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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Detecting Receptivity For Mhealth Interventions In The Natural Environment, Varun Mishra, Florian Künzler, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Elgar Fleisch, Tobias Kowatsch, David Kotz Jun 2021

Detecting Receptivity For Mhealth Interventions In The Natural Environment, Varun Mishra, Florian Künzler, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Elgar Fleisch, Tobias Kowatsch, David Kotz

Dartmouth Scholarship

Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) is an emerging technique with great potential to support health behavior by providing the right type and amount of support at the right time. A crucial aspect of JITAIs is properly timing the delivery of interventions, to ensure that a user is receptive and ready to process and use the support provided. Some prior works have explored the association of context and some user-specific traits on receptivity, and have built post-study machine-learning models to detect receptivity. For effective intervention delivery, however, a JITAI system needs to make in-the-moment decisions about a user's receptivity. To this ...


When Do Drivers Interact With In-Vehicle Well-Being Interventions? An Exploratory Analysis Of A Longitudinal Study On Public Roads, Kevin Koch, Varun Mishra, Shu Liu, Thomas Berger, Elgar Fleisch, David Kotz, Felix Wortmann Mar 2021

When Do Drivers Interact With In-Vehicle Well-Being Interventions? An Exploratory Analysis Of A Longitudinal Study On Public Roads, Kevin Koch, Varun Mishra, Shu Liu, Thomas Berger, Elgar Fleisch, David Kotz, Felix Wortmann

Dartmouth Scholarship

Recent developments of novel in-vehicle interventions show the potential to transform the otherwise routine and mundane task of commuting into opportunities to improve the drivers' health and well-being. Prior research has explored the effectiveness of various in-vehicle interventions and has identified moments in which drivers could be interruptible to interventions. All the previous studies, however, were conducted in either simulated or constrained real-world driving scenarios on a pre-determined route. In this paper, we take a step forward and evaluate when drivers interact with in-vehicle interventions in unconstrained free-living conditions.

To this end, we conducted a two-month longitudinal study with 10 ...


A Weight-Loss Intervention Augmented By A Wearable Device In Rural Older Adults With Obesity: A Feasibility Study, John A. Batsis, Curtis L. Petersen, Matthew L. Clark, Summer B. Cook, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Rima I. Al-Nimer, Dawna Pidgeon, David Kotz, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels Jan 2021

A Weight-Loss Intervention Augmented By A Wearable Device In Rural Older Adults With Obesity: A Feasibility Study, John A. Batsis, Curtis L. Petersen, Matthew L. Clark, Summer B. Cook, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Rima I. Al-Nimer, Dawna Pidgeon, David Kotz, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background

Older persons with obesity aged 65+ residing in rural areas have reduced access to weight management programs due to geographic isolation. The ability to integrate technology into health promotion interventions shows a potential to reach this underserved population. Methods

A 12-week pilot in 28 older rural adults with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) was conducted at a community aging center. The intervention consisted of individualized, weekly dietitian visits focusing on behavior therapy and caloric restriction with twice weekly physical therapist-led group strengthening training classes in a community-based aging center. All participants were provided a Fitbit Flex ...


Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Technology-Based, Rural Weight Management Int Ervention In Older Adults With Obesity, John A. Batsis, Curtis L. Petersen, Matthew M. Clark, Summer B. Cook, David Kotz, Tyler L. Gooding, Meredith N. Roderka, Rima I. Al-Nimer, Dawna M. Pidgeon, Ann Haedrich, K. C. Wright, Christina Aquila, Todd A. Mackenzie Jan 2021

Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Technology-Based, Rural Weight Management Int Ervention In Older Adults With Obesity, John A. Batsis, Curtis L. Petersen, Matthew M. Clark, Summer B. Cook, David Kotz, Tyler L. Gooding, Meredith N. Roderka, Rima I. Al-Nimer, Dawna M. Pidgeon, Ann Haedrich, K. C. Wright, Christina Aquila, Todd A. Mackenzie

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background

Older adults with obesity residing in rural areas have reduced access to weight management programs. We determined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of an integrated technology-based health promotion intervention in rural-living, older adults using remote monitoring and synchronous video-based technology.

Methods

A 6-month, non-randomized, non-blinded, single-arm study was conducted from October 2018 to May 2020 at a community-based aging center of adults aged ≥65 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. Weekly dietitian visits focusing on behavior therapy and caloric restriction and twice-weekly physical therapist-led group strength, flexibility and balance training classes were delivered using ...


Evaluating The Reproducibility Of Physiological Stress Detection Models, Varun Mishra, Sougata Sen, Grace Chen, Tian Hao, Jeffrey Rogers, Ching-Hua Chen, David Kotz Dec 2020

Evaluating The Reproducibility Of Physiological Stress Detection Models, Varun Mishra, Sougata Sen, Grace Chen, Tian Hao, Jeffrey Rogers, Ching-Hua Chen, David Kotz

Dartmouth Scholarship

Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies have led to a variety of approaches for detecting physiological stress. Even with over a decade of research in the domain, there still exist many significant challenges, including a near-total lack of reproducibility across studies. Researchers often use some physiological sensors (custom-made or off-the-shelf), conduct a study to collect data, and build machine-learning models to detect stress. There is little effort to test the applicability of the model with similar physiological data collected from different devices, or the efficacy of the model on data collected from different studies, populations, or demographics.

This paper takes ...


Barriers And Facilitators In Implementing A Pilot, Pragmatic, Telemedicine-Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Program For Obesity Management In A Rural, Academic Obesity Clinic, John A. Batsis, Auden C. Mcclure, Aaron B. Weintraub, Diane Sette, Sivan Rotenberg, Courtney J. Stevens, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, David Kotz, Stephen Bartels, Summer B. Cook, Richard I. Rothstein Sep 2020

Barriers And Facilitators In Implementing A Pilot, Pragmatic, Telemedicine-Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Program For Obesity Management In A Rural, Academic Obesity Clinic, John A. Batsis, Auden C. Mcclure, Aaron B. Weintraub, Diane Sette, Sivan Rotenberg, Courtney J. Stevens, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, David Kotz, Stephen Bartels, Summer B. Cook, Richard I. Rothstein

Dartmouth Scholarship

Few evidence-based strategies are specifically tailored for disparity populations such as rural adults. Two-way video-conferencing using telemedicine can potentially surmount geographic barriers that impede participation in high-intensity treatment programs offering frequent visits to clinic facilities. We aimed to understand barriers and facilitators of implementing a telemedicine-delivered tertiary-care, rural academic weight-loss program for the management of obesity.


Using Natural Language Processing And Sentiment Analysis To Augment Traditional User-Centered Design: Development And Usability Study, Curtis L. Petersen, Ryan Halter, David Kotz, Lorie Loeb, Summer B. Cook, Dawna M. Pidgeon, Brock Christensen, John A. Batsis Aug 2020

Using Natural Language Processing And Sentiment Analysis To Augment Traditional User-Centered Design: Development And Usability Study, Curtis L. Petersen, Ryan Halter, David Kotz, Lorie Loeb, Summer B. Cook, Dawna M. Pidgeon, Brock Christensen, John A. Batsis

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Sarcopenia, defined as the age-associated loss of muscle mass and strength, can be effectively mitigated through resistance-based physical activity. With compliance at approximately 40% for home-based exercise prescriptions, implementing a remote sensing system would help patients and clinicians to better understand treatment progress and increase compliance. The inclusion of end users in the development of mobile apps for remote-sensing systems can ensure that they are both user friendly and facilitate compliance. With advancements in natural language processing (NLP), there is potential for these methods to be used with data collected through the user-centered design process.

Objective: This study aims ...


Automatic Recognition, Segmentation, And Sex Assignment Of Nocturnal Asthmatic Coughs And Cough Epochs In Smartphone Audio Recordings: Observational Field Study, Filipe Barata, Peter Tinschert, Frank Rassouli, Claudia Steurer-Stey, Elgar Fleisch, Milo Puhan, Martin Brutsche, David Kotz, Tobias Kowatsch Jul 2020

Automatic Recognition, Segmentation, And Sex Assignment Of Nocturnal Asthmatic Coughs And Cough Epochs In Smartphone Audio Recordings: Observational Field Study, Filipe Barata, Peter Tinschert, Frank Rassouli, Claudia Steurer-Stey, Elgar Fleisch, Milo Puhan, Martin Brutsche, David Kotz, Tobias Kowatsch

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic respiratory diseases. Despite increased investment in treatment, little progress has been made in the early recognition and treatment of asthma exacerbations over the last decade. Nocturnal cough monitoring may provide an opportunity to identify patients at risk for imminent exacerbations. Recently developed approaches enable smartphone-based cough monitoring. These approaches, however, have not undergone longitudinal overnight testing nor have they been specifically evaluated in the context of asthma. Also, the problem of distinguishing partner coughs from patient coughs when two or more people are sleeping in the same room using contact-free audio ...


The Application Of Digital Health To The Assessment And Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders: The Past, Current, And Future Role Of The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, Lisa A. Marsch, Aimee Campbell, Cynthia Campbell, Ching-Hua Chen, Emre Ertin, Udi Ghitza, Chantal Lambert-Harris, Saeed Hassanpour, August F. Holtyn, Yih-Ing Hser, Petra Jacobs, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Shea Lemley, David Kotz, Andrea Meier, Bethany Mcleman, Jennifer Mcneely, Varun Mishra, Larissa Mooney, Edward Nunes, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, Catherine Stanger, Elizabeth Saunders, Geetha Subramaniam, Sean Young Mar 2020

The Application Of Digital Health To The Assessment And Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders: The Past, Current, And Future Role Of The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, Lisa A. Marsch, Aimee Campbell, Cynthia Campbell, Ching-Hua Chen, Emre Ertin, Udi Ghitza, Chantal Lambert-Harris, Saeed Hassanpour, August F. Holtyn, Yih-Ing Hser, Petra Jacobs, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Shea Lemley, David Kotz, Andrea Meier, Bethany Mcleman, Jennifer Mcneely, Varun Mishra, Larissa Mooney, Edward Nunes, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, Catherine Stanger, Elizabeth Saunders, Geetha Subramaniam, Sean Young

Dartmouth Scholarship

The application of digital technologies to better assess, understand, and treat substance use disorders (SUDs) is a particularly promising and vibrant area of scientific research. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN), launched in 1999 by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, has supported a growing line of research that leverages digital technologies to glean new insights into SUDs and provide science-based therapeutic tools to a diverse array of persons with SUDs.

This manuscript provides an overview of the breadth and impact of research conducted in the realm of digital health within the CTN. This work ...


Workshop On The Development And Evaluation Of Digital Therapeutics For Health Behavior Change: Science, Methods, And Projects, Alan J. Budney, Lisa A. Marsch, Will M. Aklin, Jacob T. Borodovsky, Mary F. Brunette, Andrew T. Campbell, Jesse Dallery, David Kotz, Ashley A. Knapp, Sarah E. Lord, Edward V. Nunes, Emily A. Scherer, Catherine Stanger, William C. Torrey Feb 2020

Workshop On The Development And Evaluation Of Digital Therapeutics For Health Behavior Change: Science, Methods, And Projects, Alan J. Budney, Lisa A. Marsch, Will M. Aklin, Jacob T. Borodovsky, Mary F. Brunette, Andrew T. Campbell, Jesse Dallery, David Kotz, Ashley A. Knapp, Sarah E. Lord, Edward V. Nunes, Emily A. Scherer, Catherine Stanger, William C. Torrey

Dartmouth Scholarship

The health care field has integrated advances into digital technology at an accelerating pace to improve health behavior, health care delivery, and cost-effectiveness of care. The realm of behavioral science has embraced this evolution of digital health, allowing for an exciting roadmap for advancing care by addressing the many challenges to the field via technological innovations. Digital therapeutics offer the potential to extend the reach of effective interventions at reduced cost and patient burden and to increase the potency of existing interventions. Intervention models have included the use of digital tools as supplements to standard care models, as tools that ...


Determining Levers Of Cost-Effectiveness For Screening Infants At High Risk For Peanut Sensitization Before Early Peanut Introduction, Matthew Greenhawt, Marcus Shaker Dec 2019

Determining Levers Of Cost-Effectiveness For Screening Infants At High Risk For Peanut Sensitization Before Early Peanut Introduction, Matthew Greenhawt, Marcus Shaker

Dartmouth Scholarship

Importance Early peanut introduction reduces the risk of developing peanut allergy, especially in high-risk infants. Current US recommendations endorse screening but are not cost-effective relative to other international strategies.

Objective To identify scenarios in which current early peanut introduction guidelines would be cost-effective.

Design, Setting, and Participants This simulation/cohort economic evaluation used microsimulations and cohort analyses in a Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of early peanut introduction with and without peanut skin prick test (SPT) screening in high-risk infants during an 80-year horizon from a societal perspective. Data were analyzed from April to May 2019.

Exposures High-risk infants ...


Microbial Communities In Human Milk Relate To Measures Of Maternal Weight, Sara N. Lundgren, Juliette C. Madan, Margaret R. Karagas, Hilary G. Morrison, Anne G. Hoen, Brock C. Christensen Dec 2019

Microbial Communities In Human Milk Relate To Measures Of Maternal Weight, Sara N. Lundgren, Juliette C. Madan, Margaret R. Karagas, Hilary G. Morrison, Anne G. Hoen, Brock C. Christensen

Dartmouth Scholarship

The process of breastfeeding exposes infants to bioactive substances including a diversity of bacteria from breast milk as well as maternal skin. Knowledge of the character of and variation in these microbial communities, as well as the factors that influence them, is limited. We aimed to identify profiles of breastfeeding-associated microbial communities and their association with maternal and infant factors. Bilateral milk samples were collected from women in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study at approximately 6 weeks postpartum without sterilization of the skin in order to capture the infant-relevant exposure. We sequenced the V4–V5 hypervariable region of the ...


Replication Study: Biomechanical Remodeling Of The Microenvironment By Stromal Caveolin-1 Favors Tumor Invasion And Metastasis, Mee Rie Sheen, Jennifer L. Fields, Brian Northan, Judith Lacoste, Lay-Hong Ang, Steven Fiering Dec 2019

Replication Study: Biomechanical Remodeling Of The Microenvironment By Stromal Caveolin-1 Favors Tumor Invasion And Metastasis, Mee Rie Sheen, Jennifer L. Fields, Brian Northan, Judith Lacoste, Lay-Hong Ang, Steven Fiering

Dartmouth Scholarship

As part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology we published a Registered Report (Fiering et al., 2015) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper ‘Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis’ (Goetz et al., 2011). Here we report the results. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs) expressing caveolin 1 (Cav1WT) demonstrated increased extracellular matrix remodeling in vitro compared to Cav1 deficient (Cav1KO) pMEFs, similar to the original study (Goetz et al., 2011). In vivo, we found higher levels of intratumoral stroma remodeling, determined by fibronectin fiber orientation, in tumors from ...


Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Rural, Pragmatic, Telemedicine‐ Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Programme, John A. Batsis, Auden C. Mcclure, Aaron B. Weintraub, David F. Kotz, Sivan Rotenberg, Summer B. Cook, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Kevin Curtis, Courtney J. Stevens, Diane Sette, Richard I. Rothstein Dec 2019

Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Rural, Pragmatic, Telemedicine‐ Delivered Healthy Lifestyle Programme, John A. Batsis, Auden C. Mcclure, Aaron B. Weintraub, David F. Kotz, Sivan Rotenberg, Summer B. Cook, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Kevin Curtis, Courtney J. Stevens, Diane Sette, Richard I. Rothstein

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: The public health crisis of obesity leads to increasing morbidity that are even more profound in certain populations such as rural adults. Live, two‐way video‐conferencing is a modality that can potentially surmount geographic barriers and staffing shortages. Methods: Patients from the Dartmouth‐Hitchcock Weight and Wellness Center were recruited into a pragmatic, single‐arm, nonrandomized study of a remotely delivered 16‐week evidence‐based healthy lifestyle programme. Patients were provided hardware and appropriate software allowing for remote participation in all sessions, outside of the clinic setting. Our primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the telemedicine intervention ...


Exploring The State-Of-Receptivity For Mhealth Interventions, Florian Künzler, Varun Mishra, Jan-Niklas Kramer, David Kotz, Elgar Fleisch, Tobias Kowatsch Dec 2019

Exploring The State-Of-Receptivity For Mhealth Interventions, Florian Künzler, Varun Mishra, Jan-Niklas Kramer, David Kotz, Elgar Fleisch, Tobias Kowatsch

Dartmouth Scholarship

Recent advancements in sensing techniques for mHealth applications have led to successful development and deployments of several mHealth intervention designs, including Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAI). JITAIs show great potential because they aim to provide the right type and amount of support, at the right time. Timing the delivery of a JITAI such as the user is receptive and available to engage with the intervention is crucial for a JITAI to succeed. Although previous research has extensively explored the role of context in users’ responsiveness towards generic phone notiications, it has not been thoroughly explored for actual mHealth interventions. In this ...


Association Of Receiving Multiple, Concurrent Fracture-Associated Drugs With Hip Fracture Risk, Rebecca T. Emeny, Chiang-Hua Chang, Jonathan Skinner, James A. O'Malley, Jeremy Smith, Gouri Chakraborti, Clifford J. Rosen, Nancy E. Morden Nov 2019

Association Of Receiving Multiple, Concurrent Fracture-Associated Drugs With Hip Fracture Risk, Rebecca T. Emeny, Chiang-Hua Chang, Jonathan Skinner, James A. O'Malley, Jeremy Smith, Gouri Chakraborti, Clifford J. Rosen, Nancy E. Morden

Dartmouth Scholarship

Importance: Many prescription drugs increase fracture risk, which raises concern for patients receiving 2 or more such drugs concurrently. Logic suggests that risk will increase with each additional drug, but the risk of taking multiple fracture-associated drugs (FADs) is unknown.

Objective: To estimate hip fracture risk associated with concurrent exposure to multiple FADs.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service administrative data for age-eligible Medicare beneficiaries from 2004 to 2014. Sex-stratified Cox regression models estimated hip fracture risk associated with current receipt of 1, 2, or 3 or more of 21 FADs ...


Characterization Of A Non-Contact Imaging Scintillator-Based Dosimetry System For Total Skin Electron Therapy., Irwin I. Tendler, Petr Bruza, Michael Jermyn, Xu Cao, Benjamin B. Williams, Lesley A. Jarvis, Brian W. Pogue, David J. Gladstone Jun 2019

Characterization Of A Non-Contact Imaging Scintillator-Based Dosimetry System For Total Skin Electron Therapy., Irwin I. Tendler, Petr Bruza, Michael Jermyn, Xu Cao, Benjamin B. Williams, Lesley A. Jarvis, Brian W. Pogue, David J. Gladstone

Dartmouth Scholarship

Surface dosimetry is required for ensuring effective administration of total skin electron therapy (TSET); however, its use is often reduced due to the time consuming and complex nature of acquisition. A new surface dose imaging technique was characterized in this study and found to provide accurate, rapid and remote measurement of surface doses without the need for post-exposure processing. Disc-shaped plastic scintillators (1 mm thick  ×  15 mm [Formula: see text]) were chosen as optimal-sized samples and designed to attach to a flat-faced phantom for irradiation using electron beams. Scintillator dosimeter response to radiation damage, dose rate, and temperature were studied ...


Use Of Amulet In Behavioral Change For Geriatric Obesity Management, John A. Batsis, Alexandra B. Zagaria, Ryan J. Halter, George G. Boateng, Patrick Proctor, Stephen J. Bartels, David Kotz Jun 2019

Use Of Amulet In Behavioral Change For Geriatric Obesity Management, John A. Batsis, Alexandra B. Zagaria, Ryan J. Halter, George G. Boateng, Patrick Proctor, Stephen J. Bartels, David Kotz

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Obesity in older adults is a significant public health concern. Weight-loss interventions are known to improve physical function but risk the development of sarcopenia. Mobile health devices have the potential to augment existing interventions and, if designed accordingly, could improve one’s physical activity and strength in routine physical activity interventions.

Methods and results: We present Amulet, a mobile health device that has the capability of engaging patients in physical activity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the development of applications that are tailored to older adults with obesity, with the intention to engage and improve their ...


Development And Usability Assessment Of A Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application For Strength-Monitoring, John A. Batsis, George G. Boateng, Lillian M. Seo, Curtis L. Petersen, Karen L. Fortuna, Emily V. Wechsler, Ronald J. Peterson, Summer B. Cook, Dawna Pidgeon, Rachel S. Dokko, Ryan J. Halter, David F. Kotz Jun 2019

Development And Usability Assessment Of A Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application For Strength-Monitoring, John A. Batsis, George G. Boateng, Lillian M. Seo, Curtis L. Petersen, Karen L. Fortuna, Emily V. Wechsler, Ronald J. Peterson, Summer B. Cook, Dawna Pidgeon, Rachel S. Dokko, Ryan J. Halter, David F. Kotz

Dartmouth Scholarship

Resistance exercise bands are a core component of any physical activity strengthening program. Strength training can mitigate the development of sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass or strength and function with aging. Yet, the adherence of such behavioral exercise strategies in a home-based setting are fraught with issues of monitoring and compliance. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band capable of transmitting data to an open-source platform. In this work, we developed an application to capture this information in real-time, and conducted three usability studies in two mixed-aged groups of participants (n=6 each) and a group of older ...


Signal Intensity Analysis And Optimization For In Vivo Imaging Of Cherenkov And Excited Luminescence., Ethan P. M. Larochelle, Jennifer R. Shell, Jason R. Gunn, Scott C. Davis, Brian W. Pogue Apr 2019

Signal Intensity Analysis And Optimization For In Vivo Imaging Of Cherenkov And Excited Luminescence., Ethan P. M. Larochelle, Jennifer R. Shell, Jason R. Gunn, Scott C. Davis, Brian W. Pogue

Dartmouth Scholarship

During external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in vivo Cherenkov optical emissions can be used as a dosimetry tool or to excite luminescence, termed Cherenkov-excited luminescence (CEL) with microsecond-level time-gated cameras. The goal of this work was to develop a complete theoretical foundation for the detectable signal strength, in order to provide guidance on optimization of the limits of detection and how to optimize near real time imaging. The key parameters affecting photon production, propagation and detection were considered and experimental validation with both tissue phantoms and a murine model are shown. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental data indicate that the ...


Technology For Behavioral Change In Rural Older Adults With Obesity, John A. Batsis, John A. Naslund, Alexandra B. Zagaria, David Kotz, Rachel Dokko, Stephen J. Bartels, Elizabeth Carpenter-Song Apr 2019

Technology For Behavioral Change In Rural Older Adults With Obesity, John A. Batsis, John A. Naslund, Alexandra B. Zagaria, David Kotz, Rachel Dokko, Stephen J. Bartels, Elizabeth Carpenter-Song

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies comprise a multidisciplinary treatment strategy providing potential solutions for overcoming challenges of successfully delivering health promotion interventions in rural areas. We evaluated the potential of using technology in a high-risk population.

Methods: We conducted a convergent, parallel mixed-methods study using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and self-reported questionnaires, using purposive sampling of 29 older adults, 4 community leaders and 7 clinicians in a rural setting. We developed codes informed by thematic analysis and assessed the quantitative data using descriptive statistics.

Results: All groups expressed that mHealth could improve health behaviors. Older adults were optimistic that mHealth ...


Calibration And Analysis Of A Multimodal Micro-Ct And Structured Light Imaging System For The Evaluation Of Excised Breast Tissue., David M. Mcclatchy Iii, Elizabeth J. Rizzo, Jeff Meganck, Josh Kempner, Jared Vicory, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue Nov 2018

Calibration And Analysis Of A Multimodal Micro-Ct And Structured Light Imaging System For The Evaluation Of Excised Breast Tissue., David M. Mcclatchy Iii, Elizabeth J. Rizzo, Jeff Meganck, Josh Kempner, Jared Vicory, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue

Dartmouth Scholarship

A multimodal micro-computed tomography (CT) and multi-spectral structured light imaging (SLI) system is introduced and systematically analyzed to test its feasibility to aid in margin delineation during breast conserving surgery (BCS). Phantom analysis of the micro-CT yielded a signal-to-noise ratio of 34, a contrast of 1.64, and a minimum detectable resolution of 240 ?m for a 1.2?min scan. The SLI system, spanning wavelengths 490?nm to 800?nm and spatial frequencies up to 1.37 , was evaluated with aqueous tissue simulating phantoms having variations in particle size distribution, scatter density, and blood volume fraction. The reduced scattering ...


Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull Oct 2018

Metaanalysis Of The Relationship Between Violent Video Game Play And Physical Aggression Over Time, Anna T. Prescott, James Sargent, Jay G. Hull

Dartmouth Scholarship

To clarify and quantify the influence of video game violence (VGV) on aggressive behavior, we conducted a metaanalysis of all prospective studies to date that assessed the relation between exposure to VGV and subsequent overt physical aggression. The search strategy identified 24 studies with over 17,000 participants and time lags ranging from 3 months to 4 years. The samples comprised various nationalities and ethnicities with mean ages from 9 to 19 years. For each study we obtained the standardized regression coefficient for the prospective effect of VGV on subsequent aggression, controlling for baseline aggression. VGV was related to aggression ...


Micro-Computed Tomography Enables Rapid Surgical Margin Assessment During Breast Conserving Surgery (Bcs): Correlation Of Whole Bcs Micro-Ct Readings To Final Histopathology., David M. Mcclatchy Iii, Rebecca A. Zuurbier, Wendy A. Wells, Kieth D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue Sep 2018

Micro-Computed Tomography Enables Rapid Surgical Margin Assessment During Breast Conserving Surgery (Bcs): Correlation Of Whole Bcs Micro-Ct Readings To Final Histopathology., David M. Mcclatchy Iii, Rebecca A. Zuurbier, Wendy A. Wells, Kieth D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue

Dartmouth Scholarship

BACKGROUND:

Roughly 23% of breast conserving surgery (BCS) patients undergo a second re-excision procedure due to pathologically positive surgical margins. We investigated the feasibility and potential value of micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) as a surgical margin guidance tool during BCS.

METHODS:

A cohort of 32 BCS specimens was prospectively imaged with a pre-clinical micro-CT system upon arrival in the surgical pathology laboratory. Reconstructed micro-CT scans were evaluated retrospectively by an experienced breast radiologist, who provided binary determinations whether lesions extended to the specimen margin. These readings were then compared to the final pathological diagnosis and to 2D specimen radiography readings.

RESULTS ...


Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas Aug 2018

Sex-Specific Associations Of Infants’ Gut Microbiome With Arsenic Exposure In A Us Population, Anne G. Hoen, Juliette C. Madan, Zhigang Li, Modupe Coker, Sara N. Lundgren, Hilary G. Morrison, Thomas J. Palys, Brian P. Jackson, Mitchell L. Sogin, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Margaret R. Karagas

Dartmouth Scholarship

Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with antimicrobial properties that can be found in food and drinking water. The influence of arsenic exposure on the composition of the human microbiome in US populations remains unknown, particularly during the vulnerable infant period. We investigated the relationship between arsenic exposure and gut microbiome composition in 204 infants prospectively followed as part of the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Infant urine was analyzed for total arsenic concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Stool microbiome composition was determined using sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Infant urinary arsenic related to gut microbiome ...


Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand Aug 2018

Does Pictorial Health Information Improve Health Behaviours And Other Outcomes? A Systematic Review Protocol, Danielle Schubbe, Sarah Cohen, Renata W. Yen, Maria Vd Muijsenbergh, Peter Scalia, Catherine H. Saunders, Marie-Anne Durand

Dartmouth Scholarship

Introduction: Most health information is verbal or written, yet words alone may not be the most effective way to communicate health information. Lower health literacy is prevalent in the US and is linked to limited understanding of one’s medical condition and treatment. Pictures increase comprehension, recall, adherence and attention in health settings. This is called pictorial superiority. No systematic review has examined the impact of pictorial health information among patients and consumers, including those with lower health literacy.

Methods and analysis: This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess the characteristics and effectiveness of pictorial health information on patient and ...


Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis Aug 2018

Prevalence Rates Of Arthritis Among Us Older Adults With Varying Degrees Of Depression: Findings From The 2011 To 2014 National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, Jessica L. Brooks, Alexander J. Titus, Courtney A. Polenick, Nicole M. Orzechowski, Manney Carrington Reid, Todd A. Mackenzie, Stephen J. Bartels, John A. Batsis

Dartmouth Scholarship

Arthritis and depressive symptoms often interact and negatively influence one another to worsen mental and physical health outcomes. Better characterization of arthritis rates among older adults with different levels of depressive symptoms is an important step toward informing mental health professionals of the need to detect and respond to arthritis and related mental health complications. The primary objective is to determine arthritis rates among US older adults with varying degrees of depression. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014 data (N = 4792), we first identified participants aged ≥50 years. Measures screened for depressive symptoms and self‐reported ...


Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder Jul 2018

Metabolic Acidosis After Sodium Thiosulfate Infusion And The Role Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Guenola M. Hunt, Hilary F. Ryder

Dartmouth Scholarship

Sodium thiosulfate (STS), first-line treatment for calcific uremic arteriolopathy, causes a mild asymptomatic acidosis in many patients. However, severe, life-threatening acidosis out of proportion with the expected acid load of STS may occur, potentially due to metabolism of STS to hydrogen sulfide.


Can Novel Technologies Improve Breast Conserving Surgery?, Brian W. Pogue Jul 2018

Can Novel Technologies Improve Breast Conserving Surgery?, Brian W. Pogue

Dartmouth Scholarship

The practice of breast conserving surgery has been transformative for management of women’s breast cancer, and yet the current practice remains in a situation where approximately one-third of all patients have incomplete surgical resection. This is measured by the finding of clear margins on the surgical specimen, as measured by pathology sampling. This is a very active area of professional debate and research study, and the solutions are not as obvious as one might guess. Still, reviews of the status of the field suggest that technical solutions should be available to help mitigate this issue, and the tools for ...


The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo Jun 2018

The Workingwell Smartphone App For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Proof-Of-Concept, Mixed Methods Feasibility Study (Preprint), Joanne Nicholson, Spenser M. Wright, Alyssa M. Carlisle, Mary Ann Greene Sweeney, Gregory J. Mchugo

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: The disparities in employment for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have been well documented, as have the benefits of work. The benefits of mobile technology in providing accessible, in-the-moment support for these individuals has been demonstrated. The WorkingWell mobile app was developed to meet the need for accessible follow-along supports for individuals with SMI in the workplace. Objective: We explore the usability, usage, usefulness and overall feasibility of the WorkingWell mobile app with individuals with SMI receiving community-based services and actively employed. Methods: In this proof-of-concept, mixed methods, two-month feasibility study (N=40), employed individuals with SMI were ...