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Texas A&M University School of Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1925

Full-Text Articles in Law

In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree Apr 2024

In Support Of Industry-Conscious Disclosure Standards For Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology Patents, Mark T. Roundtree

Texas A&M Law Review

One of the fundamental requirements for a patent application is a disclosure of the invention via an accurate written description with sufficient detail to enable the recreation of the invention. The U.S. patent system has historically reviewed patent applications from various industries with a uniform set of requirements and standards. However, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries operate on notably extended product development timelines and face unique administrative pressures related to their products when compared with other industries. In response to these pressures, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have traditionally applied for patent protections through liberal use of genus claims and other …


A Tall Summit: Securing Lasting, Reliable Public Access For Recreational Use On Colorado’S Privately Owned Fourteeners, Michael Betrus Apr 2024

A Tall Summit: Securing Lasting, Reliable Public Access For Recreational Use On Colorado’S Privately Owned Fourteeners, Michael Betrus

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

From the National Scenic Trails to mountains to other destinations in nature drawing the public’s interest and time for recreational activities, privately owned land can cause difficulties in ensuring reliable and consistent public access. A specific example is the Decalibron Loop, a trail in Colorado linking together a few mountains; public access has wavered over the years, and a recent Tenth Circuit case, Nelson v. United States, greatly affected landowner dispositions—particularly with regard to liability—toward the privately owned property. Similar situations across the country provide a variety of potential approaches to helping provide public access and reducing landowner concerns.

With …


The Lack Of Victim Protection In The Enforcement Of The Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Kelly R. Fitzgerald Valiev Apr 2024

The Lack Of Victim Protection In The Enforcement Of The Trafficking Victims Protection Act, Kelly R. Fitzgerald Valiev

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Over the past twenty-two years, United States federal courts have seen many cases regarding forced labor and the importation of goods produced by victims of forced labor trafficking. To resolve these cases, the court must interpret § 307 of the Tariff Act to determine whether victims can recover against their traffickers. Recently, an issue in the interpretation of forced labor has arisen in courts: whether an attempt at importing goods is sufficient to establish a cause of action as a violation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act’s prohibition on forced labor imports. Courts that interpret forced labor narrowly to …


Keeping Up With The Joneses: Texas’ Nil Battle For Student-Athletes, Stephanie Garner Apr 2024

Keeping Up With The Joneses: Texas’ Nil Battle For Student-Athletes, Stephanie Garner

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Starting in 2021, college athletes could earn financial compensation from their name, image, and likeness (“NIL”). With the change in laws, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (“NCAA”) created an interim regulation for states to follow. After the Supreme Court decision, some states’ trigger laws went into effect, some states made new NIL regulations, and some states continued to follow the regulation set out by the NCAA. With all these laws and no federal regulation, each state stands on different footing. In Texas, a restrictive NIL statute will affect its recruiting for years unless adjusted. This Comment suggests improvements to the …


Unequal Land: Towards Full Recognition Of Indigenous People’S Religious Rights, Emily Campbell Apr 2024

Unequal Land: Towards Full Recognition Of Indigenous People’S Religious Rights, Emily Campbell

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Indigenous people face disparate treatment regarding religious free-exercise claims in the United States court system. Specifically, courts misconstrue native religious practices and hold native religious practitioners to a higher standard of proof than practitioners of mainstream religions in their free-exercise claims. This Article analyzes the history of oppression of indigenous people in the United States and the congressional intent to remedy such oppression through legislation. Further, this Article argues that despite Congress’s efforts to remedy the oppression of indigenous peoples, courts still utilize a problematic analysis of indigenous free-exercise claims. To resolve the inconsistent treatment between native and mainstream religious …


All Aboard: Understanding Property Rights In Texas After Texas Central, Asher K. Gregg Apr 2024

All Aboard: Understanding Property Rights In Texas After Texas Central, Asher K. Gregg

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Our forefathers intended the United States Bill of Rights to protect individuals from government overreach. Specifically, the Fifth Amendment, as applied to the States via the Fourteenth Amendment, in part protects individuals from unnecessary takings. Eminent domain authority—its more common name—has long been recognized as a power to be used cautiously and only when necessary. Although most often associated with government exercise, states are permitted to grant this unyielding authority to private entities via their state constitutions and statutes. Despite Texas serving as a beacon for individual property rights, the Texas Supreme Court’s recent decision in Miles v. Texas Central …


Can They Fix It? Yes, They Can: Rebalancing The Scale Of Financial Security On Construction Projects, Allie Grubb Apr 2024

Can They Fix It? Yes, They Can: Rebalancing The Scale Of Financial Security On Construction Projects, Allie Grubb

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The construction industry is one of the most dominant industries worldwide. The United States is no stranger to development and growth, and as so, it possesses one of the largest construction industries in the world. Given the magnitude of the industry, it is no secret that every party involved in a construction project feels the loom of financial risks and that such risks continue to plague the industry. The government, particularly the legislature, has a special influence in that the laws it passes can either encourage continued development and make the industry flourish or bring it to a complete stop, …


Far Out: The Extended Denial Of Public Access To Psychedelic Therapeutics, Andrew R. Waldeck Apr 2024

Far Out: The Extended Denial Of Public Access To Psychedelic Therapeutics, Andrew R. Waldeck

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The United States patent regime is designed to promote dissemination of information that undergirds a particular innovation. To incentivize disclosure, inventors are granted a time-limited right to exclude others from practicing the invention, thereby affording the inventor a period in which to commercialize and financially benefit from their inventive contribution. The disclosure provides information sufficient for one of skill in the relevant art to make and use the invention, and the public may freely do so upon the patent’s expiry. Global advancement of human medicine is fundamentally intertwined with the United States patent system; medical progress largely depends upon the …


Full Speed Ahead? Reexamining Texas's Approach To Eminent Domain, Emma Blackmon Apr 2024

Full Speed Ahead? Reexamining Texas's Approach To Eminent Domain, Emma Blackmon

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Property rights are traditionally held sacred in Texas. But through eminent domain, landowners lose their property rights, purportedly in service of the broader public. Sometimes, the legislature confers eminent domain power on for-profit companies. Landowners are then forced to surrender their property while the companies benefit economically. The result is that landowners are stripped of the right to fully use and enjoy their property.

The recent Texas Supreme Court case, Miles v. Texas Central Railroad & Infrastructure, Inc., demonstrates the tension between property rights and economic development created by eminent domain. Facially, Miles concerns whether a for-profit company’s high-speed …


Cultural Property: “Progressive Property In Action”, J. Peter Byrne Mar 2024

Cultural Property: “Progressive Property In Action”, J. Peter Byrne

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Cultural property law fulfills many of the normative and jurisprudential goals of progressive property theory. Cultural property limits the normal prerogatives of owners in order to give legal substance to the interests of the public or of specially protected non-owners. It recognizes that preservation of and access to heritage resources advance public values such as cultural enrichment and community identity. The proliferation of cultural property laws and their acceptance by courts has occurred despite a resurgent property fundamentalism embraced by the Supreme Court. Thus, this Article seeks to explicate the category of cultural property, its fulfillment of progressive theory, and …


Operationalising Progressive Ideas About Property: Resilient Property, Scale, And Systemic Compromise, Lorna Fox O'Mahony, Marc Roark Mar 2024

Operationalising Progressive Ideas About Property: Resilient Property, Scale, And Systemic Compromise, Lorna Fox O'Mahony, Marc Roark

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Property theory is at a crossroads. In recent decades, scholars seeking to advance progressive ideas about property have embraced ‘Progressive Property’ theories that seek to advance the goals of social justice and the common good, offering a vital counter-weight to utilitarian and neo-conservative accounts of property. Progressive Property theories seek to correct an imbalance in American property discourse which—across the temporal scale—has sustained a range of narratives and normative commitments, but which has veered towards extreme acquisitive individualism and the rhetoric of property absolutism since the 1970s. The idea that individual property rights are not absolute but defined by the …


Constitutional Property And Progressive Property’S Compatibility: A Reappraisal, Rachael Walsh Mar 2024

Constitutional Property And Progressive Property’S Compatibility: A Reappraisal, Rachael Walsh

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Progressive property theory is driven by a desire to improve the law, and legal outcomes, for those on the margins of society. At the same time, it largely assumes the compatibility of constitutional property rights with its aims. However, constitutional property doctrine is often ambiguous on the core question of what distribution of collective burdens is susceptible to invalidation. Such ambiguity in turn can support political over-inflation of the strength of constitutional protection for property rights. Given the resulting chilling effect that constitutional property rights can have on measures that interfere with property rights, the Article argues that progressive property …


Manufactured State Immigration Emergencies As State Vigilantism, Kate Huddleston Mar 2024

Manufactured State Immigration Emergencies As State Vigilantism, Kate Huddleston

Texas A&M Law Review

President Trump shattered norms when he declared a national emergency at the U.S.–Mexico border to build a border wall. State governors have now followed that lead in taking up what Justice Jackson, dissenting in Korematsu v. United States (1944), called the “loaded weapon” of emergency—doing so, like Trump, in the context of the border. Governors of Texas, Arizona, and Florida have all issued state declarations of emergency based on (1) migration, and (2) the Biden administration’s purported failure to engage in immigration enforcement. These state emergency declarations have not been studied or even identified in legal literature as a state …


Lopez V. Cintas Corporation: Another Interstate Headache, Kyle Chrisman Mar 2024

Lopez V. Cintas Corporation: Another Interstate Headache, Kyle Chrisman

Texas A&M Law Review

This Note analyzes a 2022 Fifth Circuit opinion concerning two issues: first, whether local delivery drivers are engaged in interstate commerce, and second, who decides challenges to arbitrability. In Lopez v. Cintas Corporation, the Fifth Circuit first held that local delivery drivers are not engaged in interstate commerce because they do not play a direct and necessary role in interstate commerce. Second, the court held that the arbitrator decides challenges to the validity of arbitrability when the challenge could also, if successful, attack the validity of the entire contract. The Fifth Circuit used incorrect reasoning, overemphasizing the crossing of …


Charging Abortion, Milan Markovic Mar 2024

Charging Abortion, Milan Markovic

Faculty Scholarship

As long as Roe v. Wade remained good law, prosecutors could largely avoid the question of abortion. The Supreme Court’s decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization has now placed prosecutors at the forefront of the abortion wars. Some chief prosecutors in antiabortion states have pledged to not enforce antiabortion laws, whereas others are targeting even out-of-state providers. This post-Dobbs reality, wherein the ability to obtain an abortion depends not only on the politics of one’s state but also the policies of one’s local district attorney, has received minimal scrutiny from legal scholars.

Prosecutors have broad charging discretion, …


Four Futures Of Chevron Deference, Daniel E. Walters Mar 2024

Four Futures Of Chevron Deference, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship

In two upcoming cases, the Supreme Court will consider whether to overturn the Chevron doctrine, which, since 1984, has required courts to defer to reasonable agency interpretations of otherwise ambiguous statutes. In this short essay, I defend the proposition that, even on death’s door, Chevron deference is likely to be resurrected, and I offer a simple positive political theory model that helps explain why. The core insight of this model is that the prevailing approach to judicial review of agency interpretations of law is politically contingent—that is, it is likely to represent an equilibrium that efficiently maximizes the Supreme Court’s …


Evolving Sovereignty Relationships Between Affiliated Jurisdictions: Lessons For Native American Jurisdictions, Vaughan Carter, Charlotte Ku, Andrew P. Morriss Mar 2024

Evolving Sovereignty Relationships Between Affiliated Jurisdictions: Lessons For Native American Jurisdictions, Vaughan Carter, Charlotte Ku, Andrew P. Morriss

Faculty Scholarship

Though sovereignty is principally associated with governance over a territory and freedom to act in the international arena, this article examines sovereignty as empowerment. The study tests the applicability to Native American jurisdictions of the experiences of fifteen case study jurisdictions presently associated with the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and France in shared sovereign relationships. The focus is on the evolution of those relationships and opportunities for development where jurisdictions do not attain full control over their affairs. The case studies examine the relationships from the perspectives of political, economic, and cultural sovereignty. The article further examines the relationships in …


Consumer Law For Gen Z Law Students, Neil Sobol Mar 2024

Consumer Law For Gen Z Law Students, Neil Sobol

Faculty Scholarship

Whether they are consumers, representing consumers, or advising clients dealing with consumers, law school graduates will inevitably confront numerous consumer law issues. Moreover, most students entering law school are members of Generation Z and face a new wave of consumer laws arising from the 2007–2009 recession and the rapid growth of new technologies. Clickwrap agreements, email spoofing, cybercrimes, cryptocurrencies, fintech, identity theft, online disparagement, data privacy, artificial intelligence, robocalling, and autonomous vehicles are among the evolving topics in modern consumer law. Despite the growth in consumer law concerns, many law students have limited access to consumer law options, with almost …


The Ideology Of Press Freedom, Hannah Bloch-Wehba Mar 2024

The Ideology Of Press Freedom, Hannah Bloch-Wehba

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers a critical account of the law of press freedom. American law and political culture laud the press as an institution that plays a vital role in democracy: guarding against corruption, facilitating self-governance, and advocating for free expression. These democratic functions provide justification for the law of press freedom, which defends the media’s autonomy and shields the press from outside interference.

But the dominant accounts of the press’s democratic role are only partly accurate. The law of press freedom is grounded in large part in journalism’s professional commitments to objectivity, public service, and autonomy. These idealized characterizations, flawed …


Online Disinhibited Contracts, Wayne R. Barnes Feb 2024

Online Disinhibited Contracts, Wayne R. Barnes

Faculty Scholarship

There have been at least two dominant forces at work in the realm of consumer contracting over the past several decades. One has been the rise and domination of the standard form contract (whereby merchants contract with consumers via the use of standardized, boilerplate terms and conditions that consumers do not read or understand). The second force has been the rise of e-commerce and the purchase of goods and services via websites and other online platforms, and the use of “wrap” formation methodology (whereby merchants obtain consumer assent to the online terms and conditions via the consumer’s informal click, scroll, …


The Ncaa's Challenge In Determining Nil Market Value, Meg Penrose Jan 2024

The Ncaa's Challenge In Determining Nil Market Value, Meg Penrose

Faculty Scholarship

This Article proceeds in three parts. Part II discusses the changes that NIL has wrought in college athletics. It briefly explains collectives and their impact on NIL. Part III discusses the impossibility of limiting athletes’ “fair market value” given market value depends on what the market is willing to pay. Congress has failed to pass national legislation. Yet the mosaic of state laws is simply unfit to stand in for national legislation. And, following multiple litigation losses, the NCAA cannot be trusted to “value” the athletes themselves. Market value, if one is to be established, must be uniform and assessed …


Virtual Energy, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann, Heather E. Payne Jan 2024

Virtual Energy, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann, Heather E. Payne

Faculty Scholarship

From employment to education, many areas of our daily lives have gone virtual, including the virtual workplace and virtual classes. By comparison, the way we generate, deliver, and consume electricity is an anachronism. And the electric industry’s outdated business model and regulatory framework are failing. For the last century-and-a-half, we have relied on ever larger power plants to generate the electricity we consume, often hundreds of miles away from the point of production. But the outsized carbon footprint of these power plants and the need to transmit their output over long distances threaten the electric grid’s reliability, affordability, and long-term …


A Reputational View Of Antitrust’S Consumer Welfare Standard, Murat C. Mungan, John M. Yun Jan 2024

A Reputational View Of Antitrust’S Consumer Welfare Standard, Murat C. Mungan, John M. Yun

Faculty Scholarship

A reform movement is underway in antitrust. Citing prior enforcement failures, deviations from the original intent of the antitrust laws, and overall rising levels of sector concentration, some are seeking to fundamentally alter or altogether replace the current consumer welfare standard, which has guided courts over the past fifty years. This policy push has sparked an intense debate over the best approach to antitrust law enforcement. In this Article, we examine a previously unexplored potential social cost from moving away from the consumer welfare standard: a loss in the information value to the public from a finding of liability. A …


The Major Questions Doctrine At The Boundaries Of Interpretive Law, Daniel E. Walters Jan 2024

The Major Questions Doctrine At The Boundaries Of Interpretive Law, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship

The Supreme Court’s apparent transformation of the major questions doctrine into a clear statement rule demanding clear congressional authorization for “major” agency actions has already had, and will continue to have, wide-ranging impacts on American public law. Not the least of these is the impact it will have on the enterprise of statutory interpretation. Indeed, while it is easy to focus on the policy repercussions of a newly constrained Congress and newly hamstrung administrative state, this Article argues that equally important is the novel precedent that is set in this particular formulation of a clear statement rule, which stands almost …


The Role Of Data Sharing In Transboundary Waterways: The Case Of The Helmand River Basin, Najibullah Loodin, Gabriel Eckstein, Vijay P. Singh, Rosario Sanchez Jan 2024

The Role Of Data Sharing In Transboundary Waterways: The Case Of The Helmand River Basin, Najibullah Loodin, Gabriel Eckstein, Vijay P. Singh, Rosario Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

While data and information exchanges theoretically play an effective role in the decision-making process of a shared watercourse, in practice, there are several challenges that prevent riparians from sharing data in an effective and cooperative manner. This chapter seeks to assess why the riparian nations of the Helmand River have failed to adopt an effective data exchange mechanism although both nations signed an internationally recognized bilateral water treaty in 1973. Applying a mixed study approach, the study draws on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to interpret the main obstacles of data sharing between Afghanistan, the upstream state, and Iran, …


War & Ip, Peter K. Yu Jan 2024

War & Ip, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

On February 24, 2022, war broke out between Russia and Ukraine, sparking concerns among government leaders, intergovernmental bodies and the public at large. A month later, the Russian government issued Decree 299, which reduced to zero the royalty rate for national security-based compulsory licenses to intellectual property rights held by individuals or entities originating from the United States or other "unfriendly" nations. Meanwhile, the United States and other members of the international community imposed sanctions on Russia, raising questions about whether those sanctions would prevent U.S. companies and individuals from engaging with Russian intellectual property agencies. Many multinational corporations also …


North American Energy In The Crossfire, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez, James W. Coleman Jan 2024

North American Energy In The Crossfire, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez, James W. Coleman

Faculty Scholarship

North America is the beating heart of global energy markets un-dergoing a terrible energy crisis that threatens to upend both the economy and global security. The clearest path out of this global crisis is increasing energy supplies from North America, which can restore energy security and drive a transition to cleaner energy sources. The U.S., Mexico, and Canada have abundant and varied resources to surmount this challenge but are in dire need of stronger cooperation across borders, and between private and public actors to achieve this goal. This Article shows how energy law changes in the U.S. and Mexico present …


Social Costs Of Dobbs' Pro-Adoption Agenda, Malinda L. Seymore Dec 2023

Social Costs Of Dobbs' Pro-Adoption Agenda, Malinda L. Seymore

Faculty Scholarship

Abortion opponents have long claimed that women denied access to abortion can simply give their children up for adoption. Justice Alito repeated this argument in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health. Of course, this claim assumes away the burdens of the pregnancy itself, which can result in economic strife, domestic violence, health risks, and potentially death in childbirth. But even on its own terms, the argument that adoption is an adequate substitute for abortion access makes normative assumptions about adoption as a social good in and of itself, ignoring the social costs of adoption for birth parents and adoptees. Idealizing adoption …


A Public Technology Option, Hannah Bloch-Wehba Dec 2023

A Public Technology Option, Hannah Bloch-Wehba

Faculty Scholarship

Private technology increasingly underpins public governance. But the state’s growing reliance on private firms to provide a variety of complex technological products and services for public purposes brings significant costs for transparency: new forms of governance are becoming less visible and less amenable to democratic control. Transparency obligations initially designed for public agencies are a poor fit for private vendors that adhere to a very different set of expectations.

Aligning the use of technology in public governance with democratic values calls for rethinking, and in some cases abandoning, the legal structures and doctrinal commitments that insulate private vendors from meaningful …


After Ftx: Can The Original Bitcoin Use Case Be Saved?, Mark Burge Dec 2023

After Ftx: Can The Original Bitcoin Use Case Be Saved?, Mark Burge

Faculty Scholarship

Bitcoin and the other cryptocurrencies spawned by the innovation of blockchain programming have exploded in prominence, both in gains of massive market value and in dramatic market losses, the latter most notably seen in connection with the failure of the FTX cryptocurrency exchange in November 2022. After years of investment and speculation, however, something crucial has faded: the original use case for Bitcoin as a system of payment. Can cryptocurrency-as-a-payment-system be saved, or are day traders and speculators the actual cryptocurrency future? This article suggests that cryptocurrency has been hobbled by a lack of foundational commercial and consumer-protection law that …