prabhakaran Gangadharan, Liming Qu, Kaylyn Clark, Amanda B Kuzma, Wan-Ping Lee, Laura Cantwell, Heather Nicaretta, Jonathan Haines, Lindsay Farrer, Sudha Seshadri, Zoran Brkanac, Carlos Cruchaga, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Richard P Mayeux, William S Bush, Anita Destefano, Eden Martin, Gerard D Schellenberg, Li-San Wang Jan 2024

Human Whole-Exome Genotype Data For Alzheimer's Disease., Yuk Yee Leung, Adam C Naj, Yi-Fan Chou, Otto Valladares, Michael Schmidt, Kara Hamilton-Nelson, Nicholas Wheeler, Honghuang Lin, Prabhakaran Gangadharan, Liming Qu, Kaylyn Clark, Amanda B Kuzma, Wan-Ping Lee, Laura Cantwell, Heather Nicaretta, Jonathan Haines, Lindsay Farrer, Sudha Seshadri, Zoran Brkanac, Carlos Cruchaga, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Richard P Mayeux, William S Bush, Anita Destefano, Eden Martin, Gerard D Schellenberg, Li-San Wang

Journal Articles

The heterogeneity of the whole-exome sequencing (WES) data generation methods present a challenge to a joint analysis. Here we present a bioinformatics strategy for joint-calling 20,504 WES samples collected across nine studies and sequenced using ten capture kits in fourteen sequencing centers in the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project. The joint-genotype called variant-called format (VCF) file contains only positions within the union of capture kits. The VCF was then processed specifically to account for the batch effects arising from the use of different capture kits from different studies. We identified 8.2 million autosomal variants. 96.82% of the variants are high-quality, and …


Reducing Risk For Chronic Disease: Evaluation Of A Collective Community Approach To Sustainable Evidence-Based Health Programming., Katherine Oestman, Ruth Rechis, Pamela A Williams, Jill A Brown, Katherine Treiman, Brittany Zulkiewicz, Michael T Walsh, Karen Basen-Engquist, Trina Rodriguez, Catherine Chennisi, Amber Macneish, Alise Neff, Mike Pomeroy, Faiyaz A Bhojani, Ernest Hawk Jan 2024

Reducing Risk For Chronic Disease: Evaluation Of A Collective Community Approach To Sustainable Evidence-Based Health Programming., Katherine Oestman, Ruth Rechis, Pamela A Williams, Jill A Brown, Katherine Treiman, Brittany Zulkiewicz, Michael T Walsh, Karen Basen-Engquist, Trina Rodriguez, Catherine Chennisi, Amber Macneish, Alise Neff, Mike Pomeroy, Faiyaz A Bhojani, Ernest Hawk

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Community initiatives can shape health behaviors, such as physical activity and dietary habits, across a population and help reduce the risk of developing chronic disease. To achieve this goal and impact health outcomes, Pasadena Vibrant Community aimed to engage communities in an ongoing dialogue about the importance of healthy behaviors, implement and advance community-based strategies to promote health, and improve diet and physical activity behaviors. The initiative was centered around a collaboration between a backbone organization, steering committee, and 7 collaborating organizations funded to implement multicomponent, evidence-based programs.. The common agenda was detailed in a community action plan, which …


Multi-Omics And Pathway Analyses Of Genome-Wide Associations Implicate Regulation And Immunity In Verbal Declarative Memory Performance., Hao Mei, Jeannette Simino, Lianna Li, Fan Jiang, Joshua C Bis, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Charley Xia, Vilmundur Gudnason, Qiong Yang, Jari Lahti, Jennifer A Smith, Mirna Kirin, Philip De Jager, Nicola J Armstrong, Mohsen Ghanbari, Ivana Kolcic, Christopher Moran, Alexander Teumer, Murali Sargurupremraj, Shamsed Mahmud, Myriam Fornage, Wei Zhao, Claudia L Satizabal, Ozren Polasek, Katri Räikkönen, David C Liewald, Georg Homuth, Michele Callisaya, Karen A Mather, B Gwen Windham, Tatijana Zemunik, Aarno Palotie, Alison Pattie, Sandra Van Der Auwera, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, David S Knopman, Igor Rudan, John M Starr, Katharina Wittfeld, Nicole A Kochan, Michael E Griswold, Veronique Vitart, Henry Brodaty, Rebecca Gottesman, Simon R Cox, Bruce M Psaty, Eric Boerwinkle, Daniel I Chasman, Francine Grodstein, Perminder S Sachdev, Velandai Srikanth, Caroline Hayward, James F Wilson, Johan G Eriksson, Sharon L R Kardia, Hans J Grabe, David A Bennett, M Arfan Ikram, Ian J Deary, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Lenore Launer, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Sudha Seshadri, Jan Bressler, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley Jan 2024

Multi-Omics And Pathway Analyses Of Genome-Wide Associations Implicate Regulation And Immunity In Verbal Declarative Memory Performance., Hao Mei, Jeannette Simino, Lianna Li, Fan Jiang, Joshua C Bis, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Charley Xia, Vilmundur Gudnason, Qiong Yang, Jari Lahti, Jennifer A Smith, Mirna Kirin, Philip De Jager, Nicola J Armstrong, Mohsen Ghanbari, Ivana Kolcic, Christopher Moran, Alexander Teumer, Murali Sargurupremraj, Shamsed Mahmud, Myriam Fornage, Wei Zhao, Claudia L Satizabal, Ozren Polasek, Katri Räikkönen, David C Liewald, Georg Homuth, Michele Callisaya, Karen A Mather, B Gwen Windham, Tatijana Zemunik, Aarno Palotie, Alison Pattie, Sandra Van Der Auwera, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, David S Knopman, Igor Rudan, John M Starr, Katharina Wittfeld, Nicole A Kochan, Michael E Griswold, Veronique Vitart, Henry Brodaty, Rebecca Gottesman, Simon R Cox, Bruce M Psaty, Eric Boerwinkle, Daniel I Chasman, Francine Grodstein, Perminder S Sachdev, Velandai Srikanth, Caroline Hayward, James F Wilson, Johan G Eriksson, Sharon L R Kardia, Hans J Grabe, David A Bennett, M Arfan Ikram, Ian J Deary, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Lenore Launer, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Sudha Seshadri, Jan Bressler, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Uncovering the functional relevance underlying verbal declarative memory (VDM) genome-wide association study (GWAS) results may facilitate the development of interventions to reduce age-related memory decline and dementia.

METHODS: We performed multi-omics and pathway enrichment analyses of paragraph (PAR-dr) and word list (WL-dr) delayed recall GWAS from 29,076 older non-demented individuals of European descent. We assessed the relationship between single-variant associations and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in 44 tissues and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) in the hippocampus. We determined the relationship between gene associations and transcript levels in 53 tissues, annotation as immune genes, and regulation by transcription …


Multi-Omics And Pathway Analyses Of Genome-Wide Associations Implicate Regulation And Immunity In Verbal Declarative Memory Performance., Hao Mei, Jeannette Simino, Lianna Li, Fan Jiang, Joshua C Bis, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Charley Xia, Vilmundur Gudnason, Qiong Yang, Jari Lahti, Jennifer A Smith, Mirna Kirin, Philip De Jager, Nicola J Armstrong, Mohsen Ghanbari, Ivana Kolcic, Christopher Moran, Alexander Teumer, Murali Sargurupremraj, Shamsed Mahmud, Myriam Fornage, Wei Zhao, Claudia L Satizabal, Ozren Polasek, Katri Räikkönen, David C Liewald, Georg Homuth, Michele Callisaya, Karen A Mather, B Gwen Windham, Tatijana Zemunik, Aarno Palotie, Alison Pattie, Sandra Van Der Auwera, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, David S Knopman, Igor Rudan, John M Starr, Katharina Wittfeld, Nicole A Kochan, Michael E Griswold, Veronique Vitart, Henry Brodaty, Rebecca Gottesman, Simon R Cox, Bruce M Psaty, Eric Boerwinkle, Daniel I Chasman, Francine Grodstein, Perminder S Sachdev, Velandai Srikanth, Caroline Hayward, James F Wilson, Johan G Eriksson, Sharon L R Kardia, Hans J Grabe, David A Bennett, M Arfan Ikram, Ian J Deary, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Lenore Launer, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Sudha Seshadri, Jan Bressler, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley Jan 2024

Multi-Omics And Pathway Analyses Of Genome-Wide Associations Implicate Regulation And Immunity In Verbal Declarative Memory Performance., Hao Mei, Jeannette Simino, Lianna Li, Fan Jiang, Joshua C Bis, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Charley Xia, Vilmundur Gudnason, Qiong Yang, Jari Lahti, Jennifer A Smith, Mirna Kirin, Philip De Jager, Nicola J Armstrong, Mohsen Ghanbari, Ivana Kolcic, Christopher Moran, Alexander Teumer, Murali Sargurupremraj, Shamsed Mahmud, Myriam Fornage, Wei Zhao, Claudia L Satizabal, Ozren Polasek, Katri Räikkönen, David C Liewald, Georg Homuth, Michele Callisaya, Karen A Mather, B Gwen Windham, Tatijana Zemunik, Aarno Palotie, Alison Pattie, Sandra Van Der Auwera, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, David S Knopman, Igor Rudan, John M Starr, Katharina Wittfeld, Nicole A Kochan, Michael E Griswold, Veronique Vitart, Henry Brodaty, Rebecca Gottesman, Simon R Cox, Bruce M Psaty, Eric Boerwinkle, Daniel I Chasman, Francine Grodstein, Perminder S Sachdev, Velandai Srikanth, Caroline Hayward, James F Wilson, Johan G Eriksson, Sharon L R Kardia, Hans J Grabe, David A Bennett, M Arfan Ikram, Ian J Deary, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Lenore Launer, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Sudha Seshadri, Jan Bressler, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Uncovering the functional relevance underlying verbal declarative memory (VDM) genome-wide association study (GWAS) results may facilitate the development of interventions to reduce age-related memory decline and dementia.

METHODS: We performed multi-omics and pathway enrichment analyses of paragraph (PAR-dr) and word list (WL-dr) delayed recall GWAS from 29,076 older non-demented individuals of European descent. We assessed the relationship between single-variant associations and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in 44 tissues and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) in the hippocampus. We determined the relationship between gene associations and transcript levels in 53 tissues, annotation as immune genes, and regulation by transcription …


Revealing Chronic Disease Progression Patterns Using Gaussian Process For Stage Inference., Yanfei Wang, Weiling Zhao, Angela Ross, Lei You, Hongyu Wang, Xiaobo Zhou Jan 2024

Revealing Chronic Disease Progression Patterns Using Gaussian Process For Stage Inference., Yanfei Wang, Weiling Zhao, Angela Ross, Lei You, Hongyu Wang, Xiaobo Zhou

Journal Articles

OBJECTIVE: The early stages of chronic disease typically progress slowly, so symptoms are usually only noticed until the disease is advanced. Slow progression and heterogeneous manifestations make it challenging to model the transition from normal to disease status. As patient conditions are only observed at discrete timestamps with varying intervals, an incomplete understanding of disease progression and heterogeneity affects clinical practice and drug development.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed the Gaussian Process for Stage Inference (GPSI) approach to uncover chronic disease progression patterns and assess the dynamic contribution of clinical features. We tested the ability of the GPSI to reliably …


Factors Associated With Blood Mercury Concentrations And Their Interactions With Three Glutathione S-Transferase Genes (Gstt1, Gstm1, And Gstp1): An Exposure Assessment Study Of Typically Developing Jamaican Children., Sheikh Farzana Zaman, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, Sepideh Saroukhani, Jan Bressler, Manouchehr Hessabi, Megan L Grove, Sydonnie Shakespeare Pellington, Katherine A Loveland, Mohammad H Rahbar Jan 2024

Factors Associated With Blood Mercury Concentrations And Their Interactions With Three Glutathione S-Transferase Genes (Gstt1, Gstm1, And Gstp1): An Exposure Assessment Study Of Typically Developing Jamaican Children., Sheikh Farzana Zaman, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, Sepideh Saroukhani, Jan Bressler, Manouchehr Hessabi, Megan L Grove, Sydonnie Shakespeare Pellington, Katherine A Loveland, Mohammad H Rahbar

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Jamaican soil is abundant in heavy metals including mercury (Hg). Due to availability and ease of access, fish is a traditional dietary component in Jamaica and a significant source of Hg exposure. Mercury is a xenobiotic and known neuro-toxicant that affects children's neurodevelopment. Human glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, including GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1, affect Hg conjugation and elimination mechanisms.

METHODS: In this exposure assessment study we used data from 375 typically developing (TD) 2-8-year-old Jamaican children to explore the association between environmental Hg exposure, GST genes, and their interaction effects on blood Hg concentrations (BHgCs). We used multivariable general …


Surgical Periodontal Management Of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma: A Series Of Three Cases., Karo Parsegian, Roger M Arce, Nikola Angelov Jan 2024

Surgical Periodontal Management Of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma: A Series Of Three Cases., Karo Parsegian, Roger M Arce, Nikola Angelov

Journal Articles

Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a benign swelling of the gingival connective tissue commonly associated with dental biofilm and biofilm-retentive dental appliances. In the present case report, we described three cases of POF with different clinical presentations and treatment approaches. The treatment consisted of the removal of supra- and subgingival calculus, followed by a flap surgery with excision of the entire lesion ensuring the inclusion of the periosteal bed. The first patient developed POF during her pregnancy that remained clinically noticeable postpartum. The second case represented a rare case of POF appearing on the palatal aspect of the anterior maxilla …


Evaluation Of A Targeted Covid-19 Community Outreach Intervention: Case Report For Precision Public Health., Isela De La Cerda, Cici X Bauer, Kehe Zhang, Miryoung Lee, Michelle Jones, Arturo Rodriguez, Joseph B Mccormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch Dec 2023

Evaluation Of A Targeted Covid-19 Community Outreach Intervention: Case Report For Precision Public Health., Isela De La Cerda, Cici X Bauer, Kehe Zhang, Miryoung Lee, Michelle Jones, Arturo Rodriguez, Joseph B Mccormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Cameron County, a low-income south Texas-Mexico border county marked by severe health disparities, was consistently among the top counties with the highest COVID-19 mortality in Texas at the onset of the pandemic. The disparity in COVID-19 burden within Texas counties revealed the need for effective interventions to address the specific needs of local health departments and their communities. Publicly available COVID-19 surveillance data were not sufficiently timely or granular to deliver such targeted interventions. An agency-academic collaboration in Cameron used novel geographic information science methods to produce granular COVID-19 surveillance data. These data were used to strategically target an …


Wastewater Analysis Of Mpox Virus In A City With Low Prevalence Of Mpox Disease: An Environmental Surveillance Study., Jeremiah Oghuan, Carlos Chavarria, Scout R Vanderwal, Anna Gitter, Akpevwe Amanda Ojaruega, Carlos Monserrat, Cici X Bauer, Eric L Brown, Sara Javornik Cregeen, Jennifer Deegan, Blake M Hanson, Michael Tisza, Hector I Ocaranza, John Balliew, Anthony W Maresso, Janelle Rios, Eric Boerwinkle, Kristina D Mena, Fuqing Wu Dec 2023

Wastewater Analysis Of Mpox Virus In A City With Low Prevalence Of Mpox Disease: An Environmental Surveillance Study., Jeremiah Oghuan, Carlos Chavarria, Scout R Vanderwal, Anna Gitter, Akpevwe Amanda Ojaruega, Carlos Monserrat, Cici X Bauer, Eric L Brown, Sara Javornik Cregeen, Jennifer Deegan, Blake M Hanson, Michael Tisza, Hector I Ocaranza, John Balliew, Anthony W Maresso, Janelle Rios, Eric Boerwinkle, Kristina D Mena, Fuqing Wu

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Tracking infectious diseases at the community level is challenging due to asymptomatic infections and the logistical complexities of mass surveillance. Wastewater surveillance has emerged as a valuable tool for monitoring infectious disease agents including SARS-CoV-2 and Mpox virus. However, detecting the Mpox virus in wastewater is particularly challenging due to its relatively low prevalence in the community. In this study, we aim to characterize three molecular assays for detecting and tracking the Mpox virus in wastewater from El Paso, Texas, during February and March 2023.

METHODS: In this study, a combined approach utilizing three real-time PCR assays targeting the …


Cannabinoids In Periodontology: Where Are We Now?, Yésica Carmona Rendón, Hernán Santiago Garzón, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Roger M Arce, Lina Janeth Suárez Nov 2023

Cannabinoids In Periodontology: Where Are We Now?, Yésica Carmona Rendón, Hernán Santiago Garzón, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Roger M Arce, Lina Janeth Suárez

Journal Articles

INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoids are a well-documented treatment modality for various immune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. However, limited information is available regarding the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in treating periodontal disease.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze the current evidence on the antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects of cannabis and its role in the healing and regeneration processes within periodontal tissues.

RESULTS: This review discusses the potential role of cannabinoids in restoring periodontal tissue homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: The examination of the endocannabinoid system and the …


Identification Of Circulating Proteins Associated With General Cognitive Function Among Middle-Aged And Older Adults., Adrienne Tin, Alison E Fohner, Qiong Yang, Jennifer A Brody, Gail Davies, Jie Yao, Dan Liu, Ilana Caro, Joni V Lindbohm, Michael R Duggan, Osorio Meirelles, Sarah E Harris, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Adele M Taylor, Albert Henry, Alexa S Beiser, Ali Shojaie, Annabell Coors, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Claudia Langenberg, Claudia L Satizabal, Colleen M Sitlani, Eleanor Wheeler, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jan Bressler, Josef Coresh, Joshua C Bis, Julián Candia, Lori L Jennings, Maik Pietzner, Mark Lathrop, Oscar L Lopez, Paul Redmond, Robert E Gerszten, Stephen S Rich, Susan R Heckbert, Thomas R Austin, Timothy M Hughes, Toshiko Tanaka, Valur Emilsson, Ramachandran S Vasan, Xiuqing Guo, Yineng Zhu, Christophe Tzourio, Jerome I Rotter, Keenan A Walker, Luigi Ferrucci, Mika Kivimäki, Monique M B Breteler, Simon R Cox, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley, Vilmundur G Gudnason, Lenore J Launer, Bruce M Psaty, Sudha Seshadri, Myriam Fornage Nov 2023

Identification Of Circulating Proteins Associated With General Cognitive Function Among Middle-Aged And Older Adults., Adrienne Tin, Alison E Fohner, Qiong Yang, Jennifer A Brody, Gail Davies, Jie Yao, Dan Liu, Ilana Caro, Joni V Lindbohm, Michael R Duggan, Osorio Meirelles, Sarah E Harris, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Adele M Taylor, Albert Henry, Alexa S Beiser, Ali Shojaie, Annabell Coors, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Claudia Langenberg, Claudia L Satizabal, Colleen M Sitlani, Eleanor Wheeler, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jan Bressler, Josef Coresh, Joshua C Bis, Julián Candia, Lori L Jennings, Maik Pietzner, Mark Lathrop, Oscar L Lopez, Paul Redmond, Robert E Gerszten, Stephen S Rich, Susan R Heckbert, Thomas R Austin, Timothy M Hughes, Toshiko Tanaka, Valur Emilsson, Ramachandran S Vasan, Xiuqing Guo, Yineng Zhu, Christophe Tzourio, Jerome I Rotter, Keenan A Walker, Luigi Ferrucci, Mika Kivimäki, Monique M B Breteler, Simon R Cox, Stephanie Debette, Thomas H Mosley, Vilmundur G Gudnason, Lenore J Launer, Bruce M Psaty, Sudha Seshadri, Myriam Fornage

Journal Articles

Identifying circulating proteins associated with cognitive function may point to biomarkers and molecular process of cognitive impairment. Few studies have investigated the association between circulating proteins and cognitive function. We identify 246 protein measures quantified by the SomaScan assay as associated with cognitive function (p < 4.9E-5, n up to 7289). Of these, 45 were replicated using SomaScan data, and three were replicated using Olink data at Bonferroni-corrected significance. Enrichment analysis linked the proteins associated with general cognitive function to cell signaling pathways and synapse architecture. Mendelian randomization analysis implicated higher levels of NECTIN2, a protein mediating viral entry into neuronal cells, with higher Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk (p = 2.5E-26). Levels of 14 other protein measures were implicated as consequences of AD susceptibility (p < 2.0E-4). Proteins implicated as causes or consequences of AD susceptibility may provide new insight into the potential relationship between immunity and AD susceptibility as well as potential therapeutic targets.


Associations Between Rest-Activity Rhythms And Liver Function Tests: The Us National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2014., Chris Ho Ching Yeung, Cici Bauer, Qian Xiao Nov 2023

Associations Between Rest-Activity Rhythms And Liver Function Tests: The Us National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2014., Chris Ho Ching Yeung, Cici Bauer, Qian Xiao

Journal Articles

Liver functions are regulated by the circadian rhythm; however, whether a weakened circadian rhythm is associated with impaired liver function is unclear. This study aims to investigate the association of characteristics of rest-activity rhythms with abnormal levels of biomarkers of liver function. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. Seven rest-activity rhythm parameters were derived from 24 h actigraphy data using the extended cosine model and non-parametric methods. Multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between rest-activity rhythm parameters and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase …


Wastewater Sequencing Reveals Community And Variant Dynamics Of The Collective Human Virome., Michael Tisza, Sara Javornik Cregeen, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Ping Zhang, Tulin Ayvaz, Karen Feliz, Kristi L Hoffman, Justin R Clark, Austen Terwilliger, Matthew C Ross, Juwan Cormier, Hannah Moreno, Li Wang, Katelyn Payne, David Henke, Catherine Troisi, Fuqing Wu, Janelle Rios, Jennifer Deegan, Blake Hansen, John Balliew, Anna Gitter, Kehe Zhang, Runze Li, Cici X Bauer, Kristina D Mena, Pedro A Piedra, Joseph F Petrosino, Eric Boerwinkle, Anthony W Maresso Oct 2023

Wastewater Sequencing Reveals Community And Variant Dynamics Of The Collective Human Virome., Michael Tisza, Sara Javornik Cregeen, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Ping Zhang, Tulin Ayvaz, Karen Feliz, Kristi L Hoffman, Justin R Clark, Austen Terwilliger, Matthew C Ross, Juwan Cormier, Hannah Moreno, Li Wang, Katelyn Payne, David Henke, Catherine Troisi, Fuqing Wu, Janelle Rios, Jennifer Deegan, Blake Hansen, John Balliew, Anna Gitter, Kehe Zhang, Runze Li, Cici X Bauer, Kristina D Mena, Pedro A Piedra, Joseph F Petrosino, Eric Boerwinkle, Anthony W Maresso

Journal Articles

Wastewater is a discarded human by-product, but its analysis may help us understand the health of populations. Epidemiologists first analyzed wastewater to track outbreaks of poliovirus decades ago, but so-called wastewater-based epidemiology was reinvigorated to monitor SARS-CoV-2 levels while bypassing the difficulties and pit falls of individual testing. Current approaches overlook the activity of most human viruses and preclude a deeper understanding of human virome community dynamics. Here, we conduct a comprehensive sequencing-based analysis of 363 longitudinal wastewater samples from ten distinct sites in two major cities. Critical to detection is the use of a viral probe capture set targeting …


U.S. Adolescent Rest-Activity Patterns: Insights From Functional Principal Component Analysis (Nhanes 2011-2014)., Chris Ho Ching Yeung, Jiachen Lu, Erica G Soltero, Cici Bauer, Qian Xiao Oct 2023

U.S. Adolescent Rest-Activity Patterns: Insights From Functional Principal Component Analysis (Nhanes 2011-2014)., Chris Ho Ching Yeung, Jiachen Lu, Erica G Soltero, Cici Bauer, Qian Xiao

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal rest-activity patterns in adolescence are associated with worse health outcomes in adulthood. Understanding sociodemographic factors associated with rest-activity rhythms may help identify subgroups who may benefit from interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of rest-activity rhythm with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in adolescents.

METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 adolescents (N = 1814), this study derived rest-activity profiles from 7-day 24-hour accelerometer data using functional principal component analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between participant characteristics and rest-activity profiles. Weekday and weekend …


Partnering With Patients And Families To Improve Diagnostic Safety Through The Ourdx Tool: Effects Of Race, Ethnicity, And Language Preference, Fabienne C Bourgeois, Nicholas J Hart, Zhiyong Dong, Long H Ngo, Catherine M Desroches, Eric J Thomas, Sigall K Bell Oct 2023

Partnering With Patients And Families To Improve Diagnostic Safety Through The Ourdx Tool: Effects Of Race, Ethnicity, And Language Preference, Fabienne C Bourgeois, Nicholas J Hart, Zhiyong Dong, Long H Ngo, Catherine M Desroches, Eric J Thomas, Sigall K Bell

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Patients and families at risk for health disparities may also be at higher risk for diagnostic errors but less likely to report them.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore differences in race, ethnicity, and language preference associated with patient and family contributions and concerns using an electronic previsit tool designed to engage patients and families in the diagnostic process (DxP).

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 5,731 patients and families presenting to three subspecialty clinics at an urban pediatric hospital May to December 2021 who completed a previsit tool, codeveloped and tested with patients and families. Prior to each visit, patients/families …


Medication Reconciliation During Transitions Of Care Across Institutions: A Quantitative Analysis Of Challenges And Opportunities., Alejandro Araya, Logan R Thornton, Deukwoo Kwon, Gayla M Ferguson, Linda D Highfield, Kevin O Hwang, Holly M Holmes, Elmer V Bernstam Oct 2023

Medication Reconciliation During Transitions Of Care Across Institutions: A Quantitative Analysis Of Challenges And Opportunities., Alejandro Araya, Logan R Thornton, Deukwoo Kwon, Gayla M Ferguson, Linda D Highfield, Kevin O Hwang, Holly M Holmes, Elmer V Bernstam

Journal Articles

OBJECTIVE: Medication discrepancies between clinical systems may pose a patient safety hazard. In this paper, we identify challenges and quantify medication discrepancies across transitions of care.

METHODS: We used structured clinical data and free-text hospital discharge summaries to compare active medications' lists at four time points: preadmission (outpatient), at-admission (inpatient), at-discharge (inpatient), and postdischarge (outpatient). Medication lists were normalized to RxNorm. RxNorm identifiers were further processed using the RxNav API to identify the ingredient. The specific drugs and ingredients from inpatient and outpatient medication lists were compared.

RESULTS: Using RxNorm drugs, the median percentage intersection when comparing active medication lists …


Dependence Motives And Use Contexts That Predicted Smoking Cessation And Vaping Cessation: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study With 13 Waves., Joon Kyung Nam, Megan E Piper, Zhaoxue Tong, Runze Li, James J Yang, Douglas E Jorenby, Anne Buu Sep 2023

Dependence Motives And Use Contexts That Predicted Smoking Cessation And Vaping Cessation: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study With 13 Waves., Joon Kyung Nam, Megan E Piper, Zhaoxue Tong, Runze Li, James J Yang, Douglas E Jorenby, Anne Buu

Journal Articles

INTRODUCTION: Prior studies examining the impact of e-cigarette use, dependence, cessation motivation/goals, and environmental restriction on smoking cessation were based on cross-sectional or shorter-term longitudinal data with binary outcomes. There is also a critical knowledge gap in corresponding impact on vaping cessation. This study aims to fill in these gaps by investigating these factors' effects on speed of progression to smoking and vaping cessation.

METHODS: This study conducted secondary analysis of data from 13 waves of assessment of adult cigarette users in Wisconsin from October 2015 through July 2019. Cox regression was employed to examine baseline predictors' effects on speed …


Patient Shielding During Dentomaxillofacial Radiography: Recommendations From The American Academy Of Oral And Maxillofacial Radiology., Erika Benavides, Avni Bhula, Anita Gohel, Alan G Lurie, Sanjay M Mallya, Aruna Ramesh, Donald A Tyndall Sep 2023

Patient Shielding During Dentomaxillofacial Radiography: Recommendations From The American Academy Of Oral And Maxillofacial Radiology., Erika Benavides, Avni Bhula, Anita Gohel, Alan G Lurie, Sanjay M Mallya, Aruna Ramesh, Donald A Tyndall

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology established an ad hoc committee to draft evidence-based recommendations and clinical guidance for the application of patient contact shielding during dentomaxillofacial imaging.

TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The committee reviewed monographs and reports from radiation protection organizations and studies that reported radiation dose to gonads, breasts, and thyroid gland from dentomaxillofacial imaging.

RESULTS: Considering the absence of radiation-induced heritable effects in humans and the negligible dose to the gonads and fetus from dentomaxillofacial imaging, the committee recommends discontinuing shielding of the gonads, pelvic structures, and fetuses during all dentomaxillofacial radiographic imaging procedures. …


Multivariate Genetic Analysis Of Personality And Cognitive Traits Reveals Abundant Pleiotropy., Guy Hindley, Alexey A Shadrin, Dennis Van Der Meer, Nadine Parker, Weiqiu Cheng, Kevin S O'Connell, Shahram Bahrami, Aihua Lin, Naz Karadag, Børge Holen, Thomas Bjella, Ian J Deary, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Jan Bressler, Sudha Seshadri, Chun Chieh Fan, Torill Ueland, Srdjan Djurovic, Olav B Smeland, Oleksandr Frei, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen Sep 2023

Multivariate Genetic Analysis Of Personality And Cognitive Traits Reveals Abundant Pleiotropy., Guy Hindley, Alexey A Shadrin, Dennis Van Der Meer, Nadine Parker, Weiqiu Cheng, Kevin S O'Connell, Shahram Bahrami, Aihua Lin, Naz Karadag, Børge Holen, Thomas Bjella, Ian J Deary, Gail Davies, W David Hill, Jan Bressler, Sudha Seshadri, Chun Chieh Fan, Torill Ueland, Srdjan Djurovic, Olav B Smeland, Oleksandr Frei, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen

Journal Articles

Personality and cognitive function are heritable mental traits whose genetic foundations may be distributed across interconnected brain functions. Previous studies have typically treated these complex mental traits as distinct constructs. We applied the 'pleiotropy-informed' multivariate omnibus statistical test to genome-wide association studies of 35 measures of neuroticism and cognitive function from the UK Biobank (n = 336,993). We identified 431 significantly associated genetic loci with evidence of abundant shared genetic associations, across personality and cognitive function domains. Functional characterization implicated genes with significant tissue-specific expression in all tested brain tissues and brain-specific gene sets. We conditioned independent genome-wide association studies …


Artificial Light At Night And Social Vulnerability: An Environmental Justice Analysis In The U.S. 2012-2019., Qian Xiao, Yue Lyu, Meng Zhou, Jiachen Lu, Kehe Zhang, Jun Wang, Cici Bauer Aug 2023

Artificial Light At Night And Social Vulnerability: An Environmental Justice Analysis In The U.S. 2012-2019., Qian Xiao, Yue Lyu, Meng Zhou, Jiachen Lu, Kehe Zhang, Jun Wang, Cici Bauer

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) is an emerging health risk factor that has been linked to a wide range of adverse health effects. Recent study suggested that disadvantaged neighborhoods may be exposed to higher levels of ALAN. Understanding how social disadvantage correlates with ALAN levels is essential for identifying the vulnerable populations and for informing lighting policy.

METHODS: We used satellite data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Black Marble data product to quantify annual ALAN levels (2012-2019), and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) to quantify social disadvantage, both at …


Arsenic Metabolism, Diabetes Prevalence, And Insulin Resistance Among Mexican Americans: A Mendelian Randomization Approach., Margaret C Weiss, Yu-Hsuan Shih, Molly Scannell Bryan, Brian P Jackson, David Aguilar, Eric L Brown, Goo Jun, Craig L Hanis, Maria Argos, Robert M Sargis Jul 2023

Arsenic Metabolism, Diabetes Prevalence, And Insulin Resistance Among Mexican Americans: A Mendelian Randomization Approach., Margaret C Weiss, Yu-Hsuan Shih, Molly Scannell Bryan, Brian P Jackson, David Aguilar, Eric L Brown, Goo Jun, Craig L Hanis, Maria Argos, Robert M Sargis

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Differences in arsenic metabolism capacity may influence risk for type 2 diabetes, but the mechanistic drivers are unclear. We evaluated the associations between arsenic metabolism with overall diabetes prevalence and with static and dynamic measures of insulin resistance among Mexican Americans living in Starr County, Texas.

METHODS: We utilized data from cross-sectional studies conducted in Starr County, Texas, from 2010-2014. A Mendelian randomization approach was utilized to evaluate the associations between arsenic metabolism and type 2 diabetes prevalence using the intronic variant in the arsenic methylating gene, rs9527, as the instrumental variable for arsenic metabolism. To further assess mechanisms …


Arsenic Metabolism, Diabetes Prevalence, And Insulin Resistance Among Mexican Americans: A Mendelian Randomization Approach., Margaret C Weiss, Yu-Hsuan Shih, Molly Scannell Bryan, Brian P Jackson, David Aguilar, Eric L Brown, Goo Jun, Craig L Hanis, Maria Argos, Robert M Sargis Jul 2023

Arsenic Metabolism, Diabetes Prevalence, And Insulin Resistance Among Mexican Americans: A Mendelian Randomization Approach., Margaret C Weiss, Yu-Hsuan Shih, Molly Scannell Bryan, Brian P Jackson, David Aguilar, Eric L Brown, Goo Jun, Craig L Hanis, Maria Argos, Robert M Sargis

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Differences in arsenic metabolism capacity may influence risk for type 2 diabetes, but the mechanistic drivers are unclear. We evaluated the associations between arsenic metabolism with overall diabetes prevalence and with static and dynamic measures of insulin resistance among Mexican Americans living in Starr County, Texas.

METHODS: We utilized data from cross-sectional studies conducted in Starr County, Texas, from 2010-2014. A Mendelian randomization approach was utilized to evaluate the associations between arsenic metabolism and type 2 diabetes prevalence using the intronic variant in the arsenic methylating gene, rs9527, as the instrumental variable for arsenic metabolism. To further assess mechanisms …


An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study To Examine Covariates And Effects Of Concurrent And Simultaneous Use Of Electronic Cigarettes And Marijuana Among College Students., Anne Buu, James J Yang, Tzung-Shiang Ou, Joon Kyung Nam, Ganghui Suh, Hsien-Chang Lin Jun 2023

An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study To Examine Covariates And Effects Of Concurrent And Simultaneous Use Of Electronic Cigarettes And Marijuana Among College Students., Anne Buu, James J Yang, Tzung-Shiang Ou, Joon Kyung Nam, Ganghui Suh, Hsien-Chang Lin

Journal Articles

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of concurrent and simultaneous use of e-cigarette and marijuana among college students is high. Yet, the literature was mainly based on cross-sectional surveys with emphasis on the smoking route. This is the first ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study that examined the vaping route of nicotine-marijuana co-use and the associated short-term psychological effects.

METHODS: This study recruited 686 college student e-cigarette users to participate in an on-line survey and 7-day EMA. Frequent marijuana users (247) - using marijuana weekly or daily - were compared with infrequent/non-users (439) on academic performance, e-cigarette use patterns, and dependence and respiratory symptoms. …


Confidence-Based Laboratory Test Reduction Recommendation Algorithm, Tongtong Huang, Linda T Li, Elmer V Bernstam, Xiaoqian Jiang May 2023

Confidence-Based Laboratory Test Reduction Recommendation Algorithm, Tongtong Huang, Linda T Li, Elmer V Bernstam, Xiaoqian Jiang

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: We propose a new deep learning model to identify unnecessary hemoglobin (Hgb) tests for patients admitted to the hospital, which can help reduce health risks and healthcare costs.

METHODS: We collected internal patient data from a teaching hospital in Houston and external patient data from the MIMIC III database. The study used a conservative definition of unnecessary laboratory tests, which was defined as stable (i.e., stability) and below the lower normal bound (i.e., normality). Considering that machine learning models may yield less reliable results when trained on noisy inputs containing low-quality information, we estimated prediction confidence to assess the …


Reliability Estimates For Assessing Meal Timing Derived From Longitudinal Repeated 24-Hour Dietary Recalls., Lacie Peterson, Hyejung Lee, Inge Huybrechts, Carine Biessy, Marian L Neuhouser, Benjamin Haaland, Benjamin Krick, Marc Gunter, Matthias B Schulze, Franziska Jannasch, Adriana M Coletta, Sheetal Hardikar, Amandine Chaix, Cici X Bauer, Qian Xiao, Mary C Playdon May 2023

Reliability Estimates For Assessing Meal Timing Derived From Longitudinal Repeated 24-Hour Dietary Recalls., Lacie Peterson, Hyejung Lee, Inge Huybrechts, Carine Biessy, Marian L Neuhouser, Benjamin Haaland, Benjamin Krick, Marc Gunter, Matthias B Schulze, Franziska Jannasch, Adriana M Coletta, Sheetal Hardikar, Amandine Chaix, Cici X Bauer, Qian Xiao, Mary C Playdon

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Regulating meal timing may have efficacy for improving metabolic health for preventing or managing chronic disease. However, the reliability of measuring meal timing with commonly used dietary assessment tools needs characterization prior to investigating meal timing and health outcomes in epidemiologic studies.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of estimating meal timing parameters, including overnight fasting duration, the midpoint of overnight fasting time, the number of daily eating episodes, the period with the largest percentage of daily caloric intake, and late last eating episode (> 09:00 pm) from repeated 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs).

METHODS: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Light's Kappa …


The Social Vulnerability Index As A Risk Stratification Tool For Health Disparity Research In Cancer Patients: A Scoping Review, Tiffaney Tran, Morgan A Rousseau, David P Farris, Cici Bauer, Kelly C Nelson, Hung Q Doan May 2023

The Social Vulnerability Index As A Risk Stratification Tool For Health Disparity Research In Cancer Patients: A Scoping Review, Tiffaney Tran, Morgan A Rousseau, David P Farris, Cici Bauer, Kelly C Nelson, Hung Q Doan

Journal Articles

PURPOSE: The social vulnerability index (SVI), developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a novel composite measure encompassing multiple variables that correspond to key social determinants of health. The objective of this review was to investigate innovative applications of the SVI to oncology research and to employ the framework of the cancer care continuum to elucidate further research opportunities.

METHODS: A systematic search for relevant articles was performed in five databases from inception to 13 May 2022. Included studies applied the SVI to analyze outcomes in cancer patients. Study characteristics, patent populations, data sources, and outcomes were …