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Intellectual Property Law

2013

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 9 (2d Ed): The Innovation Commons, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 9 (2d Ed): The Innovation Commons, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This book of CASES AND MATERIALS ON INNOVATION AND COMPETITION POLICY is intended for educational use. The book is free for all to use subject to an open source license agreement. It differs from IP/antitrust casebooks in that it considers numerous sources of competition policy in addition to antitrust, including those that emanate from the intellectual property laws themselves, and also related issues such as the relationship between market structure and innovation, the competitive consequences of regulatory rules governing technology competition such as net neutrality and interconnection, misuse, the first sale doctrine, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA ...


Patent Exclusions And Antitrust After Therasense, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Patent Exclusions And Antitrust After Therasense, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patent may be held invalid if it was obtained by “inequitable conduct” before the PTO during the process of patent prosecution. In its Therasense decision the Federal Circuit imposed severe requirements against those attempting to defend against a patent on the basis of inequitable conduct, insisting that inequitable conduct be measured essentially by a subjective test. Objective “reasonable person” tests such as negligence or even gross negligence will not suffice. By contrast, the Supreme Court has insisted that the conduct giving rise to a wrongful infringement action violating the antitrust laws be initially based on an objective test – whether ...


Competition For Innovation, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2013

Competition For Innovation, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Both antitrust and IP law are limited and imperfect instruments for regulating innovation. The problems include high information costs and lack of sufficient knowledge, special interest capture, and the jury trial system, to name a few. More fundamentally, antitrust law and intellectual property law have looked at markets in very different ways. Further, over the last three decades antitrust law has undergone a reformation process that has made it extremely self conscious about its goals. While the need for such reform is at least as apparent in patent and copyright law, very little true reform has actually occurred.

Antitrust has ...


Panel I: The Conflict Between Commercial Speech And Legislation Governing The Commercialization Of Public Sector Data, Robert Sherman, Paul Schwartz, Deirdre Mulligan, Steven Emmert Dec 2013

Panel I: The Conflict Between Commercial Speech And Legislation Governing The Commercialization Of Public Sector Data, Robert Sherman, Paul Schwartz, Deirdre Mulligan, Steven Emmert

Paul M. Schwartz

No abstract provided.


Eldred And Lochner: Copyright Term Extension And Intellectual Property As Constitutional Property, Paul M. Schwartz, William Michael Treanor Dec 2013

Eldred And Lochner: Copyright Term Extension And Intellectual Property As Constitutional Property, Paul M. Schwartz, William Michael Treanor

Paul M. Schwartz

Since the ratification of the constitution, intellectual property law in the United States has always been, in part, constitutional law. Among the enumerated powers that Article I of the Constitution vests in Congress is the power to create certain intellectual property rights. To a remarkable extent, scholars who have examined the Constitution's Copyright Clause have reached a common position. With striking unanimity, these scholars have called for aggressive judicial review of the constitutionality of congressional legislation in this area. The champions of this position--we refer to them as the IP Restrictors--represent a remarkable array of constitutional and intellectual property ...


Op-Ed: Don’T Stop At Sopa, Mark Mckenna Dec 2013

Op-Ed: Don’T Stop At Sopa, Mark Mckenna

Mark P. McKenna

Op-ed in Slate.com by Mark McKenna. SOPA and PIPA are (almost) dead? Now can we talk about the law that already exists?


"Kohler Co. Steamed Over Arizona Firm’S Name Salon School Makes Change To Avoid Trademark Suit" (Quotes: Mark P. Mckenna) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Mark Mckenna Dec 2013

"Kohler Co. Steamed Over Arizona Firm’S Name Salon School Makes Change To Avoid Trademark Suit" (Quotes: Mark P. Mckenna) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Mark Mckenna

Mark P. McKenna

Kohler Co. steamed over Arizona firm’s name Salon school makes change to avoid trademark suit by Rick Romell of the Journal Sentinel quotes Mark P. McKenna in Milwaukee Journal Sentinel on Jan. 24, 2012.

People have no hard and fast right to use their name on their business if someone else already has trademarked it, said Durst and two academic experts - Mark McKenna of the University of Notre Dame Law School and J. Thomas McCarthy, senior professor at the University of San Francisco.

McKenna, however, called Kohler Co.'s assertions "a pretty aggressive use of their trademark rights."

He ...


Court: Reselling Books Bought Abroad Isn't A Copyright Violation - (Quotes: Mark Mckenna), Npr’S Morning Edition, Mark Mckenna Dec 2013

Court: Reselling Books Bought Abroad Isn't A Copyright Violation - (Quotes: Mark Mckenna), Npr’S Morning Edition, Mark Mckenna

Mark P. McKenna

Court: Reselling Books Bought Abroad Isn't A Copyright Violation interview by Dan Bobkoff quotes Mark McKenna, NPR’s Morning Edition March 20, 2013 DAN BOBKOFF, BYLINE: Once you buy a book in the U.S., you're free to lend it, throw it away or sell it. This is called the First Sale Doctrine, says law professor Mark McKenna of Notre Dame. MARK MCKENNA: This is why there are used book stores. BOBKOFF: But the question at stake in this case was whether that still applies to products sold and made in another country. Grad student Supap(ph) Kirksang ...


The Empire Of Cancer: Gene Patents And Cancer Voices, Matthew Rimmer Dec 2013

The Empire Of Cancer: Gene Patents And Cancer Voices, Matthew Rimmer

Matthew Rimmer

In his book, The Emperor of All Maladies, Siddhartha Mukherjee writes a history of cancer — ‘It is a chronicle of an ancient disease — once a clandestine, “whispered-about” illness — that has metamorphosed into a lethal shape-shifting entity imbued with such penetrating metaphorical, medical, scientific, and political potency that cancer is often described as the defining plague of our generation’.Increasingly, an important theme in the history of cancer is the role of law, particularly in the field of intellectual property law. It is striking that a number of contemporary policy debates over intellectual property and public health have concerned cancer research ...


Puntos De Contacto Entre La Economía Del Comportamiento Y El Derecho De La Propiedad Intelectual: Resultados De Algunas Investigaciones Iniciales, Maximiliano Marzetti Dec 2013

Puntos De Contacto Entre La Economía Del Comportamiento Y El Derecho De La Propiedad Intelectual: Resultados De Algunas Investigaciones Iniciales, Maximiliano Marzetti

Maximiliano Marzetti

En el presente artículo se describe una nueva escuela económica, la economía conductual y se analiza someramente su potencial aplicación al ámbito del derecho de la propiedad intelectual. A modo ejemplificativo, se reseñan investigaciones de economía conductual que han estudiado la efectividad de los incentivos externos sobre las actividades creativas e innovadoras, el efecto rebote de las acciones civiles contra usuarios que descargan ilegalmente de Internet contenidos protegidos por el derecho de autor y el efecto creatividad que puede distorsionar el funcionamiento de mercado de propiedad intelectual para obras creativas. Finalmente, se destaca el rol de la evidencia empírica para ...


Usando La Camiseta De Indecopi En El Poder Judicial: Trazos Sobre El Proceso De Modificación De Denominación O Razón Social Por Conflicto Con Signos Distintivos, Javier André Murillo Chávez Dec 2013

Usando La Camiseta De Indecopi En El Poder Judicial: Trazos Sobre El Proceso De Modificación De Denominación O Razón Social Por Conflicto Con Signos Distintivos, Javier André Murillo Chávez

Javier André Murillo Chávez

No abstract provided.


The Player-Authors Project, Greg Lastowka Dec 2013

The Player-Authors Project, Greg Lastowka

Greg Lastowka

No abstract provided.


Imitation Is The Sincerest Form Of Flattery: Software And User Interface Design In A Changing Patent Landscape, Megan Cardaman Dec 2013

Imitation Is The Sincerest Form Of Flattery: Software And User Interface Design In A Changing Patent Landscape, Megan Cardaman

Megan Cardaman

No abstract provided.


Getting Down To (Tattoo) Business: Copyright Norms And Speech Protections For Tattooing, Alexa L. Nickow Dec 2013

Getting Down To (Tattoo) Business: Copyright Norms And Speech Protections For Tattooing, Alexa L. Nickow

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

What level of First Amendment protection should we afford tattooing? General public consensus formerly condemned tattoos as barbaric, but the increasingly diverse clientele of tattoo shops suggests that tattoos have become more mainstream. However, the law has struggled to adjust. The recent proliferation of municipal near-bans on tattooing has brought tattooing to the forefront of First Amendment debates, with cases such as Anderson and Coleman leading the way toward recognizing tattooing as pure speech. Tensions between formal and informal copyright norms in the tattoo industry further highlight the collaborative and expressive nature of the artist-customer relationship and its resulting products ...


Interactive Methods And Collaborative Performance: A New Future For Indirect Infringement, Josh Rychlinski Dec 2013

Interactive Methods And Collaborative Performance: A New Future For Indirect Infringement, Josh Rychlinski

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

An individual is liable for patent infringement if he infringes one or more patented claims either directly under 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) or indirectly under 35 U.S.C. § 271(b) or § 271(c). In 2012, the Federal Circuit clarified its interpretation of § 271(b) and § 271(c) in the case of Akamai v. Limelight. However, the court failed to address issues of “divided” direct infringement, where two or more entities combine and together complete each and every step of a method claim, but no single entity does all of the steps. This Note walks through the history ...


Tollbooths And Newsstands On The Information Superhighway, Brad A. Greenberg Dec 2013

Tollbooths And Newsstands On The Information Superhighway, Brad A. Greenberg

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Countering the perception that speech limitations affecting distribution necessarily reduce access to information, this Essay proffers that copyright expansions actually can increase access and thereby serve important copyright and First Amendment values. In doing so, this discussion contributes to the growing literature and two recent Supreme Court opinions discussing whether copyright law and First Amendment interests can coexist.


Wag The Dog: Using Incidental Intellectual Property Rights To Block Parallel Imports, Mary Lafrance Dec 2013

Wag The Dog: Using Incidental Intellectual Property Rights To Block Parallel Imports, Mary Lafrance

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Federal law grants owners of intellectual property rights different degrees of control over parallel imports depending on the nature of their exclusive rights. While trademark owners enjoy strong control over unauthorized imports bearing their marks, their protection is less comprehensive than that granted to owners of copyrights and patents. To broaden their rights, some trademark owners have incorporated copyrighted material into their products or packaging, enabling them to block otherwise lawful imports in contravention of the policies underlying trademark law. A 2013 Supreme Court decision has significantly narrowed the importation ban of copyright law, but there may be pressure to ...


Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García Dec 2013

Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The government is not the only player in copyright reform, and perhaps not even the most important. Left to free market negotiation, risk averse licensors and licensees are contracting around the statutory license for certain types of copyright-protected content, and achieving greater efficiency via private ordering. This emerging phenomenon, herein termed “private copyright reform,” presents both adverse selection and distributive justice concerns: first, circumvention of the statutory license goes against legislative intent by allowing for the reduction, and even elimination, of statutorily mandated royalties owed to non-parties. In addition, when presented without full term disclosure, privately determined royalty rates can ...


Copyrights In Faculty-Created Works: How Licensing Can Solve The Academic Work-For-Hire Dilemma, Glenda A. Gertz Dec 2013

Copyrights In Faculty-Created Works: How Licensing Can Solve The Academic Work-For-Hire Dilemma, Glenda A. Gertz

Washington Law Review

Many copyrightable works of university faculty members may be works-for-hire as defined under current U.S. copyright laws. Copyrights in works-for-hire are treated differently than copyrights in other works with respect to ownership, duration, termination rights, and requirements for transfer. Ambiguity over whether a specific faculty-created work is a work-for-hire creates legal uncertainties and potential future litigation about the initial ownership of the copyright, length of the copyright term, and termination rights which could impact all future transfers and licensing. Many universities have attempted to define ownership of faculty-created works through university policies. These policies are ineffective to alter the ...


Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Dec 2013

Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

Global patent law has raced toward harmonization over the past decades. Countries with vastly different industries, values, and levels of development now offer robust patent rights with similar contours through membership in the World Trade Organization and consequent adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”). However, patent law is still far from harmonized among countries or static within countries. Jurisdictions tailor their patent laws to accommodate differences between industries, unforeseen inefficiencies, and diverse views of the costs and benefits associated with offering patent rights to stimulate innovation. Prior scholarly work consists of either doctrinal analyses ...


Calming Unsettled Waters: A Proposal For Navigating The Tenuous Power Divide Between The Federal Courts And The Uspto Under The American Invents Act, William Rose Dec 2013

Calming Unsettled Waters: A Proposal For Navigating The Tenuous Power Divide Between The Federal Courts And The Uspto Under The American Invents Act, William Rose

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley Dec 2013

Parody As Brand, Stacey Dogan, Mark Lemley

Faculty Scholarship

Courts have struggled with the evaluation of parody under trademark law. While many trademark courts have protected parodies, there are a surprising number of cases that hold obvious parodies illegal. The problem is particularly severe with respect to parodies that are used to brand products, a growing category. The doctrinal tools that generally protect expressive parodies often don't apply to brand parodies. Our goal in this paper is to think about what circumstances (if any) should lead courts to find parody illegal. We conclude that, despite courts’ increasing attention to speech interests in recent years, the law’s treatment ...


The Three-Step Test Revisited: How To Use The Test’S Flexibility In National Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Daniel Gervais, Martin Senftleben Dec 2013

The Three-Step Test Revisited: How To Use The Test’S Flexibility In National Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Daniel Gervais, Martin Senftleben

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

The first version of the three-step test emerged at the 1967 Stockholm Conference for the Revision of the Berne Convention. With the inclusion of versions of the test in the TRIPS Agreement of April 1994, the two WIPO “Internet” treaties of December 1996, the more recent Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances of June 24, 2012, and the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (VIP Treaty) of June 27, 2013, the test has taken on the central function of allowing and enabling tailor-made solutions at the national level ...


Virotech Patents, Viropiracy, And Viral Sovereignty, Peter K. Yu Dec 2013

Virotech Patents, Viropiracy, And Viral Sovereignty, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Although there are many important intellectual property and public health developments in the United States, the domestic debate remains surprisingly disconnected from the international debate. To help bridge this disconnect, this Article discusses the interrelationship between intellectual property and public health in the context of communicable diseases. This type of disease is intentionally picked to highlight how developments abroad could easily affect what happens at home, and vice versa.

The first half of this Article recounts three distinct stories about viruses responsible for AIDS, SARS, and the avian influenza (H5N1). The first story focuses on the ongoing developments within the ...


From Temporary Incentive To Perpetual Entitlement: Historical Perspective On The Evolving Nature Of Copyright In America, Evan Boyd Billingsley Dec 2013

From Temporary Incentive To Perpetual Entitlement: Historical Perspective On The Evolving Nature Of Copyright In America, Evan Boyd Billingsley

Theses and Dissertations

The original purpose of copyright legislation was to grant a temporary economic monopoly to an author of a creative work. This monopoly is meant to incentivize authors to contribute to the public good with works that promote progress in science and art. However, increases in the scope and duration of copyright terms grant overly broad protections and controls for copyright owners, while advances in technology have provided the public with the potential for near-limitless access to information. This creates a conflict between proprietary interest in creative works versus the public's right and ability to access same. Efforts to balance ...


Native American Empowerment Through Digital Repatriation, Michelle L. Fitch Dec 2013

Native American Empowerment Through Digital Repatriation, Michelle L. Fitch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Following the Enlightenment, Western adherence to positivist theory influenced practices of Western research and documentation. Prior to the introduction of positivism into Western scholarship, innovations in printing technology, literary advancements, and the development of capitalism encouraged the passing of copyright statutes by nation-states in fifteenth century Europe. The evolution of copyright and positivism in Europe influenced United States copyright and its protection of the author, as well as the practice of archiving and its role in interpreting history. Because Native American cultures practiced orality, they suffered the loss of their traditional knowledge and cultural expressions not protected by copyright. By ...


Plain Packaging And The Interpretation Of The Trips Agreement, Daniel J. Gervais, Susy Frankel Nov 2013

Plain Packaging And The Interpretation Of The Trips Agreement, Daniel J. Gervais, Susy Frankel

Daniel J Gervais

Plain packaging of cigarettes as a way of reducing tobacco consumption and its related health costs and effects raises a number of international trade law issues. The plain packaging measures adopted in Australia impose strict format requirements on word trademarks (such as Marlboro or Camel) and ban the use of figurative marks (colors, logos, etc.). As a result, questions have been raised as to plain packaging’s compatibility with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). WTO members can validly take measures to protect and promote public health, but in doing ...


Fair Dealing Law & The Contractual Environment, Margaret Ann Wilkinson Nov 2013

Fair Dealing Law & The Contractual Environment, Margaret Ann Wilkinson

Law Presentations

No abstract provided.


Anticompetitive Patent Settlements And The Supreme Court's Actavis Decision, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Nov 2013

Anticompetitive Patent Settlements And The Supreme Court's Actavis Decision, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In FTC v. Actavis the Supreme Court held that settlement of a patent infringement suit in which the patentee of a branded pharmaceutical drug pays a generic infringer to stay out of the market may be illegal under the antitrust laws. Justice Breyer's majority opinion was surprisingly broad, in two critical senses. First, he spoke with a generality that reached far beyond the pharmaceutical generic drug disputes that have provoked numerous pay-for-delay settlements.

Second was the aggressive approach that the Court chose. The obvious alternatives were the rule that prevailed in most Circuits, that any settlement is immune from ...


Mark Mckenna Quoted In Usa Today Article Apple Gets $290m In Samsung Patent Dispute, Mark Mckenna Nov 2013

Mark Mckenna Quoted In Usa Today Article Apple Gets $290m In Samsung Patent Dispute, Mark Mckenna

Mark P. McKenna

Mark McKenna was quoted in the USA Today article Apple gets $290 million in Samsung patent dispute by Scott Martin. "Today's damage award was much larger than Samsung had argued for, but still significantly less than the $400 million vacated by Judge Koh after the first trial," said Mark McKenna, a law professor at the University of Notre Dame.