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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Small Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Itgb6 Sirna Delivery Downregulates The Αvβ6 Integrin And Inhibits Adhesion And Migration Of Recipient Prostate Cancer Cells, Shiv Ram Krishn, Vaughn Garcia, Nicole M Naranjo, Fabio Quaglia, Christopher D Shields, Maisha A Harris, Andrew V Kossenkov, Qin Liu, Eva Corey, Dario C Altieri, Lucia R Languino Dec 2022

Small Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Itgb6 Sirna Delivery Downregulates The Αvβ6 Integrin And Inhibits Adhesion And Migration Of Recipient Prostate Cancer Cells, Shiv Ram Krishn, Vaughn Garcia, Nicole M Naranjo, Fabio Quaglia, Christopher D Shields, Maisha A Harris, Andrew V Kossenkov, Qin Liu, Eva Corey, Dario C Altieri, Lucia R Languino

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The αVβ6 integrin, an epithelial-specific cell surface receptor absent in normal prostate and expressed during prostate cancer (PrCa) progression, is a therapeutic target in many cancers. Here, we report that transcript levels of ITGB6 (encoding the β6 integrin subunit) are significantly increased in metastatic castrate-resistant androgen receptor-negative prostate tumors compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate tumors. In addition, the αVβ6 integrin protein levels are significantly elevated in androgen receptor-negative PrCa patient derived xenografts (PDXs) compared to androgen receptor-positive PDXs. In vitro, the androgen receptor-negative PrCa cells express high levels of the αVβ6 integrin compared to androgen receptor-positive PrCa cells. Additionally, expression ...


Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2022 May 2022

Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2022

inSIGHT

10- A New Dimension to Offer (Ari August)

14- Neuro-Ophthalmology Subspecialty Highlight: with Dr. Sarah Thornton, Wills Eye Hospital (Joseph D. DeSimone)

19- A Day in the Life in the Wills Eye ER (Samara Hamou)

22- Origins of the Wills Eye Manual: Surviving the Test of Time (Jordan Safran)

26- GATT: A Micro-invasive Glaucoma Surgeryand a Big Step for Glaucoma Treatment (Moses Im)

31- Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (Ankur Nahar)

34- A Look into Oculoplastics: RepairingLower Eyelids Defects From Carcinomas (Cameron Haghshenas)

38- Seeing Eye to Eye: An Overview of Strabismus and Approach to Treatment (Shreya Swaminathan)


The Use Of Computerized Tomography Scans In Elective Knee And Hip Arthroplasty-What Do They Tell Us And At What Risk?, Taylor D'Amore, Gregg R Klein, Jess H. Lonner May 2022

The Use Of Computerized Tomography Scans In Elective Knee And Hip Arthroplasty-What Do They Tell Us And At What Risk?, Taylor D'Amore, Gregg R Klein, Jess H. Lonner

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

The average background radiation exposure in the United States has nearly doubled over the previous quarter century, with almost all the increase derived from medical imaging. Nearly 2% of all cancers in the United States may be attributable to radiation from computerized tomography (CT) scans. Given the nondiagnostic nature of CT scans that are used in elective knee and hip arthroplasty today, special consideration should be given to the inherent risk of radiation exposure with routine use of this technology. Methods to decrease radiation exposure including modulating the settings of the CT machine and using alternative non-CT-based systems can decrease ...


A State-Wide Education Program On Opioid Use Disorder: Influential Community Members' Knowledge, Beliefs, And Opportunities For Coalition Development, Lindsey Hohmann, Haley Phillippe, Karen Marlowe, Ruth Jeminiwa, Natalie Hohmann, Salisa Westrick, Amanda Fowler, Brent Fox May 2022

A State-Wide Education Program On Opioid Use Disorder: Influential Community Members' Knowledge, Beliefs, And Opportunities For Coalition Development, Lindsey Hohmann, Haley Phillippe, Karen Marlowe, Ruth Jeminiwa, Natalie Hohmann, Salisa Westrick, Amanda Fowler, Brent Fox

College of Pharmacy Faculty Papers

Background: Deep South states, particularly Alabama, experience disproportionately higher opioid prescribing rates versus national rates. Considering limited opioid use disorder (OUD) providers in this region, collaborative efforts between non-healthcare professionals is critical in mitigating overdose mortality. The Alabama Opioid Training Institute (OTI) was created in 2019 to empower community members to take action in combatting OUD in local regions. The OTI included: 1) eight full-day in-person conferences; and 2) an interactive mobile-enabled website ( https://alabamaoti.org ). This study assessed the impact of the OTI on influential community members' knowledge, abilities, concerns, readiness, and intended actions regarding OUD and opioid overdose ...


Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D Van Haren, Scott D Mcculloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy May 2022

Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D Van Haren, Scott D Mcculloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Vaccines have generally been developed with limited insight into their molecular impact. While systems vaccinology enables characterization of mechanisms of action, these tools have yet to be applied to infants, who are at high risk of infection and receive the most vaccines. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) protects infants against disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and TB-unrelated infections via incompletely understood mechanisms. We employ mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics of blood plasma to profile BCG-induced infant responses in Guinea-Bissau in vivo and the US in vitro. BCG-induced lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) correlate with both TLR-agonist- and purified protein derivative (PPD, mycobacterial antigen)-induced blood cytokine production in vitro, raising ...


A Rapid Systematic Review Of Health Literacy In The African American Population Related To Hypertension And Efforts To Address This Public Health Issue, Jimar Hill May 2022

A Rapid Systematic Review Of Health Literacy In The African American Population Related To Hypertension And Efforts To Address This Public Health Issue, Jimar Hill

Master of Public Health Capstone Presentations

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Approximately 660,000 people in the United States die from cardiovascular disease each year. High blood pressure or hypertension can increase the risk of cardiovascular related mortality. High blood pressure may not have any symptoms noticed by an individual, so it is not always clear that someone has this condition. So, it is a public health issue to pursue public health interventions to raise awareness and understanding. In doing so, it is important to understand that the prevalence of hypertension varies among racial and ethnic populations. For example ...


Peripheral Neuropathy Evaluations Of Patients With Prolonged Long Covid., Anne Louise Oaklander, Alexander J Mills, Mary Kelley, Lisa S Toran, Bryan Smith, Marinos Dalakas, Avindra Nath May 2022

Peripheral Neuropathy Evaluations Of Patients With Prolonged Long Covid., Anne Louise Oaklander, Alexander J Mills, Mary Kelley, Lisa S Toran, Bryan Smith, Marinos Dalakas, Avindra Nath

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Background and objectives: Recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection appears exponential, leaving a tail of patients reporting various long COVID symptoms including unexplained fatigue/exertional intolerance and dysautonomic and sensory concerns. Indirect evidence links long COVID to incident polyneuropathy affecting the small-fiber (sensory/autonomic) axons.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional and longitudinal data from patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined long COVID without prior neuropathy history or risks who were referred for peripheral neuropathy evaluations. We captured standardized symptoms, examinations, objective neurodiagnostic test results, and outcomes, tracking participants for 1.4 years on average.

Results: Among ...


Recommendations For Effective Documentation In Regional Anesthesia: An Expert Panel Delphi Consensus Project, Hassan M Ahmed, Benjamin P Atterton, Gillian G Crowe, Jaime L Barratta, Mark Johnson, Eugene R. Viscusi, Sanjib Adhikary, Eric Albrecht, Karen Boretsky, Jan Boublik, Dara S Breslin, Kelly Byrne, Alan Ch'ng, Alwin Chuan, Patrick Conroy, Craig Daniel, Andrzej Daszkiewicz, Alain Delbos, Dan Sebastian Dirzu, Dmytro Dmytriiev, Paul Fennessy, H Barrie J Fischer, Henry Frizelle, Jeff Gadsden, Philippe Gautier, Rajnish K Gupta, Yavuz Gürkan, Harold David Hardman, William Harrop-Griffiths, Peter Hebbard, Nadia Hernandez, Jakub Hlasny, Gabriella Iohom, Vivian H Y Ip, Christina L Jeng, Rebecca L Johnson, Hari Kalagara, Brian Kinirons, Andrew Kenneth Lansdown, Jody C Leng, Yean Chin Lim, Clara Lobo, Danielle B Ludwin, Alan James Robert Macfarlane, Anthony T Machi, Padraig Mahon, Stephen Mannion, David H Mcleod, Peter Merjavy, Aleksejs Miscuks, Christopher H Mitchell, Eleni Moka, Peter Moran, Ann Ngui, Olga C Nin, Brian D O'Donnell, Amit Pawa, Anahi Perlas, Steven Porter, John-Paul Pozek, Humberto C Rebelo, Vicente Roqués, Kristopher M Schroeder, Gary Schwartz, Eric S. Schwenk, Luc Sermeus, George Shorten, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Markus F Stevens, Kassiani Theodoraki, Lloyd R Turbitt, Luis Fernando Valdés-Vilches, Thomas Volk, Katrina Webster, T Wiesmann, Sylvia H Wilson, Morné Wolmarans, Glenn Woodworth, Andrew K Worek, E M Louise Moran May 2022

Recommendations For Effective Documentation In Regional Anesthesia: An Expert Panel Delphi Consensus Project, Hassan M Ahmed, Benjamin P Atterton, Gillian G Crowe, Jaime L Barratta, Mark Johnson, Eugene R. Viscusi, Sanjib Adhikary, Eric Albrecht, Karen Boretsky, Jan Boublik, Dara S Breslin, Kelly Byrne, Alan Ch'ng, Alwin Chuan, Patrick Conroy, Craig Daniel, Andrzej Daszkiewicz, Alain Delbos, Dan Sebastian Dirzu, Dmytro Dmytriiev, Paul Fennessy, H Barrie J Fischer, Henry Frizelle, Jeff Gadsden, Philippe Gautier, Rajnish K Gupta, Yavuz Gürkan, Harold David Hardman, William Harrop-Griffiths, Peter Hebbard, Nadia Hernandez, Jakub Hlasny, Gabriella Iohom, Vivian H Y Ip, Christina L Jeng, Rebecca L Johnson, Hari Kalagara, Brian Kinirons, Andrew Kenneth Lansdown, Jody C Leng, Yean Chin Lim, Clara Lobo, Danielle B Ludwin, Alan James Robert Macfarlane, Anthony T Machi, Padraig Mahon, Stephen Mannion, David H Mcleod, Peter Merjavy, Aleksejs Miscuks, Christopher H Mitchell, Eleni Moka, Peter Moran, Ann Ngui, Olga C Nin, Brian D O'Donnell, Amit Pawa, Anahi Perlas, Steven Porter, John-Paul Pozek, Humberto C Rebelo, Vicente Roqués, Kristopher M Schroeder, Gary Schwartz, Eric S. Schwenk, Luc Sermeus, George Shorten, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Markus F Stevens, Kassiani Theodoraki, Lloyd R Turbitt, Luis Fernando Valdés-Vilches, Thomas Volk, Katrina Webster, T Wiesmann, Sylvia H Wilson, Morné Wolmarans, Glenn Woodworth, Andrew K Worek, E M Louise Moran

Department of Anesthesiology Faculty Papers

Background and objectives: Documentation is important for quality improvement, education, and research. There is currently a lack of recommendations regarding key aspects of documentation in regional anesthesia. The aim of this study was to establish recommendations for documentation in regional anesthesia.

Methods: Following the formation of the executive committee and a directed literature review, a long list of potential documentation components was created. A modified Delphi process was then employed to achieve consensus amongst a group of international experts in regional anesthesia. This consisted of 2 rounds of anonymous electronic voting and a final virtual round table discussion with live ...


Age Moderates The Effect Of Injury Severity On Functional Trajectories In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Study Using The Nidilrr Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Dataset., Laraine Winter, Janell L Mensinger, Helene J Moriarty, Keith M Robinson, Michelle Mckay, Benjamin E Leiby Apr 2022

Age Moderates The Effect Of Injury Severity On Functional Trajectories In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Study Using The Nidilrr Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Dataset., Laraine Winter, Janell L Mensinger, Helene J Moriarty, Keith M Robinson, Michelle Mckay, Benjamin E Leiby

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Age is a risk factor for a host of poor outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI), with some evidence suggesting that age is also a source of excess disability. We tested the extent to which age moderates the effect of injury severity on functional trajectories over 15 years post injury. Data from 11,442 participants from the 2020 National Institute of Disability and Independent Living Rehabiitation Research (NIDILRR) Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Dataset were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. Injury severity was operationally defined using a composite of Glasgow Coma Scale scores, structural imaging findings, and ...


Heterozygous Frameshift Variants In Hnrnpa2b1 Cause Early-Onset Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy, Hong Joo Kim, Payam Mohassel, Sandra Donkervoort, Lin Guo, Kevin O'Donovan, Maura Coughlin, Xaviere Lornage, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, A Reghan Foley, Charlotte M Fare, Alice F Ford, Masashi Ogasawara, Aki Sato, Aritoshi Iida, Pinki Munot, Gautam Ambegaonkar, Rahul Phadke, Dominic G O'Donovan, Rebecca Buchert, Mona Grimmel, Ana Töpf, Irina T Zaharieva, Lauren Brady, Ying Hu, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea Klein, Maja Steinlin, Alice Kuster, Sandra Mercier, Pascale Marcorelles, Yann Péréon, Emmanuelle Fleurence, Adnan Manzur, Sarah Ennis, Rosanna Upstill-Goddard, Luca Bello, Cinzia Bertolin, Elena Pegoraro, Leonardo Salviati, Courtney E French, Andriy Shatillo, F Lucy Raymond, Tobias B Haack, Susana Quijano-Roy, Johann Böhm, Isabelle Nelson, Tanya Stojkovic, Teresinha Evangelista, Volker Straub, Norma B Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Francesco Muntoni, Ichizo Nishino, Mark A Tarnopolsky, James Shorter, Carsten G Bönnemann, J Paul Taylor Apr 2022

Heterozygous Frameshift Variants In Hnrnpa2b1 Cause Early-Onset Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy, Hong Joo Kim, Payam Mohassel, Sandra Donkervoort, Lin Guo, Kevin O'Donovan, Maura Coughlin, Xaviere Lornage, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, A Reghan Foley, Charlotte M Fare, Alice F Ford, Masashi Ogasawara, Aki Sato, Aritoshi Iida, Pinki Munot, Gautam Ambegaonkar, Rahul Phadke, Dominic G O'Donovan, Rebecca Buchert, Mona Grimmel, Ana Töpf, Irina T Zaharieva, Lauren Brady, Ying Hu, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea Klein, Maja Steinlin, Alice Kuster, Sandra Mercier, Pascale Marcorelles, Yann Péréon, Emmanuelle Fleurence, Adnan Manzur, Sarah Ennis, Rosanna Upstill-Goddard, Luca Bello, Cinzia Bertolin, Elena Pegoraro, Leonardo Salviati, Courtney E French, Andriy Shatillo, F Lucy Raymond, Tobias B Haack, Susana Quijano-Roy, Johann Böhm, Isabelle Nelson, Tanya Stojkovic, Teresinha Evangelista, Volker Straub, Norma B Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Francesco Muntoni, Ichizo Nishino, Mark A Tarnopolsky, James Shorter, Carsten G Bönnemann, J Paul Taylor

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Missense variants in RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) underlie a spectrum of disease phenotypes, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, and inclusion body myopathy. Here, we present ten independent families with a severe, progressive muscular dystrophy, reminiscent of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) but of much earlier onset, caused by heterozygous frameshift variants in the RBP hnRNPA2/B1. All disease-causing frameshift mutations abolish the native stop codon and extend the reading frame, creating novel transcripts that escape nonsense-mediated decay and are translated to produce hnRNPA2/B1 protein with the same neomorphic C-terminal sequence. In contrast to previously reported disease-causing missense variants in HNRNPA2B1 ...


Selective Axonal Transport Through Branch Junctions Is Directed By Growth Cone Signaling And Mediated By Kif1/Kinesin-3 Motors., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Bridget M. Curran, Le Ma Apr 2022

Selective Axonal Transport Through Branch Junctions Is Directed By Growth Cone Signaling And Mediated By Kif1/Kinesin-3 Motors., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Bridget M. Curran, Le Ma

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Development and function of nerve cells rely on the orchestration of microtubule-based transport from the cell body into distal axonal terminals. Neurons often have highly elaborate branches innervating multiple targets, but how protein or membrane cargos navigate through branch junctions to specific branch targets is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that anterograde transport of membrane vesicles through axonal branch junctions is highly selective, which is influenced by branch length and more strongly by growth cone motility. Using an optogenetic tool, we demonstrate that signaling from the growth cone can rapidly direct transport through branch junctions. We further demonstrate that such transport ...


A Periplasmic Cinched Protein Is Required For Siderophore Secretion And Virulence Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Lei Zhang, James E Kent, Meredith Whitaker, David C Young, Dominik Herrmann, Alexander E Aleshin, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Jamil S Saad, D Branch Moody, Francesca M Marassi, Sabine Ehrt, Michael Niederweis Apr 2022

A Periplasmic Cinched Protein Is Required For Siderophore Secretion And Virulence Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Lei Zhang, James E Kent, Meredith Whitaker, David C Young, Dominik Herrmann, Alexander E Aleshin, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Jamil S Saad, D Branch Moody, Francesca M Marassi, Sabine Ehrt, Michael Niederweis

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Iron is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. To acquire iron from the host, M. tuberculosis uses the siderophores called mycobactins and carboxymycobactins. Here, we show that the rv0455c gene is essential for M. tuberculosis to grow in low-iron medium and that secretion of both mycobactins and carboxymycobactins is drastically reduced in the rv0455c deletion mutant. Both water-soluble and membrane-anchored Rv0455c are functional in siderophore secretion, supporting an intracellular role. Lack of Rv0455c results in siderophore toxicity, a phenotype observed for other siderophore secretion mutants, and severely impairs replication of M. tuberculosis in mice, demonstrating ...


Analyzing The Effect Of Interview Time And Day On Emergency Medicine Residency Interview Scores, Alanna O'Connell, Sean Greco, Tingting Zhan, Tracy Brader, Megan Crossman, Robin Naples, Anthony Sielicki, Megan Stobart Gallagher, Peter Tomaselli, Dimitrios Papanagnou Apr 2022

Analyzing The Effect Of Interview Time And Day On Emergency Medicine Residency Interview Scores, Alanna O'Connell, Sean Greco, Tingting Zhan, Tracy Brader, Megan Crossman, Robin Naples, Anthony Sielicki, Megan Stobart Gallagher, Peter Tomaselli, Dimitrios Papanagnou

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: When it comes to scheduling interviews, medical students may wonder if they need a strategy to increase their likelihood of matching. Previous studies examined the temporal effects of the residency interview on overall match rate; however, there are additional factors that affect the match process, including board examination scores and letters of recommendation. Only few studies have examined the effect interview time of day has on match success. The current study examines the impact date and time of interview during the interview season have on candidates' respective interview scores.

Methods: Interview data over a three-year period (i.e., three ...


Effect Of Lipid-Lowering Medications In Patients With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery Outcomes, Chunxia Shi, Zugui Zhang, Jordan E Goldhammer, David Li, Bob Kiaii, Victor Rudriguez, Douglas Boyd, David Lubarsky, Richard Applegate, Hong Liu Apr 2022

Effect Of Lipid-Lowering Medications In Patients With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery Outcomes, Chunxia Shi, Zugui Zhang, Jordan E Goldhammer, David Li, Bob Kiaii, Victor Rudriguez, Douglas Boyd, David Lubarsky, Richard Applegate, Hong Liu

Department of Anesthesiology Faculty Papers

Background: Increased life expectancy and improved medical technology allow increasing numbers of elderly patients to undergo cardiac surgery. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Complications can lead to worsened quality of life, shortened life expectancy and higher healthcare costs. Reducing perioperative complications, especially severe adverse events, is key to improving outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this study is to determine whether perioperative lipid-lowering medication use is associated with a reduced risk of complications and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Methods: After IRB approval, we ...


Development And Preclinical Investigation Of Physically Cross-Linked And Ph-Sensitive Polymeric Gels As Potential Vaginal Contraceptives, Ankit K. Rochani, Vivek Agrahari, Neelima Chandra, Onkar N Singh, Timothy J Mccormick, Gustavo F Doncel, Meredith R Clark, Gagan Kaushal Apr 2022

Development And Preclinical Investigation Of Physically Cross-Linked And Ph-Sensitive Polymeric Gels As Potential Vaginal Contraceptives, Ankit K. Rochani, Vivek Agrahari, Neelima Chandra, Onkar N Singh, Timothy J Mccormick, Gustavo F Doncel, Meredith R Clark, Gagan Kaushal

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

This study explored the development of cross-linked gels to potentially provide a physical barrier to vaginal sperm transport for contraception. Two types of gels were formulated, a physically cross-linked iota-carrageenan (Ci) phenylboronic acid functionalized hydroxylpropylmethyacrylate copolymer (PBA)-based (Ci-PBA) gel, designed to block vaginal sperm transport. The second gel was pH-shifting cross-linked Ci-polyvinyl alcohol-boric acid (Ci-PVA-BA) gel, designed to modulate its properties in forming a viscoelastic, weakly cross-linked transient network (due to Ci gelling properties) on vaginal application (at acidic pH of ~3.5-4.5) to a more elastic, densely cross-linked (due to borate-diol cross-linking) gel network at basic pH ...


Promotion Of Covid-19 Va(X)Ccination In The Emergency Department-Procovaxed: Study Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial., Robert M Rodriguez, Kelli O'Laughlin, Stephanie A Eucker, Anna Marie Chang, Kristin L. Rising, Graham Nichol, Alena Pauley, Hemal Kanzaria, Alexzandra Gentsch, Cindy Li, Herbie Duber, Jonathan Butler, Vidya Eswaran, Dave Glidden Apr 2022

Promotion Of Covid-19 Va(X)Ccination In The Emergency Department-Procovaxed: Study Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial., Robert M Rodriguez, Kelli O'Laughlin, Stephanie A Eucker, Anna Marie Chang, Kristin L. Rising, Graham Nichol, Alena Pauley, Hemal Kanzaria, Alexzandra Gentsch, Cindy Li, Herbie Duber, Jonathan Butler, Vidya Eswaran, Dave Glidden

Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: We conducted in-depth interviews to characterize reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in emergency department (ED) patients and developed messaging platforms that may address their concerns. In this trial, we seek to determine whether provision of these COVID-19 vaccine messaging platforms in EDs will be associated with greater COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and uptake in unvaccinated ED patients.

Methods: This is a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating our COVID-19 vaccine messaging platforms in seven hospital EDs (mix of academic, community, and safety-net EDs) in four US cities. Within each study site, we randomized 30 1-week periods to the intervention and 30 ...


Targeted Therapy In The Management Of Modern Craniopharyngiomas, Maikerly Reyes, Mohammad Taghvaei, Siyuan Yu, Anish Sathe, Sarah Collopy, Giyarpuram Prashant, James J. Evans, Michael Karsy Apr 2022

Targeted Therapy In The Management Of Modern Craniopharyngiomas, Maikerly Reyes, Mohammad Taghvaei, Siyuan Yu, Anish Sathe, Sarah Collopy, Giyarpuram Prashant, James J. Evans, Michael Karsy

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Background: The proximity of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) to critical neurovascular structures can lead to a host of neurologic and endocrine complications that lead to difficulty with surgical management. In this review, we examine the molecular and genetic markers implicated in CP, their involvement in tumorigenic pathways, and their impact on CP prognosis and treatment.

Methods: We undertook a focused review of relevant articles, clinical trials, and molecular summaries regarding CP.

Results: Genetic and immunological markers show variable expression in different types of CP. BRAF is implicated in tumorigenesis in papillary CP (pCP), whereas CTNNB1 and EGFR are often overexpressed in adamantinomatous ...


Partnering With Stakeholders To Inform The Co-Design Of A Psychosocial Intervention For Prenatally Diagnosed Congenital Heart Disease, Erica D. Sood, Colette Gramszlo, Alejandra Perez Ramirez, Katherine Braley, Samantha C Butler, Jo Ann Davis, Allison A Divanovic, Lindsay A Edwards, Nadine Kasparian, Sarah L Kelly, Trent Neely, Cynthia M Ortinau, Erin Riegel, Amanda J Shillingford, Anne E Kazak Apr 2022

Partnering With Stakeholders To Inform The Co-Design Of A Psychosocial Intervention For Prenatally Diagnosed Congenital Heart Disease, Erica D. Sood, Colette Gramszlo, Alejandra Perez Ramirez, Katherine Braley, Samantha C Butler, Jo Ann Davis, Allison A Divanovic, Lindsay A Edwards, Nadine Kasparian, Sarah L Kelly, Trent Neely, Cynthia M Ortinau, Erin Riegel, Amanda J Shillingford, Anne E Kazak

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Input from diverse stakeholders is critical to the process of designing healthcare interventions. This study applied a novel mixed-methods, stakeholder-engaged approach to co-design a psychosocial intervention for mothers expecting a baby with congenital heart disease (CHD) and their partners to promote family wellbeing. The research team included parents and clinicians from 8 health systems. Participants were 41 diverse parents of children with prenatally diagnosed CHD across the 8 health systems. Qualitative data were collected through online crowdsourcing and quantitative data were collected through electronic surveys to inform intervention co-design. Phases of intervention co-design were: (I) Engage stakeholders in selection of ...


Making Invisible Rna Visible: Discriminative Sequencing Methods For Rna Molecules With Specific Terminal Formations, Megumi Shigematsu, Yohei Kirino Apr 2022

Making Invisible Rna Visible: Discriminative Sequencing Methods For Rna Molecules With Specific Terminal Formations, Megumi Shigematsu, Yohei Kirino

Computational Medicine Center Faculty Papers

Next generation sequencing of RNA molecules (RNA-seq) has become a common tool to characterize the expression profiles of RNAs and their regulations in normal physiological processes and diseases. Although increasingly accumulating RNA-seq data are widely available through publicly accessible sites, most of the data for short non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been obtained for microRNA (miRNA) analyses by standard RNA-seq, which only capture the sncRNAs with 5′-phosphate (5′-P) and 3′-hydroxyl (3′-OH) ends. The sncRNAs with other terminal formations such as those with a 5′-hydroxyl end (5′-OH), a 3′-phosphate (3′-P) end, or a 2 ...


Gm1 Ganglioside Modifies Microglial And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Α-Synuclein In The Rat Aav-A53t Α-Synuclein Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Jay S Schneider, Garima Singh, Courtney K. Williams, Vikrant Singh Apr 2022

Gm1 Ganglioside Modifies Microglial And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Α-Synuclein In The Rat Aav-A53t Α-Synuclein Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Jay S Schneider, Garima Singh, Courtney K. Williams, Vikrant Singh

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Among the pathological events associated with the dopaminergic neurodegeneration characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the accumulation of toxic forms of α-synuclein and microglial activation associated with neuroinflammation. Although numerous other processes may participate in the pathogenesis of PD, the two factors mentioned above may play critical roles in the initiation and progression of dopamine neuron degeneration in PD. In this study, we employed a slowly progressing model of PD using adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of human A53T α-synuclein into the substantia nigra on one side of the brain and examined the microglial response in the striatum on the injected ...


Optimizing The Performance And Treatment Of The Female Athlete, Sommer Hammoud, Robin V. West Apr 2022

Optimizing The Performance And Treatment Of The Female Athlete, Sommer Hammoud, Robin V. West

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


A Just-In-Time Video Primer On Pneumothorax Pathophysiology And Early Management, Nicholas Macdonald, Jacob Garcia, Gregory C. Kane, Xiao Chi Zhang, Dimitrios Papanagnou Apr 2022

A Just-In-Time Video Primer On Pneumothorax Pathophysiology And Early Management, Nicholas Macdonald, Jacob Garcia, Gregory C. Kane, Xiao Chi Zhang, Dimitrios Papanagnou

Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers

Audience: Emergency medicine residents (interns, junior residents), medical students, and mid-level providers (physician assistants, nurse practitioners).

Introduction: Pneumothorax refersto the presence of gas within the pleuralspace and is a relatively common clinical entity in the emergency department Traumatic pneumothorax results from blunt or penetrating trauma to the thorax. Iatrogenic pneumothorax is a risk inherent to a number of invasive procedures and represents a significant cause of preventable morbidity. Specifically, central venous catheterization (43.8%), thoracentesis (20.1%), and barotrauma due to mechanical ventilation (9.1%) are the most frequent causes. A feared complication of pneumothorax is the development of tension ...


Surgery In Advanced Ovary Cancer: Primary Versus Interval Cytoreduction, Mackenzie Cummings, Olivia Nicolais, Mark S. Shahin Apr 2022

Surgery In Advanced Ovary Cancer: Primary Versus Interval Cytoreduction, Mackenzie Cummings, Olivia Nicolais, Mark S. Shahin

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty Papers

Primary debulking surgery (PDS) has remained the only treatment of ovarian cancer with survival advantage since its development in the 1970s. However, survival advantage is only observed in patients who are optimally resected. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has emerged as an alternative for patients in whom optimal resection is unlikely and/or patients with comorbidities at high risk for perioperative complications. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence to date for PDS and NACT in the treatment of stage III/IV ovarian carcinoma. We systematically searched the PubMed database for relevant articles. Prior to 2010, NACT was reserved ...


Robotic Table And Serious Games For Integrative Rehabilitation In The Early Poststroke Phase: Two Case Reports, Grigore Burdea, Nam Kim, Kevin Polistico, Ashwin Kadaru, Namrata Grampurohit, Jasdeep Hundal, Simcha Pollack Apr 2022

Robotic Table And Serious Games For Integrative Rehabilitation In The Early Poststroke Phase: Two Case Reports, Grigore Burdea, Nam Kim, Kevin Polistico, Ashwin Kadaru, Namrata Grampurohit, Jasdeep Hundal, Simcha Pollack

Department of Occupational Therapy Faculty Papers

Background: BrightArm Compact is a new rehabilitation system for the upper extremities. It provides bimanual training with gradated gravity loading and mediates interactions with cognitively challenging serious games.

Objective: The aim of this study is to design and test a robotic rehabilitation table-based virtual rehabilitation system for functional impact of the integrative training in the early poststroke phase.

Methods: A new robotic rehabilitation table, controllers, and adaptive games were developed. The 2 participants underwent 12 experimental sessions in addition to the standard of care. Standardized measures of upper extremity function (primary outcome), depression, and cognition were administered before and after ...


Role Of Extracellular Vesicles In Glia-Neuron Intercellular Communication, Shahzad Ahmad, Rohit K Srivastava, Pratibha Singh, Ulhas P. Naik, Amit K Srivastava Apr 2022

Role Of Extracellular Vesicles In Glia-Neuron Intercellular Communication, Shahzad Ahmad, Rohit K Srivastava, Pratibha Singh, Ulhas P. Naik, Amit K Srivastava

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Cross talk between glia and neurons is crucial for a variety of biological functions, ranging from nervous system development, axonal conduction, synaptic transmission, neural circuit maturation, to homeostasis maintenance. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which were initially described as cellular debris and were devoid of biological function, are now recognized as key components in cell-cell communication and play a critical role in glia-neuron communication. EVs transport the proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid cargo in intercellular communication, which alters target cells structurally and functionally. A better understanding of the roles of EVs in glia-neuron communication, both in physiological and pathological conditions, can aid ...


G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates Thrombin Signaling In Platelets Via Par-1., Kate Downes, Xuefei Zhao, Nicholas S Gleadall, Harriet Mckinney, Carly Kempster, Joana Batista, Patrick L Thomas, Matthew Cooper, James V Michael, Roman Kreuzhuber, Katherine Wedderburn, Kathryn Waller, Bianca Varney, Hippolyte Verdier, Neline Kriek, Sofie E Ashford, Kathleen E Stirrups, Joanne L Dunster, Steven E Mckenzie, Willem H Ouwehand, Jonathan M Gibbins, Jing Yang, William J Astle, Peisong Ma Apr 2022

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Regulates Thrombin Signaling In Platelets Via Par-1., Kate Downes, Xuefei Zhao, Nicholas S Gleadall, Harriet Mckinney, Carly Kempster, Joana Batista, Patrick L Thomas, Matthew Cooper, James V Michael, Roman Kreuzhuber, Katherine Wedderburn, Kathryn Waller, Bianca Varney, Hippolyte Verdier, Neline Kriek, Sofie E Ashford, Kathleen E Stirrups, Joanne L Dunster, Steven E Mckenzie, Willem H Ouwehand, Jonathan M Gibbins, Jing Yang, William J Astle, Peisong Ma

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research

The interindividual variation in the functional response of platelets to activation by agonists is heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of quantitative measures of platelet function have identified fewer than 20 distinctly associated variants, some with unknown mechanisms. Here, we report GWASs of pathway-specific functional responses to agonism by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, a glycoprotein VI-specific collagen mimetic, and thrombin receptor-agonist peptides, each specific to 1 of the G protein-coupled receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4, in subsets of 1562 individuals. We identified an association (P = 2.75 × 10-40) between a common intronic variant, rs10886430, in the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene (GRK5 ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Opioid Use After Common Elective Outpatient Orthopaedic Surgeries, Michael U Okoli, Alexander J. Rondon, Clay B Townsend, Matthew Sherman, Asif M. Ilyas, Rothman Opioid Foundation Apr 2022

Comprehensive Analysis Of Opioid Use After Common Elective Outpatient Orthopaedic Surgeries, Michael U Okoli, Alexander J. Rondon, Clay B Townsend, Matthew Sherman, Asif M. Ilyas, Rothman Opioid Foundation

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

Background: Prescription opioid abuse remains an ongoing public health crisis, especially in orthopaedic surgery. The purpose of the present study is to analyze opioid-prescribing patterns and investigate risk factors for prolonged opioid use after common outpatient orthopaedic surgical procedures.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a review of 1,384 patients undergoing common elective outpatient orthopaedic procedures from January 2018 to June 2019 was conducted. Data on controlled substance prescriptions were obtained from the prescription drug monitoring program website. Statistical analysis was done to identify predictors for a second opioid prescription and prolonged opioid use (>6 months).

Results: Over 10 ...


Development Of A Dual Drug-Loaded, Surfactant-Stabilized Contrast Agent Containing Oxygen, Raj Patel, Quezia Lacerda, Brian E Oeffinger, John R. Eisenbrey, Ankit K. Rochani, Gagan Kaushal, Corinne Wessner, Margaret A Wheatley Apr 2022

Development Of A Dual Drug-Loaded, Surfactant-Stabilized Contrast Agent Containing Oxygen, Raj Patel, Quezia Lacerda, Brian E Oeffinger, John R. Eisenbrey, Ankit K. Rochani, Gagan Kaushal, Corinne Wessner, Margaret A Wheatley

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Co-delivery of cancer therapeutics improves efficacy and encourages synergy, but delivery faces challenges, including multidrug resistance and spatiotemporal distribution of therapeutics. To address these, we added paclitaxel to previously developed acoustically labile, oxygen-core, surfactant-stabilized microbubbles encapsulating lonidamine, with the aim of developing an agent containing both a therapeutic gas and two drugs acting in combination. Upon comparison of unloaded, single-loaded, and dual-loaded microbubbles, size (~1.7 µm) and yield (~2 × 109 microbubbles/mL) (~1.7) were not statistically different, nor were acoustic properties (maximum in vitro enhancements roughly 18 dB, in vitro enhancements roughly 18 dB). Both drugs encapsulated above ...


The Efficacy Of Low-Dose Aspirin In Pregnancy Among Women In Malaria-Endemic Countries, Melissa Bauserman, Sequoia I Leuba, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Tracy L Nolen, Janet Moore, Elizabeth M Mcclure, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tsehfu, Jackie Patterson, Edward A Liechty, Fabian Esamai, Waldemar A Carlo, Elwyn Chomba, Robert L Goldenberg, Sarah Saleem, Saleem Jessani, Marion Koso-Thomas, Matthew Hoffman, Richard Derman, Steven R Meshnick, Carl L Bose Apr 2022

The Efficacy Of Low-Dose Aspirin In Pregnancy Among Women In Malaria-Endemic Countries, Melissa Bauserman, Sequoia I Leuba, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Tracy L Nolen, Janet Moore, Elizabeth M Mcclure, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tsehfu, Jackie Patterson, Edward A Liechty, Fabian Esamai, Waldemar A Carlo, Elwyn Chomba, Robert L Goldenberg, Sarah Saleem, Saleem Jessani, Marion Koso-Thomas, Matthew Hoffman, Richard Derman, Steven R Meshnick, Carl L Bose

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: Low dose aspirin (LDA) is an effective strategy to reduce preterm birth. However, LDA might have differential effects globally, based on the etiology of preterm birth. In some regions, malaria in pregnancy could be an important modifier of LDA on birth outcomes and anemia.

Methods: This is a sub-study of the ASPIRIN trial, a multi-national, randomized, placebo controlled trial evaluating LDA effect on preterm birth. We enrolled a convenience sample of women in the ASPIRIN trial from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Kenya and Zambia. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect malaria. We calculated crude prevalence ...


Alpha-Fetoprotein (Afp) And Afp-L3 Is Most Useful In Detection Of Recurrence Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Patients After Tumor Ablation And With Low Afp Level, Madison Force, Grace Park, Divya Chalikonda, Christopher G. Roth, Micah Cohen, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann Apr 2022

Alpha-Fetoprotein (Afp) And Afp-L3 Is Most Useful In Detection Of Recurrence Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Patients After Tumor Ablation And With Low Afp Level, Madison Force, Grace Park, Divya Chalikonda, Christopher G. Roth, Micah Cohen, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While there are many risk factors for HCC including alcohol, obesity, and diabetes, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still account for the majority of HCC worldwide. Globally, HBV is the leading risk factor for HCC. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and advanced liver disease are at high risk for HCC. Screening for HCC is done routinely with ultrasound with or without alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at six-month intervals. The combination of ultrasound and AFP has been ...