Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Intellectual Property Law

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3842

Full-Text Articles in Law

What’S The Big Deal? How Researchers Are Navigating Changes To Journal Access, Danielle Cooper, Oya Y. Rieger Jun 2021

What’S The Big Deal? How Researchers Are Navigating Changes To Journal Access, Danielle Cooper, Oya Y. Rieger

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The dominant mode by which research libraries have provided maximum journal access as cheaply as possible—subscription bundles or “Big Deals”—is giving way to new approaches. This transition is taking place through a combination of negotiations, activism, business modeling, user needs research, and decision support, among other factors. To support these processes, Ithaka S+R partnered with 11 academic libraries to understand researcher perceptions to help inform their ongoing strategic decision making about Big Deal journal subscriptions.

Recognizing that libraries must also undertake case-by-case assessments prior to making decisions about any particular journal package, in this report we share ...


Investing In The Open Access Book Infrastructure: A Call For Action, Pierre Mounier, Jeroen Sondervan, Graham Stone May 2021

Investing In The Open Access Book Infrastructure: A Call For Action, Pierre Mounier, Jeroen Sondervan, Graham Stone

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Books play an essential role in scholarly communication, notably but not only within the Social Sciences and Humanities. Open science benefits the quality and value of research and scholarship. If open access is to benefit society as widely as possible, it is logical to include academic books. In a 2019 briefing paper, Science Europe reported that: “Open access to academic books must be considered in the wider open access policies developed by research institutions, funders, and governments.”

In recent years, Knowledge Exchange, a joint network of six key national organisations in Europe, has been working on gaining a better understanding ...


Reforming The Right To Remuneration In The South African Copyright Amendment Bill, Malebakeng Agnes Forere May 2021

Reforming The Right To Remuneration In The South African Copyright Amendment Bill, Malebakeng Agnes Forere

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

One of the core goals of South Africa’s Copyright Amendment Bill is to provide a right to fair remuneration for all authors and performers. This objective was motivated by the experiences of numerous famous South African creators who, despite their success in the creative industry, died as paupers. The problem that the Bill seeks to address is that the distributors of copyrighted work are dominated by multinational monopolies that are able to exact enormous concessions in their contracts with South African creators. Among the tools to address this problem in the Bill is a new right to a “fair ...


Political Fair Use, Cathay Y. N. Smith May 2021

Political Fair Use, Cathay Y. N. Smith

Faculty Law Review Articles

During election season, politicians and political campaigns often use pop culture or iconic works, such as viral memes or popular songs, to help convey their political messages—often without authorization from the copyright owners of these works. As politics and politicians become ever more divisive, these unauthorized political uses of copyrighted works can be particularly objectionable to copyright owners. In addition to offending their political or moral inclinations, artists and copyright owners frequently claim that these political uses infringe their copyrights. Politicians and campaigns argue that their right to use copyrighted works for political purposes is protected by the First ...


Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Apr 2021

Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper considers the role of “cluster” markets in antitrust litigation, the minimum requirements for recognizing such markets, and the relevance of network effects in identifying them.

One foundational requirement of markets in antitrust cases is that they consist of products that are very close substitutes for one another. Even though markets are nearly always porous, this principle is very robust in antitrust analysis and there are few deviations.

Nevertheless, clustering noncompeting products into a single market for purposes of antitrust analysis can be valuable, provided that its limitations are understood. Clustering contributes to market power when (1) many customers ...


Trademark Issues In The Cannabis Industry Under U.S. Law (Cannabis, Recreational Use), Christine Farley, Erik Ponce, Rachel Santarlas, Zara Snapp Apr 2021

Trademark Issues In The Cannabis Industry Under U.S. Law (Cannabis, Recreational Use), Christine Farley, Erik Ponce, Rachel Santarlas, Zara Snapp

Presentations

By Mexican Group of the International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (Association Internationale pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectuelle, AIPPI)


Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw Apr 2021

Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As COVID-19 vaccination rates in high-income countries increase, governments are proposing or implementing digital health passes (DHPs) (vaccine “passports” or “certificates”). Israel uses a “green pass” smartphone application permitting vaccinated individuals’ access to public venues (eg, gyms, hotels, entertainment). The European Union plans a “Digital Green Certificate” enabling free travel within the bloc (see eTable in the Supplement). New York is piloting an IBM “Excelsior Pass,” confirming vaccination or negative SARS-CoV-2 test status through confidential data transfers to fast-track business reopenings. This paper examines the benefits of DHPs, scientific challenges, and whether they are lawful and ethical.


The Missing Goal-Scorers In The Artificial Intelligence Team: Of Big Data, The Fundamental Right To Research And The Failed Text And Data Mining Limitations In The Csdm Directive, Christophe Geiger Apr 2021

The Missing Goal-Scorers In The Artificial Intelligence Team: Of Big Data, The Fundamental Right To Research And The Failed Text And Data Mining Limitations In The Csdm Directive, Christophe Geiger

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This article argues that recent strategies of the European Union in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) resemble a football team missing a goal-scorer to win any of the competitions with other jurisdictions having more flexible limitations to copyright, in particular with those allowing robust text and data mining (TDM) activities. It analyses the TDM limitations newly introduced in EU copyright law by the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market to show that these provisions not only fail to take duly into account the right to research grounded in the fundamental right to information, but also will not ...


Not The African Copyright Pirate Is Perverse, But The Situation In Which (S)He Lives-Textbooks For Education, Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations, And Constitutionalization "From Below" In Ip Law, Klaus Beiter Apr 2021

Not The African Copyright Pirate Is Perverse, But The Situation In Which (S)He Lives-Textbooks For Education, Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations, And Constitutionalization "From Below" In Ip Law, Klaus Beiter

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Printed textbooks remain crucial for education, particularly in developing countries. However, in many of these countries, textbooks are unavailable, too expensive, or not accessible in learners’ native tongues. Digital content, for many reasons, does not prove a wondrous solution. Cheaply (translating and) reproducing textbooks would be a strategy. However, reprography is highly regulated under copyright law. Copyright also adds to the cost of textbooks. The availability, accessibility, and acceptability of learning materials constitute essential elements of the right to education under international human rights law.

Intellectual property (IP) law has so far refrained from endorsing the concept of extraterritorial state ...


When Imitation Is Not Flattery: Addressing Cultural Exploitation In Guatemala Through A Sui Generis Model, Paul Figueroa Apr 2021

When Imitation Is Not Flattery: Addressing Cultural Exploitation In Guatemala Through A Sui Generis Model, Paul Figueroa

Faculty Scholarship

Indigenous Guatemalan weavers are fighting for intellectual property laws that better protect their designs and other cultural expressions. The exploitation and appropriation by local and international companies has negatively affected the weavers’ livelihoods and resulted in culturally inappropriate uses of spiritual and traditional symbols. Adhering to Western ideals of individual creativity and utility, intellectual property laws in most of the world (including Guatemala) are not suited to protect indigenous creations. To address this legal gap, some countries have adopted sui generis legal regimes that align with communal notions of creation, ownership and stewardship found in indigenous knowledge systems. Based on ...


Retelling Copyright: The Contributions Of The Restatement Of Copyright Law, Jessica Silbey, Jeanne Fromer Apr 2021

Retelling Copyright: The Contributions Of The Restatement Of Copyright Law, Jessica Silbey, Jeanne Fromer

Faculty Scholarship

This Article was written for a special issue on the American Law Institute’s (ALI) Restatement of Copyright Law.

Since the American Law Institute (ALI) launched in the early twentieth century, its mission has been “the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs ... [and] to secure the better administration of justice.” A principal way it has pursued that mission has been through its Restatements of Law project. By their nature, Restatements of Law reflect tensions between what it means to “restate” and reform the law. As the ALI has grown and the legal profession ...


What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Federal Investigation Agency Against The Crime Of Book Piracy In Pakistan, Ghalib Khan Dr., Sobia Bashir, Faisal Shahzad, Saeed Ullah Jan Dr Mar 2021

Federal Investigation Agency Against The Crime Of Book Piracy In Pakistan, Ghalib Khan Dr., Sobia Bashir, Faisal Shahzad, Saeed Ullah Jan Dr

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) is a counter-intelligence, criminal investigation and security agency of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan which was established in 1975. The Economic Crime Wing (ECW) of the FIA has the mandate to protect the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) of the people of Pakistan. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of FIA against the crime of book piracy in Pakistan. To achieve this objective, data was collected from the annual administration reports of FIA. The study found that FIA has been playing a vital role against the crime of book piracy in ...


Platform Liability Under Article 17 Of The Copyright In The Digital Single Market Directive, Automated Filtering And Fundamental Rights: An Impossible Match, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte Mar 2021

Platform Liability Under Article 17 Of The Copyright In The Digital Single Market Directive, Automated Filtering And Fundamental Rights: An Impossible Match, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

The Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (CDSM Directive) introduced a change of paradigm with regard to the liability of some platforms in the European Union. Under the safe harbour rules of the Directive on electronic commerce (E-Commerce Directive), intermediaries in the EU were shielded from liability for acts of their users committed through their services, provided they had no knowledge of it. Although platform operators could be required to help enforce copyright infringements online by taking down infringing content, the E-commerce Directive also drew a very clear line that intermediaries could not be obliged to monitor all ...


Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu Mar 2021

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Is privacy a luxury for the rich world? Remarkably, there is a dearth of literature evaluating whether data privacy is too costly for companies to implement, or too expensive for governments to enforce. This paper is the first to offer a review of surveys of costs of compliance, and to summarize national budgets for enforcement. The study shows that while privacy may indeed prove costly for companies to implement, it is not too costly for governments to enforce. This study will help inform governments as they fashion and implement privacy laws to address the “privacy enforcement gap”—the disparity between ...


Ericsson Inc., And Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson V. Samsung Elecs. Co, Ltd., Samsung Elecs. America, Jorge L. Contreras, Ann Bartow, Michael A. Carrier, Crista Laser, Joshua D. Sarnoff, Peter K. Yu Mar 2021

Ericsson Inc., And Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson V. Samsung Elecs. Co, Ltd., Samsung Elecs. America, Jorge L. Contreras, Ann Bartow, Michael A. Carrier, Crista Laser, Joshua D. Sarnoff, Peter K. Yu

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Unopposed Motion for Leave to File Brief of International Intellectual Property Law Professors as Amici Curiae in Support of Neither Party


Brand New World (Parallel Session 1.B. - Trademarks), Christine Farley Feb 2021

Brand New World (Parallel Session 1.B. - Trademarks), Christine Farley

Presentations

By American University Washington College of Law, Texas A&M University School of Law, and University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law.


Plenary Session 2 - The Impact Of “Impact” In Ip Scholarship: Citations, Downloads And Why We (Should/Don’T) Care, Christine Farley, Gregory N. Mandel, Leah Chan Grinvald, Kimberlee Weatherall, Paul Heald Feb 2021

Plenary Session 2 - The Impact Of “Impact” In Ip Scholarship: Citations, Downloads And Why We (Should/Don’T) Care, Christine Farley, Gregory N. Mandel, Leah Chan Grinvald, Kimberlee Weatherall, Paul Heald

Presentations

By American University Washington College of Law, Texas A&M University School of Law, and University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law.


Opening - Welcome And Instructions, Christine Farley, Irene Calboli, Jorge Contreras, J. Glynn Lunney Feb 2021

Opening - Welcome And Instructions, Christine Farley, Irene Calboli, Jorge Contreras, J. Glynn Lunney

Presentations

By American University Washington College of Law, Texas A&M University School of Law, and University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law.


Propertizing Fair Use, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky Feb 2021

Propertizing Fair Use, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its current form, fair use doctrine provides a personal defense that applies narrowly to the specific use by the specific user. The landmark case of Google v. Oracle, currently pending before the Supreme Court, illustrates why this is problematic. Even if the Court were to rule that Google’s use of Oracle’s Java API’s was fair, the ruling would not protect the numerous parties that developed Java applications for the Android operating system; it would only shelter Google and Google’s particular use. This is not an isolated problem; the per use/per user rule cuts across ...


Trademark Law’S Monopoly Problem: The Supreme Court On Generic Terms As Trademarks, Christine Farley Feb 2021

Trademark Law’S Monopoly Problem: The Supreme Court On Generic Terms As Trademarks, Christine Farley

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

American University Washington College of Law Research Paper No. 2021- 06

The U.S. Supreme Court’s June 30, 2020 decision in U.S.P.T.O. v. Booking.com B.V. held that consumer perception alone should determine whether terms are registrable as trademarks or generic and free for all to use. The issue was whether a term that is generic for the class of goods or services can be protected as a trademark when followed by “.com.” The case was about the proper test for genericity in “generic.com” cases. In its first domain name case, the Court ...


The Open Covid Pledge: Design, Implementation And Preliminary Assessment Of An Intellectual Property Commons, Jorge L. Contreras Feb 2021

The Open Covid Pledge: Design, Implementation And Preliminary Assessment Of An Intellectual Property Commons, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Early during the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of widely-publicized incidents gave rise to concerns that holders of patents and other intellectual property (IP) rights could hinder the development, manufacture and distribution of essential medical devices, protective equipment and biomedical products. The global response to these concerns was swift and included the issuance of compulsory licensing orders by several national governments, as well as the proposal of a technology pool by the World Health Organization (WHO). Alongside these efforts, a group of scientific, engineering and legal experts created a lightweight, open framework under which IP holders could voluntarily pledge not to ...


Library Of Congress [Docket No. 2021-1] Announcement Of Copyright Public Modernization Committee, Carla D. Hayden Jan 2021

Library Of Congress [Docket No. 2021-1] Announcement Of Copyright Public Modernization Committee, Carla D. Hayden

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Action: Notice of convening of IT modernization public stakeholder committee.

Summary: The Library of Congress is convening a public committee to enhance communication and provide a public forum for the technology-related aspects of the U.S. Copyright Office's modernization initiative. At this time, the Library is announcing that it will accept applications from qualified members of the public to serve on this committee. The scope of contributions made by the committee are limited to the specific topics set forth in this notice. Membership will be on a volunteer basis, with the expectation of in-person or virtual participation at two ...


The Republic Of Letters And The Origins Of Scientific Knowledge Commons, Michael J. Madison Jan 2021

The Republic Of Letters And The Origins Of Scientific Knowledge Commons, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

The knowledge commons framework, deployed here in a review of the early network of scientific communication known as the Republic of Letters, combines a historical sensibility regarding the character of scientific research and communications with a modern approach to analyzing institutions for knowledge governance. Distinctions and intersections between public purposes and privacy interests are highlighted. Lessons from revisiting the Republic of Letters as knowledge commons may be useful in advancing contemporary discussions of Open Science.


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


Clearing Opacity Through Machine Learning, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Arti K. Rai Jan 2021

Clearing Opacity Through Machine Learning, W. Nicholson Price Ii, Arti K. Rai

Articles

Artificial intelligence and machine learning represent powerful tools in many fields, ranging from criminal justice to human biology to climate change. Part of the power of these tools arises from their ability to make predictions and glean useful information about complex real-world systems without the need to understand the workings of those systems.


A Case For Compulsory Licensing In Instances Of Reverse Trademark Confusion, Lauren Straight Jan 2021

A Case For Compulsory Licensing In Instances Of Reverse Trademark Confusion, Lauren Straight

Connecticut Law Review

Trademark remedies in cases of reverse confusion are economically inefficient. Junior users in the best position to take economic advantage of marks are sometimes unable to do so due to prior use of a mark by a much smaller, remote senior user. This creates economic inefficiencies and leaves market share unutilized. For this reason, TRIPS needs to be revised to allow for a limited system of compulsory licensing for trademarks in reverse confusion cases. A system of compulsory licensing for trademarks would allow the person or company in the best position to use and gain market share from a trademark ...


Noncompetes And Other Post-Employment Restraints On Competition: Empirical Evidence From Trade Secret Litigation, Christopher B. Seaman Jan 2021

Noncompetes And Other Post-Employment Restraints On Competition: Empirical Evidence From Trade Secret Litigation, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

Noncompete clauses in employment agreements are both common and controversial. An estimated twenty-eight million Americans—nearly twenty percent of the U.S. workforce—are currently bound by a noncompete. The traditional view that noncompete agreements can facilitate increased productivity by encouraging employers to invest in employee training has been challenged by numerous legal and economics scholars in recent years, who contend noncompetes hinder employment options for skilled workers and limit information spillovers, which are both vital drivers of innovation. Based on these claims, several states have recently limited the enforcement of noncompetes, and legislation is pending at the federal level ...


Offensive Mark Owners Have An Enforcement Problem, Yvette Joy Liebesman Jan 2021

Offensive Mark Owners Have An Enforcement Problem, Yvette Joy Liebesman

All Faculty Scholarship

In Iancu v. Brunetti, the Supreme Court held that the Lanham Act 2(a) bars for "immoral" or "scandalous" marks are facially unconstitutional viewpoint discrimination, and thus violate a trademark owner’s First Amendment rights. Brunetti, as well as its predecessor, Matal v. Tam, focused entirely on how the government might generate viewpoint discrimination at the point of trademark registration. The Court did not consider whether enforcement of trademarks—via courts of law, Customs and Border Protection, or the International Trade Commission—is government speech, and thus exempt from First Amendment free speech scrutiny. Yet the Court’s seminal holding ...


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this ...