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Full-Text Articles in Law

Book Review: Justice Triage, Milan Markovic Dec 2017

Book Review: Justice Triage, Milan Markovic

Faculty Scholarship

Benjamin Barton and Stephanos Bibas’s new book, Rebooting Justice: More Technology, Fewer Lawyers, and the Future of Law, is an eloquent exemplar of the deregulation literature. What sets Rebooting Justice apart from other works in the genre is that Barton and Bibas do not treat deregulation as a panacea. Their starting point is that Americans are not well served by lawyers’ monopoly over the legal services market, but they do not envision a world in which every legal problem is resolved ably and efficiently. Their goal is much more modest: a less complex legal system in which lawyer …


Case Law, Adam N. Steinman Dec 2017

Case Law, Adam N. Steinman

Faculty Scholarship

Although case law plays a crucial role in the American legal system, surprisingly little consensus exists on how to determine the “law” that any given “case” generates. Lawyers, judges, and scholars regularly note the difference between holdings and dicta and between necessary and unnecessary parts of a precedent-setting decision, but such concepts have eluded coherent application in practice. There remains considerable uncertainty about which aspects of a judicial decision impose prospective legal obligations as a matter of stare decisis and to what extent.

This Article develops a counterintuitive, but productive, way to conceptualize case law: the lawmaking content of a …


The Audacity Of Protecting Racist Speech Under The National Labor Relations Act, Michael Z. Green Dec 2017

The Audacity Of Protecting Racist Speech Under The National Labor Relations Act, Michael Z. Green

Faculty Scholarship

This Article, written for a symposium hosted by the University of Chicago Legal Forum on the Disruptive Workplace, analyzes the most recent failures of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to determine a thoughtful and balanced approach in addressing racist speech. Imagine two employees in the private sector workplace are discussing the possibility of selecting a union to represent their interests regarding wages and working conditions. During this conversation, a black employee notes the importance of using their collective voices to improve working conditions and compares the activity of selecting a union with the Black Lives Matter protests aimed at …


American Contract Law For A Global Age, Franklin G. Snyder, Mark Burge Dec 2017

American Contract Law For A Global Age, Franklin G. Snyder, Mark Burge

Faculty Scholarship

American Contract Law for a Global Age by Franklin G. Snyder and Mark Edwin Burge of Texas A&M University School of Law is a casebook designed primarily for the first-year Contracts course as it is taught in American law schools, but is configured so as to be usable either as a primary text or a supplement in any upper-level U.S. or foreign class that seeks to introduce American contract law to students.


The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Nov 2017

The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Deciding a patent’s validity is costly, and so is deciding it incorrectly. Judges and juries must expend significant resources in order to reach a patent validity determination that is properly informed by the relevant facts. At the same time, patent validity determinations reached quickly and cheaply may conserve resources today while creating future costs. Wrongly preserving an invalid patent can distort the competitive market and enable abuses, such as nuisance litigation. Meanwhile, wrongly striking down a valid patent can undermine incentives for continued investment and commercialization in knowledge assets. Courts facing patent validity issues have begun to strike this balance …


Introduction: Perceived Legitimacy And The State Judiciary, G. Alexander Nunn Nov 2017

Introduction: Perceived Legitimacy And The State Judiciary, G. Alexander Nunn

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Nunn provides an introduction for the Symposium: The Least Understood Branch: The Demands and Challenges of the State Judiciary.


Thinking About The Trans-Pacific Partnership (And A Mega-Regional Agreement On Life Support), Peter K. Yu Nov 2017

Thinking About The Trans-Pacific Partnership (And A Mega-Regional Agreement On Life Support), Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Commissioned for a conference on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) at VNU University of Economics & Law in Vietnam, this article provides a retrospective analysis of the partnership. It begins with a historical overview of the TPP. The article then examines the partnership’s status in light of the United States' withdrawal and contends that the TPP will exert considerable influence regardless of whether it is dead or alive.

The second half of this article identifies three interrelated but distinct aspects of the TPP: (1) as a TRIPS-plus intellectual property agreement; (2) as a regional investment agreement; and (3) as a plurilateral …


To Speak With One Voice: The Political Effects Of Centralizing The International Legal Defense Of The State, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Nov 2017

To Speak With One Voice: The Political Effects Of Centralizing The International Legal Defense Of The State, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

When a government official defends a case before an international court, whose interest should he/she be representing? In today’s era of expanding international treaties that give standing to individual claimants, international courts review the actions of different government actors through the yardsticks of international law. The state is not unitary; alleged victims can bring international claims against various government entities including the executive, the legislature, the administrative branch, and the judiciary. Yet, the international legal defense of government actions is in the hands of the executive power. This paper focuses on the consequences of this centralization for inter-branch politics. It …


A Framework For Understanding Subfederal Enforcement Of Immigration Laws, Huyen Pham Oct 2017

A Framework For Understanding Subfederal Enforcement Of Immigration Laws, Huyen Pham

Faculty Scholarship

In discussing the varied LEA responses, the normative question naturally arises: Which model of immigration enforcement should an LEA embrace? If an LEA with no current immigration enforcement policy were to decide on a model, which model should it choose? Or, if an LEA wants to reconsider its current enforcement model, what factors should it consider in making its decision? The answers to these questions depend on the interests of individual LEAs-interests that may vary from LEA to LEA. The second contribution of this article then is to raise important questions that LEAs should consider in deciding which model is …


Voter Psychology And The Carbon Tax, Gary M. Lucas Jr Oct 2017

Voter Psychology And The Carbon Tax, Gary M. Lucas Jr

Faculty Scholarship

Economists across the political spectrum argue that a carbon tax is the most effective and economically efficient policy for addressing climate change. Voters, however, strongly oppose the carbon tax and instead favor “green” subsidies and command-and-control regulations. If carefully designed, these policies might complement a carbon tax, but by themselves, they will make global warming mitigation incredibly expensive and perhaps even infeasible. Moreover, if poorly designed, subsidies and regulations can be counterproductive.

This Article argues that the public dislikes the carbon tax because the tax possesses attributes that make it psychologically unappealing relative to other climate policy instruments. The Article …


Unlocking Exchanges, Brendan S. Maher Oct 2017

Unlocking Exchanges, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

The fate of the Affordable Care Act is uncertain. Moreover, the nation is in an unusual state of political turmoil and may have no appetite for anything other than revolutionary changes to the ACA, if not its outright repeal. But press reports suggest even Republican officials formerly committed to its extirpation are now thinking instead about a measured path forward.

In any event, one fact about the ACA should not escape the attention of serious reformers: the legislation has already accomplished the difficult task of laying the ground work for a move away from employment-based (EB) insurance, a move scholars …


A Spatial Critique Of Intellectual Property Law And Policy, Peter K. Yu Oct 2017

A Spatial Critique Of Intellectual Property Law And Policy, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Although geography has had an important and lasting impact on the development of intellectual property law and policy, at both the domestic and international levels, geographical perspectives and spatial analysis have thus far not attracted much attention from policymakers and commentators. Only recently have we seen greater linkage between these two undeniably connected fields. Even with such linkage, the discussion tends to focus narrowly on specific issues, such as the parallel importation of pharmaceuticals, the protection of geographical indications and the treatment of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions.

This article aims to provide a systematic analysis of the linkage …


Conflict Of Laws (2017), James P. George, Randy D. Gordon Oct 2017

Conflict Of Laws (2017), James P. George, Randy D. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

States’ and nations’ laws collide when foreign factors appear in a lawsuit. Nonresident litigants, incidents outside the forum, and judgments from other jurisdictions can create problems with personal jurisdiction, choice of law, and the recognition of foreign judgments. This article reviews Texas conflict cases from Texas state and federal courts during the Survey period from December 1, 2015, through November 30, 2016. The article excludes cases involving federal–state conflicts; intrastate issues, such as subject matter jurisdiction and venue; and conflicts in time, such as the applicability of prior or subsequent law within a state. State and federal cases are discussed …


The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Jennifer S. Martin, Colin P. Marks, Wayne Barnes Oct 2017

The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Jennifer S. Martin, Colin P. Marks, Wayne Barnes

Faculty Scholarship

The survey that follows highlights the most important developments of 2016 dealing with domestic and international sales of goods, personal property leases, payments, letters of credit, documents of title, investment securities, and secured transactions. Along with the usual descriptions of interesting judicial decisions highlighted in the survey, there has also been legislative progress in several areas. The 2012 amendments to U.C.C. Article 4A, which address issues related to the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, have been adopted by forty-six states and the District of Columbia, and introduced in Connecticut and Oklahoma. In …


Bathroom Laws As Status Crimes, Stephen Rushin, Jenny E. Carroll Oct 2017

Bathroom Laws As Status Crimes, Stephen Rushin, Jenny E. Carroll

Faculty Scholarship

A growing number of American jurisdictions have considered laws that prohibit trans individuals from using bathroom facilities consistent with their gender identities. Several scholars have criticized these so-called “bathroom laws” as a form of discrimination in violation of federal law. Few scholars, though, have considered the criminal justice implications of these proposals.

By analyzing dozens of proposed bathroom laws, this Article explores how many laws do more than stigmatize the trans community—they effectively criminalize them. Some of these proposed laws would establish new categories of criminal offenses for trans individuals who use bathrooms consistent with their gender identity. Others would …


The Problem With Inference For Juvenile Defendants, Jenny E. Carroll Oct 2017

The Problem With Inference For Juvenile Defendants, Jenny E. Carroll

Faculty Scholarship

Much of criminal law relies on proof by inference. In criminal law, fact finders untangle not only what happened, but why it happened. It is answering the “why” question that places an act and its result on the legal spectrum of liability. To reach that answer, the fact finder must engage in an interpretive act, considering not only what can be seen or heard, but the significance of that testimony or physical evidence in real world contexts – the world in which they occurred but also the fact finder’s own world. Recent developments in neuroscience suggest that in the context …


Guns On Campus: A Look At The First Year Of Concealed Carry At Texas Universities, Aric K. Short Sep 2017

Guns On Campus: A Look At The First Year Of Concealed Carry At Texas Universities, Aric K. Short

Faculty Scholarship

After years of failed attempts, the Texas Legislature passed "campus carry" in 2015. Under the new law, effective in 2016 for four-year institutions, public universities must allow the concealed carry of handguns by license holders on their premises. Texas's campus carry law is unique when compared to other states that allow concealed carry on college campuses: each university is given the flexibility to create weapons implementation plans, including the establishment of limited gun-free zones. The first year of campus carry implementation by Texas universities has been relatively quiet, with generally uniform implementation rules established by colleges across the state. However, …


Lichtenberger And The Three Bears: Getting The Private Search Exception And Modern Digital Storage "Just Right", Samuel Crecelius Sep 2017

Lichtenberger And The Three Bears: Getting The Private Search Exception And Modern Digital Storage "Just Right", Samuel Crecelius

Texas A&M Law Review

Finding a happy medium is hard. Often, it is a challenge to find a workable balance between two unworkable extremes. Known as the “Goldilocks Principle,” this phenomenon has been observed in fields as diverse as developmental psychology and astrobiology. As Goldilocks found in the Three Bears’ house, “just right” may not come on the first attempt. We may have to explore the extremes of the spectrum—“too hot” and “too cold”—before we can settle on “just right. Goldilocks also discovered that this process is all the more difficult in a new environment—like the Three Bears’ house. Goldilocks persevered, however, until she …


Are Uber And Transportation Network Companies The Future Of Transportation (Law) And Employment (Law)?, Miriam A. Cherry Sep 2017

Are Uber And Transportation Network Companies The Future Of Transportation (Law) And Employment (Law)?, Miriam A. Cherry

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article largely eschews easy or reflexive judgments about Uber or other TNCs. In this piece, the Author asks two questions about the economic, social, technical, and political aspects of TNCs and their interactions with the law. First, are Uber and TNCs the future of transportation (and transportation law)? And second, are Uber and TNCs the future of employment (and employment law)? In a common-law system, reasoning from precedent is always a form of prediction. As Oliver Wendell Holmes stated, “[t]he prophecies of what the courts will do in fact, and nothing more pretentious, are what I mean by the …


Where We're Going, We'll Need Roads! Building The Bridge To The Future: Public-Private Partnerships For Future Border Infrastructure Development, Jessica R. Lesnau Sep 2017

Where We're Going, We'll Need Roads! Building The Bridge To The Future: Public-Private Partnerships For Future Border Infrastructure Development, Jessica R. Lesnau

Texas A&M Law Review

In a world where global economies are increasingly interdependent, the United States, and its North American counterparts, Canada and Mexico, are booming sources of international trade. Now, more than ever, global competitiveness necessitates developments in U.S. infrastructure, especially at major border crossings where congestion and poor infrastructure create bottlenecks interfering with the free movement of goods. Questions pertaining to international border crossings circle the debate at the most crucial international border crossing in North America: the Ambassador Bridge, which spans the Detroit River between Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario. A legal battle rages over the proposed construction of a new …


The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax Sep 2017

The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax

Texas A&M Law Review

We live longer and healthier lives because advances in science create easier and better ways to sustain and survive. Society has an intricate relationship with biotechnology. Vaccines save lives. Fluoridated water decreases dental issues. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections. Nuclear power is a form of clean energy. With any emerging technology, the benefits do not exist in a vacuum, thus, negative consequences result as well. Our widespread uses of antibiotics are creating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Our research into nuclear energy also facilitated the creation of nuclear bombs. Perhaps it is human nature to use scientific advances for good and for …


The Trolley And The Pinto: Cost-Benefit Analysis In Automated Driving And Other Cyber-Physical Systems, Bryant Walker Smith Sep 2017

The Trolley And The Pinto: Cost-Benefit Analysis In Automated Driving And Other Cyber-Physical Systems, Bryant Walker Smith

Texas A&M Law Review

Automated driving has attracted substantial public and scholarly attention. This brief Article describes how that attention has brought new fame to a classic philosophical thought experiment (the “trolley problem”), critiques how this thought experiment has been applied in that context, proposes a more practical extension of that experiment based on risk rather than harm, notes that this extension may still involve programming value judgments, argues with reference to the Ford Pinto debacle that these judgments could inflame juries or the public at large, and emphasizes the need for appropriately focused public discussion of these issues. The Article may be especially …


Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman Sep 2017

Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman

Texas A&M Law Review

As an attorney and professor that does not focus on intellectual property law, I was a bit apprehensive about providing a keynote address for a Symposium focusing on “Agriculture, Intellectual Property, and Feeding the World in the 21st Century.” As I thought about this topic, knowing that there were other speakers who would focus more on the IP issues and technical aspects of various topics, I kept coming back to the importance of technology as we worktowards the goal of feeding the world, and the many ways in which innovation plays a role in meeting that goal. It also brought …


Principled Negotiation: The Final Answer To The South China Sea Dispute, Hoa Nguyen Sep 2017

Principled Negotiation: The Final Answer To The South China Sea Dispute, Hoa Nguyen

Texas A&M Law Review

Principled negotiation suggests that in any conflict there are interests that motivate a party’s claimed position. Identifying and focusing on these interests instead of the position itself is the best way to solve the underlying conflict, whether it concerns a family quarrel, a business contract, or an international settlement among nations. On the surface of the South China Sea dispute, China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan all make conflicting claims over various features in the South China Sea, particularly the Spratly and Paracel Islands. However, in reality, each nation has particular interests in mind when asserting its claiming …


Evaluating The Cayman Islands Bill Of Rights, Freedoms And Responsibilities: More Evolution Than Revolution, Vaughan Carter Sep 2017

Evaluating The Cayman Islands Bill Of Rights, Freedoms And Responsibilities: More Evolution Than Revolution, Vaughan Carter

Texas A&M Law Review

Evaluating the Cayman Islands Bill of Rights, Freedoms and Responsibilities: More Evolution than Revolution


Adapting To The Changing World Of Biotechnology: Syngenta Ag Mir162 Corn Litigation As Regulation By Litigation, Paul Goeringer Sep 2017

Adapting To The Changing World Of Biotechnology: Syngenta Ag Mir162 Corn Litigation As Regulation By Litigation, Paul Goeringer

Texas A&M Law Review

Agriculture has relied on plant breeding to improve genetics since the first domestication of agricultural plants 10,000 years ago. More recently, Gregor Mendel and his hybridization experiments on peas led to what we know as modern genetics. The rise in recombinantDNA technology has opened up many possibilities in plant breeding, including Roundup Ready technology and crop varieties designed to resist a number of pests. At the same time, governments and the private sector have sought to institute regulations for handling the releases of new biotechnology to ensure the technologies will have limited environmental impacts and provide safe foods to the …


Could The Pay Ratio Disclosure Backfire? Examining The Effects Of The Sec's Pay Ratio Disclosure Rule, Jillian Loh Sep 2017

Could The Pay Ratio Disclosure Backfire? Examining The Effects Of The Sec's Pay Ratio Disclosure Rule, Jillian Loh

Texas A&M Law Review

At the signing of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”), President Barack Obama asserted that, “We all win when investors around the world have confidence in our markets. We all win when shareholders have more power and more information. . . . And we all win when folks are rewarded based on how well they perform, not how well they evade accountability.” After the financial crisis in 2008, the Obama Administration recognized the need to reconstruct the existing American financial regulatory system to ensure that a financial meltdown would never happen again. It …


The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Review Of The Historic Civil And Criminal Liabilities, And Resulting Funding Streams, From America’S Worst Environmental Catastrophe, Stephen L. Tatum, Henrik Strand Sep 2017

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Review Of The Historic Civil And Criminal Liabilities, And Resulting Funding Streams, From America’S Worst Environmental Catastrophe, Stephen L. Tatum, Henrik Strand

Student Scholarship

This article provides a concise review of the major parties involved in the accident, the cases and settlements that produced the historic penalties and fines, and the major funding streams through which those penalties and fines are administered.


Can Nfl Players Obtain Judicial Review Of Arbitration Decisions On The Merits When A Typical Hourly Union Worker Cannot Obtain This Unusual Court Access?, Michael Z. Green, Kyle T. Carney Sep 2017

Can Nfl Players Obtain Judicial Review Of Arbitration Decisions On The Merits When A Typical Hourly Union Worker Cannot Obtain This Unusual Court Access?, Michael Z. Green, Kyle T. Carney

Faculty Scholarship

Several recent court cases, brought on behalf of National Football League (NFL) players by their union, the NFL Players Association (NFLPA), have increased media and public attention to the challenges of labor arbitrator decisions in federal courts. The Supreme Court has established a body of federal common law that places a high premium on deferring to labor arbitrator decisions and counseling against judges deciding the merits of disputes covered by a collective bargaining agreement (CBA). A recent trend suggests federal judges have ignored this body of law and analyzed the merits of labor arbitration decisions in the NFL setting.

NFL …


Corporate Deferred Prosecution As Discretionary Injustice, Peter Reilly Aug 2017

Corporate Deferred Prosecution As Discretionary Injustice, Peter Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

A recent federal appellate court ruling of first impression permits the resolution of allegations of serious corporate criminal wrongdoing by way of an Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanism called Deferred Prosecution, without appropriate judicial review. This Article describes why this ruling is ill-advised, and suggests how other courts might address these same legal issues while arriving at different conclusions. This Article argues that if federal prosecutors are going to continue using Deferred Prosecution Agreements (“DPAs”) in addressing allegations of corporate criminal misconduct, then that discretionary power must be confined and checked through meaningful judicial review. The overriding concern with the appellate …