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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Review Of Storytelling In Queer Appalachia: Imagining The Unspeakable Other, Sandra L. Cotton Dnp, Rn, Anp-Bc, Fnap, Laurie A. Theeke Phd, James Messer Jan 2023

Review Of Storytelling In Queer Appalachia: Imagining The Unspeakable Other, Sandra L. Cotton Dnp, Rn, Anp-Bc, Fnap, Laurie A. Theeke Phd, James Messer

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of residents of Appalachia. Improving the health in the region of Appalachia means knowing our people as they live and thrive in communities. The book reviewed here, Storytelling in Queer Appalachia: Imagining the Unspeakable Other (Edited by Glasby, Gradin, and Ryerson), is a must read for people who wish to gain insight on the real experience of being queer in Appalachia.


Providers’ Stigmas And The Effects On Patients With Opioid Use Disorder: A Scoping Review, Peyton Skaggs, Sarah Beth Bell, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Lauren E. Robinson Jan 2023

Providers’ Stigmas And The Effects On Patients With Opioid Use Disorder: A Scoping Review, Peyton Skaggs, Sarah Beth Bell, F. Douglas Scutchfield Md, Lauren E. Robinson

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: One of the most prevalent, dangerous stigmas in health care is the complex bias toward patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). This stigma damages the vital patient–provider relationship, further perpetuating the opioid epidemic.

Purpose: Unfortunately, research on the relationship between OUD and provider stigma is greatly lacking. To fill this gap, the present in-depth study undertakes a scoping review of research on providers’ stigma toward OUD in order to determine how enacted stigma affects treatment plans.

Methods: Four databases were used to identify articles published from 1999 to 2021. A comprehensive search strategy was developed through a collaborative process …


Evaluating The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Glycemic Control Among Residents Of Rural Appalachia, Brittany L. Smalls, Adebola Adegboyega, Ellen Combs, Eli W. Travis, Felipe De La Barra, Lovoria B. Williams, Nancy Schoenberg Jan 2023

Evaluating The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Glycemic Control Among Residents Of Rural Appalachia, Brittany L. Smalls, Adebola Adegboyega, Ellen Combs, Eli W. Travis, Felipe De La Barra, Lovoria B. Williams, Nancy Schoenberg

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a range of co-morbid physical and psychological conditions, including depression. Yet there is a dearth of evidence regarding the prevalence of depression among those in Appalachia living with T2DM; this gap persists despite the higher regional prevalence of T2DM and challenging social determinants of health.

Purpose: This study aimed to provide greater detail about the relationships between T2DM and depressive symptoms in adults living in Appalachia Kentucky.

Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data derived from an ongoing study of Appalachia Kentucky adults living with T2DM. Outcome …


Association Between Low Health Literacy And Adverse Health Behaviors In North Carolina, 2016, Manan Roy, Adam Hege, Erin D. Bouldin Jan 2023

Association Between Low Health Literacy And Adverse Health Behaviors In North Carolina, 2016, Manan Roy, Adam Hege, Erin D. Bouldin

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Health literacy (HL) is an urgent public health challenge facing the U.S. HL is a critical factor in health inequities and exacerbates underlying social determinants of health.

Purpose: This study assesses the association between low HL (LHL) and adverse health behaviors, which contribute to poor health.

Methods: Researchers used North Carolina’s 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, namely, the Health Literacy optional module which asks respondents to rate how difficult it is for them to get health-related advice or to understand medical information (verbal or written). Health behaviors analyzed were excessive alcohol consumption, lack of adequate exercise and …


The Relationship Between Psychosocial Factors, Self-Care, And Blood Sugar In An Appalachian Population, Brittany L. Smalls, Md. Tofial Azam, Madeline Dunfee, Philip M. Westgate, Susan C. Westneat, Nancy Schoenberg Jan 2023

The Relationship Between Psychosocial Factors, Self-Care, And Blood Sugar In An Appalachian Population, Brittany L. Smalls, Md. Tofial Azam, Madeline Dunfee, Philip M. Westgate, Susan C. Westneat, Nancy Schoenberg

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Appalachian residents are more likely than other populations to have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and to experience more severe complications from the disease, including excess and premature mortality.

Methods: This study examines health alongside sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors (including knowledge, empowerment, social support/function, religiosity, distress), and perceived problems in diabetes management that may influence self-care and HbA1c among vulnerable rural residents. A survey of a community–based sample of 356 adults with diagnosed diabetes or HbA1c > 6.5 was conducted in six counties in Appalachian Kentucky.

Results: Findings suggest that neither religiosity nor social support/function mediate/moderate the relationship between psychosocial …


Scale Modeling Of An Appearance Of Downwash Pattern Of Hot Smoke Ejected From Chimney In The Turbulent Cross Flow, Xangpheuak Inthavideth, Nobumasa Sekishita, Sounthisack Phommachanh, Yuji Nakamura Nov 2022

Scale Modeling Of An Appearance Of Downwash Pattern Of Hot Smoke Ejected From Chimney In The Turbulent Cross Flow, Xangpheuak Inthavideth, Nobumasa Sekishita, Sounthisack Phommachanh, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

This study aims to elucidate the scaling law to provide the critical condition on appearance of the downwash pattern of the hot smoke ejected from a chimney in a turbulent cross flow. A specially designed wind tunnel with an active turbulence generator developed by Makita was adopted to offer a quasi-isotropic turbulence field in a lab-scale test facility. A heated jet with smoke is issued into the cross flow from the vertically oriented chimney placed in the test section of the wind tunnel. In this study, the experimental parameters considered are temperature of the heated jet (smoke), jet ejected velocity, …


Gabapentin, A Human Therapeutic Medication And An Environmental Substance Transferring At Trace Levels To Horses: A Case Report., Kimberly Brewer, Jacob Machin, George Maylin, Clara Fenger, Abelardo Morales-Briceño, Thomas Tobin Oct 2022

Gabapentin, A Human Therapeutic Medication And An Environmental Substance Transferring At Trace Levels To Horses: A Case Report., Kimberly Brewer, Jacob Machin, George Maylin, Clara Fenger, Abelardo Morales-Briceño, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Gabapentin, 1-(Aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid, MW 171.240, is a frequently prescribed high dose human medication that is also used recreationally. Gabapentin is orally absorbed; the dose can be 3,000 mg/day and it is excreted essentially unchanged in urine. Gabapentin is stable in the environment and routinely detected in urban wastewater. Gabapentin randomly transfers from humans to racing horses and is at times detected at pharmacologically ineffective / trace level concentrations in equine plasma and urine. In Ohio racing between January 2019 and July 2020,18 Gabapentin identifications, all less than 2 ng/ml in plasma, were reported. These identifications were ongoing because the horsemen …


Understanding The Causative Agent, Pathophysiology And Management Of The Kentucky Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome And Related Syndromes, Thomas Tobin, Gabriel Volpato, Navid Yousefi-Mashouf, Kimberly Brewer Sep 2022

Understanding The Causative Agent, Pathophysiology And Management Of The Kentucky Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome And Related Syndromes, Thomas Tobin, Gabriel Volpato, Navid Yousefi-Mashouf, Kimberly Brewer

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Presentations

No abstract provided.


Synthesis And Characterization Of D5-Barbarin For Use In Barbarin-Related Research, Sucheta Kudrimoti, Jacob Machin, Adedamola S. Arojojoye, Samuel G. Awuah, Rodney Eisenberg, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Andreas F. Lehner, Thomas Tobin Aug 2022

Synthesis And Characterization Of D5-Barbarin For Use In Barbarin-Related Research, Sucheta Kudrimoti, Jacob Machin, Adedamola S. Arojojoye, Samuel G. Awuah, Rodney Eisenberg, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Andreas F. Lehner, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Based on structural similarities and equine administration experiments, Barbarin, 5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinethione from Brassicaceae plants, is a possible source of equine urinary identifications of aminorex, (R,S)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-2-amine, an amphetamine-related US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) controlled substance considered illegal in sport horses. We now report the synthesis and certification of d5-barbarin to facilitate research on the relationship between plant barbarin and such aminorex identifications. D5-barbarin synthesis commenced with production of d5-2-oxo-2-phenylacetaldehyde oxime (d5-oxime) from d5-acetophenone via butylnitrite in an ethoxide/ethanol solution. This d5-oxime was then reduced with lithium aluminum …


Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19) Vaccine Intentions In Kentucky, Kevin A. Pearce Md, Mph, Emily Messerli Dnp, Aprn, Mary E. Lacy, Brittany L. Smalls, Diane B. Francis, Sukruthi Yerramreddy, Marc Kiviniemi Jul 2022

Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19) Vaccine Intentions In Kentucky, Kevin A. Pearce Md, Mph, Emily Messerli Dnp, Aprn, Mary E. Lacy, Brittany L. Smalls, Diane B. Francis, Sukruthi Yerramreddy, Marc Kiviniemi

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: At the time of our writing, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause significant disruption to daily lives. In Kentucky, the burdens from this disease are higher, and vaccination rates for COVID-19 are lower, in comparison to the U.S. as a whole. Understanding vaccine intentions across key subpopulations is critical to increasing vaccination rates.

Purpose: This study explores COVID-19 vaccine intentions in Kentucky across demographic subpopulations and also investigates the influences on vaccine intention of attitudes and beliefs about COVID-19.

Methods: A population-based survey of 1,459 Kentucky adults was conducted between January 26 and March 20, 2021, with over-sampling of …


Evaluating Social Support And T2d Risk Factors Among Members Of Rural-Dwelling Grandparent-Headed Households, Brittany L. Smalls, Abebola Adegboyega, Kelly Nb Palmer, Jennifer Hatcher Jul 2022

Evaluating Social Support And T2d Risk Factors Among Members Of Rural-Dwelling Grandparent-Headed Households, Brittany L. Smalls, Abebola Adegboyega, Kelly Nb Palmer, Jennifer Hatcher

Journal of Appalachian Health

Purpose: This study examines the associations of social support and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors among members of rural-dwelling, grandparent-headed households (GHH).

Methods: Prospective data were collected from rural-dwelling members of GHH with no known diagnosis of T2D. Data collected on family characteristics, T2D clinical risk factors, and social support were assessed.

Results: Sixty-six grandparents and 72 grandchildren participated in the study. The average age and HbA1Cs were 59.4 years and 6.2% ± 1.4 for grandparents and 11.8 years and 4.9% ± 0.6 for grandchildren. Most grandparents were found to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes. The number of people …


Exploration Of Vaccination Attitudes Among Parents And Caregivers In A Rural Appalachian Health Clinic, Radwa Omar, Karen Hande, Natasha Mcclure Jul 2022

Exploration Of Vaccination Attitudes Among Parents And Caregivers In A Rural Appalachian Health Clinic, Radwa Omar, Karen Hande, Natasha Mcclure

Journal of Appalachian Health

At a rural Appalachian health clinic in Kentucky, 20% of patients under 18 years were not up to date with the CDC-recommended immunization schedule. Reasons parents or caregivers chose to delay or refuse their child’s immunizations were explored using the Caregiver Vaccination Attitude Scale. High levels of trust in the healthcare provider and self-reported vaccine knowledge highlight opportunities for rural healthcare providers to apply evidence-based communication strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and promote the safety and health of the entire community.


On We Go, With Hope: Remembering Our Founding Editor-In-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield, Rachel E. Dixon, Randolph F. Wykoff Jul 2022

On We Go, With Hope: Remembering Our Founding Editor-In-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield, Rachel E. Dixon, Randolph F. Wykoff

Journal of Appalachian Health

With the passing of our founding Editor-in-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield, the Journal of Appalachian Health team reflects on a life well lived and a monumental public legacy left behind. We thank "Scutch" for enriching the lives of so many, and we commit to growing the Journal in his honor.


A Love Rooted Deep In The Appalachian Mountains: One Part Of The Legacy Of Doug Scutchfield, Charlotte S. Seidman Jul 2022

A Love Rooted Deep In The Appalachian Mountains: One Part Of The Legacy Of Doug Scutchfield, Charlotte S. Seidman

Journal of Appalachian Health

F. Douglas Scutchfield, MD, died on Monday, May 23, 2022 in Lexington KY.

I have known and worked with Doug for over 40 years and share my personal insights into how he created the Journal of Appalachian Health, one of his last great career adventures and a lasting legacy to his deep investment in the health and vitality of Appalachia and its people.


Covid-19 Pandemic Impact On Essential Public Health Services And Online Health Communication—Appalachian Kentucky, March–December 2020, Margaret A. Riggs, Kenny Ortiz-Jurado, Keith Klein Jul 2022

Covid-19 Pandemic Impact On Essential Public Health Services And Online Health Communication—Appalachian Kentucky, March–December 2020, Margaret A. Riggs, Kenny Ortiz-Jurado, Keith Klein

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges for local health departments (LHDs). This study examines how stay-at-home orders impacted the provision of essential public health services and subsequent increased use of online health communication by LHDs for rural populations in Appalachian Kentucky during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A survey to gather information about provision of essential public health services was administered to five LHDs representing 13 counties between June 2020 and December 2020. Additionally, demographic and health-outcome data from LHD, state health department, and CDC websites were reviewed, alongside health communications posted on LHD social media …


Assessing The Intention, Attitudes, And Social Influences On Covid-19 Preventive Behaviors Among Non-Rural Black And Rural Appalachian White Populations: A Faith-Based Community Study, Maria L. Gomez, Tofial Azam, Jean Edward, Hannah Bowman, Lovoria B. Williams Jul 2022

Assessing The Intention, Attitudes, And Social Influences On Covid-19 Preventive Behaviors Among Non-Rural Black And Rural Appalachian White Populations: A Faith-Based Community Study, Maria L. Gomez, Tofial Azam, Jean Edward, Hannah Bowman, Lovoria B. Williams

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental impacts in non-rural Black and rural Appalachian populations. Yet despite the pandemic’s magnitude, there is a scarcity of research exploring potential influences of attitudes and social influences within these populations on their adherence to COVID-19 public health preventive behaviors.

Purpose: This study examines the intention, attitudes, and social influences to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors among non-rural Black and rural Appalachian congregants in Kentucky by integrating the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).

Methods: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to assess the association between the TPB constructs and four key public health …


Increased Rates Of Death From Unintentional Injury Among Non-Hispanic White, American Indian/Alaska Native, And Non-Metropolitan Communities, Lindsey R. Hammerslag, Jeffery Talbert, Tyrone F. Borders Jul 2022

Increased Rates Of Death From Unintentional Injury Among Non-Hispanic White, American Indian/Alaska Native, And Non-Metropolitan Communities, Lindsey R. Hammerslag, Jeffery Talbert, Tyrone F. Borders

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Overview of Key Findings

  • Living in a nonmetropolitan area is associated with an increase in the age-adjusted death rate from unintentional injuries, from 46.2 in metropolitan areas to 59.2 in nonmetropolitan areas in 2018, with all races/ethnicity groups affected except for non-Hispanic Black.
  • The ratio of unintentional injury deaths in nonmetropolitan areas, compared to metropolitan areas, was 1.28 overall, ranging from 1.05 to 1.56 depending on race and ethnicity.
  • American Indians and Alaska Natives have the highest rate of living in nonmetropolitan areas (39.5%), and this group has the greatest increase in death from unintentional injury associated with living in …


A Simplified Model For The Intermediate Structure Of Strong Fire Whirls, Forman A. Williams Jun 2022

A Simplified Model For The Intermediate Structure Of Strong Fire Whirls, Forman A. Williams

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

A model is described for the overall structure of intense fire whirls, based on a spatially evolving vortex, with circulation enhancement driven by the axial acceleration of low-density gas in the core through the axial pressure gradient. The axial acceleration increases the entrainment rate into the core which, through mass conservation, increases the circulation if the angle between the tangential and radial velocity components remains fixed. The two-zone model employs general balance equations for regions inside and outside a cylinder of fixed radius, each inviscid, the inside region being presumed to have a constant density small compared with the (constant) …


Reduced-Scale Experiments And Numerical Simulations Of Informal Settlement Dwelling Fires, Vigneshwaran Narayanan, Antonio Cicicone, Ayden D. Botha, Richard Shaun Walls Jun 2022

Reduced-Scale Experiments And Numerical Simulations Of Informal Settlement Dwelling Fires, Vigneshwaran Narayanan, Antonio Cicicone, Ayden D. Botha, Richard Shaun Walls

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Informal settlement dwellings (ISDs) house approximately one billion people in the developing world and this number is expected to double by the year 2030. Contemporary research on ISD fires has focused on understanding the fire dynamics within individual dwellings (micro-scale) and fire spread in settlements consisting of multiple dwellings (macro-scale). This paper aims to do two primary things: investigate if scaling methods that were derived for compartments with thermally thick boundaries can be applied to ISDs (compartments with thermally thin boundaries), and if they can adequately represent the most important phenomena associated with full-scale ISD fires; and demonstrate Fire Dynamics …


The Racial And Ethnic Diversity Of The Family Physician Workforce In Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Counties, Lars E. Peterson, Zachary J. Morgan Jun 2022

The Racial And Ethnic Diversity Of The Family Physician Workforce In Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Counties, Lars E. Peterson, Zachary J. Morgan

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Overview of Key Findings

  • The family physician workforce is becoming more racially diverse; however, non-metropolitan family physicians are not.
  • Using data from over 24,000 family physicians who either registered to continue their American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) certification or completed the graduate survey from 2017 to 2019, we found that early career family physicians are more diverse than later career physicians (66.9% vs. 72.8% White; 58.3% vs. 44.0% female) but, in both groups, the percentage of White non-metropolitan family physicians was even higher (82.7% to 90.5%).
  • Minority non-metropolitan family physicians, particularly Black and Native American/Alaska Native physicians, are more …


Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Trends In Mental Health Treatment Availability In Community Health And Community Mental Health Centers, Tyrone F. Borders, Timothy Williams, Katherine Youngen, Julia Cecil Jun 2022

Non-Metropolitan And Metropolitan Trends In Mental Health Treatment Availability In Community Health And Community Mental Health Centers, Tyrone F. Borders, Timothy Williams, Katherine Youngen, Julia Cecil

Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications

Key Findings

The supply of community mental health centers (CMHCs) decreased substantially from 2000 to 2019 and became nearly non-existent in non-metropolitan counties.

  • The number of CMHCs in non-metropolitan counties declined from 182 to 15.
  • The number of CMHCs in metropolitan counties declined from 582 to 104.

The supply of community health centers (CHCs) offering mental health services increased substantially over the same time period, or from 2000 to 2019.

  • The number of CHCs in non-metropolitan counties increased from 184 to 573.
  • The number of CHCs in metropolitan counties increased from 126 to 797.


Exploring Extension Agent Capacity And Readiness To Adopt Policy, Systems And Environmental Change Approaches, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Lauren E. Kennedy, Soghra Jarvandi May 2022

Exploring Extension Agent Capacity And Readiness To Adopt Policy, Systems And Environmental Change Approaches, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Lauren E. Kennedy, Soghra Jarvandi

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Introduction: Enhanced Extension outreach strategies combine traditional direct education programs with public health approaches like policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change. However, the Cooperative Extension system and county-based Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Extension agents have historically prioritized direct education programming and diffusion of enhanced outreach strategies has varied. Extension personnel may lack capacity and readiness for successful PSE change implementation. This study explored perceived acceptability, capacity, and readiness for PSE change work among FCS Extension agents in two states.

Method: A survey was developed framed by selected domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: Intervention Characteristics, Inner Setting, …


Bedside Nurses' Perceptions Of Effective Nurse-Physician Communication In General Medical Units: A Qualitative Study, Hirotaka Kato, Jessica M. Clouser, Preetham Talari, Nikita Vundi, Akosua Adu, Kishore Karri, Kathy B Isaacs, Mark V Williams, Romil Chadha, Jing Li May 2022

Bedside Nurses' Perceptions Of Effective Nurse-Physician Communication In General Medical Units: A Qualitative Study, Hirotaka Kato, Jessica M. Clouser, Preetham Talari, Nikita Vundi, Akosua Adu, Kishore Karri, Kathy B Isaacs, Mark V Williams, Romil Chadha, Jing Li

Center for Health Services Research Faculty Publications

Background

There is a dearth of research on successful interventions to improve nurse-physician communication (NPC). An important step is identifying what matters to bedside nurses and their perceptions of effective NPC communications and actions.

Methods

We conducted three focus groups with a total of 19 medical unit nurses across two hospitals in one academic medical center in the United States. Using a convenience sampling strategy, five to eight nurses voluntarily participated in each focus group. The recording was transcribed verbatim and two independent coders performed coding and resolved any discrepancies in codes. Qualitative content analysis was pursued to identify themes …


Sporadic Worldwide “Clusters” Of Feed Driven Zilpaterol Identifications In Racing Horses: A Review And Analysis, Jacob Machin, Kimberly Brewer, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Thomas Tobin May 2022

Sporadic Worldwide “Clusters” Of Feed Driven Zilpaterol Identifications In Racing Horses: A Review And Analysis, Jacob Machin, Kimberly Brewer, Abelardo Morales Briceno, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Zilpaterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist medication approved in certain countries as a cattle feed additive to improve carcass quality. Trace amounts of Zilpaterol can transfer to horse feed, yielding equine urinary “identifications” of Zilpaterol. These “identifications” occur because Zilpaterol is highly bioavailable in horses, resistant to biotransformation and excreted as unchanged Zilpaterol in urine, where it has a 5 day or so terminal half-life.

In horses, urinary steady-state concentrations are reached 25 days (5 half-lives) after exposure to contaminated feed. Zilpaterol readily presents in horse urine, yielding clusters of feed related Zilpaterol identifications in racehorses. The first cluster, April …


A Novel Nonparametric Test For Heterogeneity Detection And Assessment Of Fluid Removal Among Crrt Patients In Icu, Shaowli Kabir Apr 2022

A Novel Nonparametric Test For Heterogeneity Detection And Assessment Of Fluid Removal Among Crrt Patients In Icu, Shaowli Kabir

Theses and Dissertations--Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Over the past decade acute kidney injury (AKI) has been occurring among 20%-50% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in United States. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become a popular treatment method among these critically ill patients. But there are multiple complications in implementing this treatment, including discrepancies in practiced and prescribed fluid removal, possibly related to the heterogeneity among these patients. With mixture modeling there have been several techniques in detecting heterogeneity with their specific limitations. In this dissertation a novel nonparametric ‘d test’ will be used to detect heterogeneity among CRRT patients in ICU. …


Examining The Perspectives And Experiences Of Nutrition Educators Working With Clients In Substance Use Recovery Settings, Cora Teets, Paula Plonski, Omolola Adedokun, Heather Norman-Burgdolf Apr 2022

Examining The Perspectives And Experiences Of Nutrition Educators Working With Clients In Substance Use Recovery Settings, Cora Teets, Paula Plonski, Omolola Adedokun, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Substance use disorder (SUD) is one of the most detrimental health, social, and economic problems in the United States. Limited studies suggest providing tailored nutrition education during SUD treatment correlates with positive recovery outcomes. The University of Kentucky Nutrition Education Program conducted two focus group sessions to explore and determine educators’ instructional and programmatic needs who deliver nutrition education to clients in substance use recovery throughout Kentucky. The study team identified four emerging themes and several subthemes related to Nutrition Education Program educators working with clientele in recovery. The four emerging themes included: (1) current experiences working with the audience, …


Unifying Multi-State Efforts Through A Nationally Coordinated Extension Diabetes Program, Laura Balis, Shari Gallup, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Julie Buck, Pam Daniels, Dan Remley, Lisa Graves, Margaret Jenkins, Gayle Price Apr 2022

Unifying Multi-State Efforts Through A Nationally Coordinated Extension Diabetes Program, Laura Balis, Shari Gallup, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Julie Buck, Pam Daniels, Dan Remley, Lisa Graves, Margaret Jenkins, Gayle Price

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

The Cooperative Extension System translates research to practice and “brings the University to the people” throughout the U.S. However, the system suffers from program duplication and is challenged to scale-out effective programs. One program, Dining with Diabetes (DWD), stands out for its dissemination to multiple states. DWD is a community-based program aimed at improving diabetes management, nutrition, and physical activity behaviors. DWD was coordinated through a national working group and implemented by state Extension systems. A pragmatic, quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the national coordination model and the overall impact of DWD. Four states reported data …


Differences In Distress Between Rural And Non-Rural Appalachian Breast Cancer Patient / Caregiver Dyads During The First Year Of Treatment, Jordan Tasman, Callie D. Mcadams, Jillian Lloyd, Ashton J. Brooks, Patricia Nola Eugene Roberson Mar 2022

Differences In Distress Between Rural And Non-Rural Appalachian Breast Cancer Patient / Caregiver Dyads During The First Year Of Treatment, Jordan Tasman, Callie D. Mcadams, Jillian Lloyd, Ashton J. Brooks, Patricia Nola Eugene Roberson

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Breast cancer patients and their caregivers living in rural Appalachia face substantial health disparities compared to their non-rural Appalachian counterparts. However, there is limited research on how these specific health disparities in rural Appalachian communities may impact patient psychological distress and caregiver strain during the first year of breast cancer treatment.

Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess differences in patient psychological distress (depression and anxiety) and caregiver strain between rural non-rural Appalachian breast-cancer-affected dyads (patients and their caregivers) during the first year of treatment.

Methods: A total of 48 Appalachian breast cancer patients (with a …


Key Factors For Improving Rigor And Reproducibility: Guidelines, Peer Reviews, And Journal Technical Reviews, Hong S. Lu, Alan Daugherty Mar 2022

Key Factors For Improving Rigor And Reproducibility: Guidelines, Peer Reviews, And Journal Technical Reviews, Hong S. Lu, Alan Daugherty

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

To respond to the NIH's policy for rigor and reproducibility in preclinical research, many journals have implemented guidelines and checklists to guide authors in improving the rigor and reproducibility of their research. Transparency in developing detailed prospective experimental designs and providing raw data are essential premises of rigor and reproducibility. Standard peer reviews and journal-specific technical and statistical reviews are critical factors for enhancing rigor and reproducibility. This brief review also shares some experience from Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, an American Heart Association journal, that has implemented several mechanisms to enhance rigor and reproducibility for preclinical research.


Gingival Transcriptome Of Innate Antimicrobial Factors And The Oral Microbiome With Aging And Periodontitis, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Linh Nguyen, Octavio A. Gonzalez Mar 2022

Gingival Transcriptome Of Innate Antimicrobial Factors And The Oral Microbiome With Aging And Periodontitis, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Linh Nguyen, Octavio A. Gonzalez

Center for Oral Health Research Faculty Publications

The epithelial barrier at mucosal sites comprises an important mechanical protective feature of innate immunity, and is intimately involved in communicating signals of infection/tissue damage to inflammatory and immune cells in these local environments. A wide array of antimicrobial factors (AMF) exist at mucosal sites and in secretions that contribute to this innate immunity. A non-human primate model of ligature-induced periodontitis was used to explore characteristics of the antimicrobial factor transcriptome (n = 114 genes) of gingival biopsies in health, initiation and progression of periodontal lesions, and in samples with clinical resolution. Age effects and relationship of AMF to …