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Intellectual Property Law

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 214

Full-Text Articles in Law

Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 9 (2d Ed): The Innovation Commons, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 9 (2d Ed): The Innovation Commons, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This book of CASES AND MATERIALS ON INNOVATION AND COMPETITION POLICY is intended for educational use. The book is free for all to use subject to an open source license agreement. It differs from IP/antitrust casebooks in that it considers numerous sources of competition policy in addition to antitrust, including those that emanate from the intellectual property laws themselves, and also related issues such as the relationship between market structure and innovation, the competitive consequences of regulatory rules governing technology competition such as net neutrality and interconnection, misuse, the first sale doctrine, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA ...


Patent Exclusions And Antitrust After Therasense, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Patent Exclusions And Antitrust After Therasense, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patent may be held invalid if it was obtained by “inequitable conduct” before the PTO during the process of patent prosecution. In its Therasense decision the Federal Circuit imposed severe requirements against those attempting to defend against a patent on the basis of inequitable conduct, insisting that inequitable conduct be measured essentially by a subjective test. Objective “reasonable person” tests such as negligence or even gross negligence will not suffice. By contrast, the Supreme Court has insisted that the conduct giving rise to a wrongful infringement action violating the antitrust laws be initially based on an objective test – whether ...


Competition For Innovation, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Competition For Innovation, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Both antitrust and IP law are limited and imperfect instruments for regulating innovation. The problems include high information costs and lack of sufficient knowledge, special interest capture, and the jury trial system, to name a few. More fundamentally, antitrust law and intellectual property law have looked at markets in very different ways. Further, over the last three decades antitrust law has undergone a reformation process that has made it extremely self conscious about its goals. While the need for such reform is at least as apparent in patent and copyright law, very little true reform has actually occurred.

Antitrust has ...


Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Dec 2013

Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

Global patent law has raced toward harmonization over the past decades. Countries with vastly different industries, values, and levels of development now offer robust patent rights with similar contours through membership in the World Trade Organization and consequent adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”). However, patent law is still far from harmonized among countries or static within countries. Jurisdictions tailor their patent laws to accommodate differences between industries, unforeseen inefficiencies, and diverse views of the costs and benefits associated with offering patent rights to stimulate innovation. Prior scholarly work consists of either doctrinal analyses ...


Virotech Patents, Viropiracy, And Viral Sovereignty, Peter K. Yu Dec 2013

Virotech Patents, Viropiracy, And Viral Sovereignty, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Although there are many important intellectual property and public health developments in the United States, the domestic debate remains surprisingly disconnected from the international debate. To help bridge this disconnect, this Article discusses the interrelationship between intellectual property and public health in the context of communicable diseases. This type of disease is intentionally picked to highlight how developments abroad could easily affect what happens at home, and vice versa.

The first half of this Article recounts three distinct stories about viruses responsible for AIDS, SARS, and the avian influenza (H5N1). The first story focuses on the ongoing developments within the ...


Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley Dec 2013

Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley

Faculty Scholarship

Courts have struggled with the evaluation of parody under trademark law. While many trademark courts have protected parodies, there are a surprising number of cases that hold obvious parodies illegal. The problem is particularly severe with respect to parodies that are used to brand products, a growing category. The doctrinal tools that generally protect expressive parodies often don't apply to brand parodies. Our goal in this paper is to think about what circumstances (if any) should lead courts to find parody illegal. We conclude that, despite courts’ increasing attention to speech interests in recent years, the law’s treatment ...


The Three-Step Test Revisited: How To Use The Test’S Flexibility In National Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Daniel Gervais, Martin Senftleben Dec 2013

The Three-Step Test Revisited: How To Use The Test’S Flexibility In National Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Daniel Gervais, Martin Senftleben

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

The first version of the three-step test emerged at the 1967 Stockholm Conference for the Revision of the Berne Convention. With the inclusion of versions of the test in the TRIPS Agreement of April 1994, the two WIPO “Internet” treaties of December 1996, the more recent Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances of June 24, 2012, and the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (VIP Treaty) of June 27, 2013, the test has taken on the central function of allowing and enabling tailor-made solutions at the national level ...


Fair Dealing Law & The Contractual Environment, Margaret Ann Wilkinson Nov 2013

Fair Dealing Law & The Contractual Environment, Margaret Ann Wilkinson

Law Presentations

No abstract provided.


Anticompetitive Patent Settlements And The Supreme Court's Actavis Decision, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Nov 2013

Anticompetitive Patent Settlements And The Supreme Court's Actavis Decision, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In FTC v. Actavis the Supreme Court held that settlement of a patent infringement suit in which the patentee of a branded pharmaceutical drug pays a generic infringer to stay out of the market may be illegal under the antitrust laws. Justice Breyer's majority opinion was surprisingly broad, in two critical senses. First, he spoke with a generality that reached far beyond the pharmaceutical generic drug disputes that have provoked numerous pay-for-delay settlements.

Second was the aggressive approach that the Court chose. The obvious alternatives were the rule that prevailed in most Circuits, that any settlement is immune from ...


Trademark As Promise, Laura A. Heymann Nov 2013

Trademark As Promise, Laura A. Heymann

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Global Patents: Limits Of Transnational Enforcement, Marketa Trimble Nov 2013

Global Patents: Limits Of Transnational Enforcement, Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at the University of Macerata on November 6, 2013. The presentation discussed the increase in transnational patent litigation and what governments must do to protect patent owners in a globalized economy.


Patent Value And Citations: Creative Destruction Or Strategic Disruption?, David S. Abrams, Ufuk Akcigit, Jillian Popadak Nov 2013

Patent Value And Citations: Creative Destruction Or Strategic Disruption?, David S. Abrams, Ufuk Akcigit, Jillian Popadak

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Prior work suggests that more valuable patents are cited more and this view has become standard in the empirical innovation literature. Using an NPE-derived dataset with patent-specific revenues we find that the relationship of citations to value in fact forms an inverted-U, with fewer citations at the high end of value than in the middle. Since the value of patents is concentrated in those at the high end, this is a challenge to both the empirical literature and the intuition behind it. We attempt to explain this relationship with a simple model of innovation, allowing for both productive and strategic ...


Translating Intellectual Property Into Economic Outcomes, Singapore Management University Nov 2013

Translating Intellectual Property Into Economic Outcomes, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Many nations are struggling with the same challenge – how to convert their upstream R&D investments into growth elements of their national economies.


Tracing Forward And The Law: Navigating Privacy And Access Rules, Margaret Ann Wilkinson Oct 2013

Tracing Forward And The Law: Navigating Privacy And Access Rules, Margaret Ann Wilkinson

Law Presentations

No abstract provided.


12th Annual Conference On Recent Developments In Ip Law And Policy, William T. Gallagher, Marc H. Greenberg Oct 2013

12th Annual Conference On Recent Developments In Ip Law And Policy, William T. Gallagher, Marc H. Greenberg

Intellectual Property Law

Program booklet and handouts for the IP Law Center at Golden Gate University School of Law's 12th Annual Conference on Recent Developments in IP Law and Policy.


Innovation And Competition Policy, Chapter 8 (2d Ed): Innovation, Ip Rights, And Anticompetitive Exclusion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2013

Innovation And Competition Policy, Chapter 8 (2d Ed): Innovation, Ip Rights, And Anticompetitive Exclusion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This book of CASES AND MATERIALS ON INNOVATION AND COMPETITION POLICY is intended for educational use. The book is free for all to use subject to an open source license agreement. It considers numerous sources of competition policy in addition to antitrust, including those that emanate from the intellectual property laws themselves, and also related issues such as the relationship between market structure and innovation, the competitive consequences of regulatory rules governing technology competition such as net neutrality and interconnection, misuse, the first sale doctrine, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Chapters will be updated frequently. The author uses ...


Doma's Ghost And Copyright Reversionary Interests, Brad A. Greenberg Oct 2013

Doma's Ghost And Copyright Reversionary Interests, Brad A. Greenberg

NULR Online

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Design Patents To Protect Apparel Dresses, 1910 To 1950, Sara B. Marcketti, Jean L. Parsons Oct 2013

The Use Of Design Patents To Protect Apparel Dresses, 1910 To 1950, Sara B. Marcketti, Jean L. Parsons

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Intellectual property pertains to the intangible aspects of the mind. Design piracy of apparel is possible within the United States because intellectual property rights do not fully protect clothing design. The purpose of this study was to examine the efforts of apparel designers and apparel companies to protect their fashion designs through patents.


Overlapping Intellectual Property Doctrines: Election Of Rights Versus Selection Of Remedies, Laura A. Heymann Oct 2013

Overlapping Intellectual Property Doctrines: Election Of Rights Versus Selection Of Remedies, Laura A. Heymann

Faculty Publications

Overlaps exist across various doctrines in federal intellectual property law. Software can be protected under both copyright law and patent law; logos can be protected under both copyright law and trademark law. Design patents provide a particular opportunity to consider the issue of overlap, as an industrial design that qualifies for design patent protection might also, in particular circumstances, qualify for copyright protection as well as function as protectable trade dress.

When an overlap issue arises—that is, when an intellectual property rights holder asserts rights under more than one doctrine—the question then becomes how courts should respond. One ...


Trademark Morality, Mark Bartholomew Oct 2013

Trademark Morality, Mark Bartholomew

Journal Articles

This Article challenges the modern rationale for trademark rights. According to both judges and legal scholars, what matters in adjudicating trademark cases are the economic consequences, particularly for consumers, of a defendant’s use of a mark, not the use’s morality. Nevertheless, under this utilitarian facade, there are also at work judicial assessments of highly charged questions of right and wrong. Recent findings in the field of moral psychology demonstrate the influence of particular moral triggers in all areas of human decisionmaking, often operating without conscious awareness. These triggers influence judges deciding trademark disputes. A desire to punish bad ...


Reverse Payments, Perverse Incentives, Murat C. Mungan Oct 2013

Reverse Payments, Perverse Incentives, Murat C. Mungan

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


Street Art: An Analysis Under U.S. Intellectual Property Law And Intellectual Property's Negative Space Theory, Cathay Y. N. Smith Oct 2013

Street Art: An Analysis Under U.S. Intellectual Property Law And Intellectual Property's Negative Space Theory, Cathay Y. N. Smith

Faculty Law Review Articles

Street art, in its original and purest form, is artwork created without authorization, usually illegally, on either private or public property. Until recently, street art has been considered a social nuisance and is almost universally illegal, but it is now slowly becoming a “hot commodity” garnering press and social media attention. In recent years, local communities are increasingly beginning to value street art in their neighborhoods, and the art world has also caught on to the street art trend. As a result, street art is being copied and reprinted on clothing, posters, commercial items, and exhibited and sold in auction ...


Intellectual Property And Public Health – A White Paper, Ryan G. Vacca, Jim Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Kathy Strandburg, Kara Swanson, Andrew Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel Oct 2013

Intellectual Property And Public Health – A White Paper, Ryan G. Vacca, Jim Chen, Jay Dratler Jr., Tom Folsom, Timothy Hall, Yaniv Heled, Frank Pasquale, Elizabeth Reilly, Jeff Samuels, Kathy Strandburg, Kara Swanson, Andrew Torrance, Katharine Van Tassel

Akron Law Publications

On October 26, 2012, the University of Akron School of Law’s Center for Intellectual Property and Technology hosted its Sixth Annual IP Scholars Forum. In attendance were thirteen legal scholars with expertise and an interest in IP and public health who met to discuss problems and potential solutions at the intersection of these fields. This report summarizes this discussion by describing the problems raised, areas of agreement and disagreement between the participants, suggestions and solutions made by participants and the subsequent evaluations of these suggestions and solutions.

Led by the moderator, participants at the Forum focused generally on three ...


Intellectual Property Defenses, Alex Stein, Gideon Parchomovsky Oct 2013

Intellectual Property Defenses, Alex Stein, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Activating Actavis, Aaron Edlin, C. Scott Hemphill, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Carl Shapiro Oct 2013

Activating Actavis, Aaron Edlin, C. Scott Hemphill, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Carl Shapiro

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In Federal Trade Commission v. Actavis, Inc., the Supreme Court provided fundamental guidance about how courts should handle antitrust challenges to reverse payment patent settlements. The Court came down strongly in favor of an antitrust solution to the problem, concluding that “an antitrust action is likely to prove more feasible administratively than the Eleventh Circuit believed.” At the same time, Justice Breyer’s majority opinion acknowledged that the Court did not answer every relevant question. The opinion closed by “leav[ing] to the lower courts the structuring of the present rule-of-reason antitrust litigation.”

This article is an effort to help ...


Innovation, Inequality, And The Commercialization Of Academic Research, Walter Valdivia Sep 2013

Innovation, Inequality, And The Commercialization Of Academic Research, Walter Valdivia

Brookings Scholar Lecture Series

Patent policy is rarely debated in relation to its distributive consequences. In particular, the Bayh-Dole Act has been discussed in terms of its effects on the pace of innovation or the organization of science. However, this lecture re-assesses this policy from the perspective of a fair distribution of resources, both those committed to and those created by research-based innovation. Specifically, examining the management of university’s intellectual property, Valdivia will identify the institutional arrangements that reinforce a very asymmetric distribution of political and economic resources among universities and then characterize subtle but important links between these inequalities and the social ...


The Intellectual Property System Of The U.S. And Its Discontents (Program), Michael A. Jacobs Sep 2013

The Intellectual Property System Of The U.S. And Its Discontents (Program), Michael A. Jacobs

Stanley H. Mervis Lecture

No abstract provided.


Patent Portfolios As Securities, Michael Risch Sep 2013

Patent Portfolios As Securities, Michael Risch

Working Paper Series

Companies of all types are buying, selling, and licensing patents - not just one patent, but many patents bundled into large portfolios. A primary problem with these transactions is that the market is illiquid: parties cannot identify holders of relevant portfolios, they cannot agree on the value of the portfolio, and the specter of litigation taints every negotiation.

This article presents a new way to improve market formation and integrity by proposing that patent portfolios be treated as securities. If patent portfolio transactions are treated like stock transactions, sellers steering clear of fraud laws may be forced to disclose information about ...


Institutional Advantage In Competition And Innovation Policy, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Sep 2013

Institutional Advantage In Competition And Innovation Policy, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the United States responsibility for innovation policy and competition policy are assigned to different agencies with different authority. The principal institutional enforcers of patent policy are the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the International Trade Commission (ITC), and the federal district courts as overseen by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and ultimately the Supreme Court. While competition policy is not an explicit part of patent policy, competition issues arise frequently, even when they are not seen as such.

Since early in the twentieth century antitrust courts have had to confront practices that ...


The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver Sep 2013

The Right Not To Use In Property And Patent Law, Oskar Liivak, Eduardo M. Peñalver

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

In Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co., the Supreme Court held (1) that patent owners have an absolute right not to practice their patent and (2) that even these nonpracticing patent owners are entitled to the liberal use of injunctive relief against infringers. Both of these holdings have been very important to the viability of patent assertion entities, the so-called patent trolls. In eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., the Supreme Court softened the injunction rule. In this Article, we argue that Congress or the Court should reconsider Continental Paper Bag’s embrace of an absolute ...