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Texas A&M University School of Law

2020

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Lihtc Program, Racially/Ethnically Concentrated Areas Of Poverty, And High-Opportunity Neighborhoods, Kirk Mcclure, Anne R. Williamson, Hye-Sung Han, Brandon Weiss Dec 2020

The Lihtc Program, Racially/Ethnically Concentrated Areas Of Poverty, And High-Opportunity Neighborhoods, Kirk Mcclure, Anne R. Williamson, Hye-Sung Han, Brandon Weiss

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (“LIHTC”) program remains the na- tion’s largest affordable housing production program. LIHTC units are under-represented in the neighborhoods that both promote movement to high- opportunity neighborhoods and affirmatively further fair housing. State and local officials should play an active role in guiding site selection decisions and ensuring that LIHTC developments are located in a manner that affirmatively furthers fair housing. Planners can use newly available data discussed herein to identify high-opportunity tracts.


Aristotle And Animal Law: The Case For Habeas Corpus For Animals, Charles Edward Andrew Lincoln Iv Dec 2020

Aristotle And Animal Law: The Case For Habeas Corpus For Animals, Charles Edward Andrew Lincoln Iv

Student Scholarship

This article is divided into three substantive sections. Section I delineates Aristotle’s theory of the soul as laid out in De Anima. Section II defines habeas corpus as a legal concept and demonstrates under what circumstances it should be granted. Section III applies Aristotle’s theory of the soul as a structure whereby animals could be granted habeas corpus rights.


Caps On Capsules: Prescription For Lower Drug Prices In The United States, Christine Chasse Dec 2020

Caps On Capsules: Prescription For Lower Drug Prices In The United States, Christine Chasse

Student Scholarship

The United States is the foremost innovator of pharmaceutical therapies in the world. That innovation, however, comes at a price—literally. Americans pay more for their medications than any other country. In a country without universal healthcare, the topics of economics, human rights, and healthcare intersect at the crossroads of pharmaceutical pricing. In contrast to most other countries, the United States has no regulations on pharmaceutical price control. One major argument against government regulation is its inherent opposition to the free market system: the heart of the American economy. Further still is the argument that profit restriction would create a chilling …


Louisiana, Keith B. Hall Dec 2020

Louisiana, Keith B. Hall

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In Guilbeau v. BEPCO, L.P., a landowner filed suit seeking remediation of contamination arising from oil and gas activities prior to his purchase of the property. The landowner previously had filed a suit seeking a clean-up based on the defendants’ obligations under the Louisiana Mineral Code. That earlier suit was dismissed based on the subsequent purchaser doctrine. The subsequent purchaser doctrine states that private claims for damages to property belong to the person who owned the property at the time of the damages and absent that person’s assignment of his claims to a subsequent purchaser of the property, the subsequent …


Ohio, Gregory W. Watts Dec 2020

Ohio, Gregory W. Watts

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In recent years, as a result of Ohio’s Utica shale boom, Ohio courts have confronted the issue of how to apply the Ohio Marketable Title Act. As with many statutes, there are generally two questions to answer: (1) does the particular statute apply to the particular facts of the case? and (2) if the statute applies in the first instance, how does a court apply the statute to the particular facts of the case?


Oregon, Eric L. Martin Dec 2020

Oregon, Eric L. Martin

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Even though no oil and only a small quantity of natural gas is produced in Oregon, the Oregon Legislature enacted bans in 2019 on hydraulic fracturing until 2025 and on using Oregon’s territorial sea for oil and gas activities. Beyond that legislation, though, legal developments in Oregon this year concerning the oil and gas industry focused on downstream issues.


Survey Of Selected 2019 Texas Oil And Gas Cases And Statutes, William D. Farrar Dec 2020

Survey Of Selected 2019 Texas Oil And Gas Cases And Statutes, William D. Farrar

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Texas courts and the legislature were quite active in 2019 concerning oil and gas issues. Texas courts decided many cases involving everything from deed interpretation to lease repudiation to farmout interpretation. The Texas Supreme Court has granted several petitions for review from the courts of appeal. The legislature enacted or amended statutes concerning so called “royalty leases,” the Mineral Interest Pooling Act, and others. The following are summaries of some selected cases and statutes that will be of interest to those involved with Texas oil and gas law.


Alabama, Brandt Hill Dec 2020

Alabama, Brandt Hill

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This case reviewed and conclusively determined the proper venue in which to file appeals from decisions by the Alabama Surface Mining Commission (the “Commission”). The Commission issued a surface-coal-mining permit to Black Warrior Minerals, Inc. (“Black Warrior”), allowing Black Warrior to mine land in northern Jefferson County, Alabama. In response, three. individuals who owned property nearby appealed the permit’s issuance with the Commission’s Department of Hearings and Appeals, and a hearing officer affirmed the issuance. The property owners then petitioned the Commission for review of the officer’s decision, but their petition was never taken up and thus was denied by …


Colorado--The Changing Landscape Of Land Use Law And Regulations Impacting The Colorado Oil And Gas Industry: From The Colorado Oil And Gas Conservation Act Of 1951 To Senate Bill 181 Of 2019, Ralph A. Cantafio Dec 2020

Colorado--The Changing Landscape Of Land Use Law And Regulations Impacting The Colorado Oil And Gas Industry: From The Colorado Oil And Gas Conservation Act Of 1951 To Senate Bill 181 Of 2019, Ralph A. Cantafio

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

When Colorado Democratic Governor Jared Polis approved Senate Bill 181, this new law significantly redirected the historical focus of Colorado oil and gas regulation. This provided a significant delegation of land use related authority to local government for the first time since the passage of this Act in 1951. This new law moved away from the traditional notion of statewide regulation based upon exclusive jurisdiction by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (“COGCC”). While this change of legislative focus is significant, this latest direction is probably a natural continuation of a general trend that has been emerging in Colorado …


Montana, Stephen R. Brown Dec 2020

Montana, Stephen R. Brown

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In 2018, Montana produced 21.5 million barrels of crude oil and 93.2 million cubic feet of natural gas. Nationally, Montana ranked thirteenth in crude oil production. Through August 2019, crude oil production declined by 587,000 barrels, and natural gas production increased by 5.5 million cubic feet when compared to the same period in 2018.


Alaska, Traci N. Bunkers Dec 2020

Alaska, Traci N. Bunkers

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The First Regular Session of the thirty-first Alaska Legislature began on January 15, 2019, and ended on May 15, 2019. A First Special Session was held from May 16, 2019, through June 13, 2019, with a Second Special Session following from July 8, 2019, through August 6, 2019. The 2019 legislative session resulted in virtually no oil and gas legislation being passed, as the Alaska Legislature focused primarily on legislation regarding the State budget and the funding of the Permanent Fund Dividend. Despite the uncharacteristic lack of oil and gas legislation, the Legislature addressed the prevalent issue of oil and …


Arkansas, J. Mark Robinette Dec 2020

Arkansas, J. Mark Robinette

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

There is very little to report in Arkansas this year. The 92nd General Assembly made no substantive changes to the law of oil and gas in Arkansas. In addition, the federal courts produced no significant developments In state court, there were two notable cases.


Kansas, Jeff M. Pike Dec 2020

Kansas, Jeff M. Pike

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

2019 provided no shortage of excitement, as there were more oil and gas opinions issued by the Kansas Supreme Court than in a usual year. These cases will be the main focus of this Survey, as there are no major legislative developments to report for this year. The first case decided whether the common-law rule against perpetuities should be applied to exceptions of defeasible term mineral interests. The second case is “yet another round in [a] high-dollar subsurface prize fight” about who has the right to gas that has escaped from an under- ground natural gas storage facility. The third …


California, Joshua L. Baker Dec 2020

California, Joshua L. Baker

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Although California continues to transition away from its historical status as one of the nation’s most important oil and gas-producing states, California is still among the top-ten states in oil production and produces a significant amount of natural gas. California has a long history of oil and gas exploration, production, refinement, and marketing, and as a result, well-established common law principles and statutory and regulatory laws are in place that govern all facets of the industry. The following update summarizes key changes in California oil and gas law for the survey period from January 1, 2019 to October 15, 2019.


Michigan Oil And Gas Update, Joshua D. Beard Dec 2020

Michigan Oil And Gas Update, Joshua D. Beard

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (“EGLE”), formerly the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, is in the process of seeking primary enforcement responsibility from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) for its Underground Injection Control (“UIC”) program for Class II wells pursuant to Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act (“SDWA”).


New Mexico, Sharon T. Shaheen Dec 2020

New Mexico, Sharon T. Shaheen

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Under the Produced Water Act (“Act”) enacted in the 2019 regular legislative session, the New Mexico Legislature authorized the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division (“OCD”) and the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission (“WQCC”) to regulate produced water resulting from oil and gas drilling or production. The Act governs the transportation and sale of produced water, recycled water (also referred to as recycled produced water), and treated water (also referred to as treated produced water).


Pennsylvania--Recent Developments In Pennsylvania Jurisprudence Related To Oil And Gas Leasing And Conveyancing, Ross Pifer Dec 2020

Pennsylvania--Recent Developments In Pennsylvania Jurisprudence Related To Oil And Gas Leasing And Conveyancing, Ross Pifer

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Pennsylvania is the largest producer of shale gas in the United States and is the second-largest natural gas-producing state overall. Owing to its strategic location atop the Marcellus and Utica Shale Formations, Pennsylvania’s position as a major natural gas producer is relatively new. Just a little over a decade ago, Pennsylvania ranked sixteenth among states in total natural gas production. With this rapid rise in the amount of natural gas development, there has been a corresponding increase in activity in courtrooms across Pennsylvania—both in state and federal courts. As a result, Pennsylvania oil and gas law has evolved within a …


Utah, Mark Burghardt Dec 2020

Utah, Mark Burghardt

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Oil and gas production continues to be an important sector of Utah’s economy. Following a 25% loss in production between 2014 and 2015, Utah’s production continues to slowly rebound. Crude oil production in 2019 appears to be slightly ahead of 2018 production. Monthly production averages slightly over three million barrels, placing Utah among the top ten states in crude oil production. Along with the continuing increase in production, the state’s legal framework governing oil and gas continues to develop.

This Article examines recent changes in Utah statutes and regulations along with new case law developments involving the oil and gas …


North Dakota--Dealing With Dubious Contracts For Conveying Land Statute Of Limitations Or Reformation For Mutual Mistake?, William P. Pearce Dec 2020

North Dakota--Dealing With Dubious Contracts For Conveying Land Statute Of Limitations Or Reformation For Mutual Mistake?, William P. Pearce

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

The topic of this Article arose from a recent opinion by the North Dakota Supreme Court: Western Energy Corporation v. Stauffer. The case dealt with how the law handles changes in ownership of property, specifically land including underlying mineral interests, that come into dispute after substantial periods of time have passed, resulting in a need for the parties involved in the dispute to turn to the courts for a solution. The passing of a substantial amount of time often becomes the issue in resolving the dispute in these types of situations.

The opening paragraph in the Court’s opinion in Western …


Oklahoma, Mark D. Christiansen Dec 2020

Oklahoma, Mark D. Christiansen

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

In Naylor Farms, Inc. v. Chaparral Energy, LLC, the plaintiff royalty owners (collectively, Naylor Farms) contended that Chaparral systematically underpaid royalties on production from approximately 2,500 Oklahoma oil and gas wells by improperly deducting from royalty payments certain costs that the plaintiffs contended should have been borne solely by Chaparral under Oklahoma law. The district court granted Naylor Farms’ motion seeking certification of a class of royalty owners under Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In the present proceedings, Chaparral has appealed the district court’s order granting class certification.


The Judicial Admissions Exception To The Statute Of Frauds: A Curiously Gradual Adoption, Wayne Barnes Dec 2020

The Judicial Admissions Exception To The Statute Of Frauds: A Curiously Gradual Adoption, Wayne Barnes

Faculty Scholarship

The statute of frauds requires certain categories of contracts to be evidenced by a signed writing. The original purpose of the statute of frauds, indeed its titular purpose, is the prevention of the fraudulent assertion of a non-existent oral contract. Although a signed writing is the formal way in which to satisfy the statute of frauds, courts have long recognized various exceptions to the writing requirement which will be held to satisfy the statute absent a writing. The effect of such exceptions is that they constitute an alternative form of evidence for the presence of a contract. One such exception …


Discovering Our Field In Our Stories, Howard Gadlin, Nancy A. Welsh Dec 2020

Discovering Our Field In Our Stories, Howard Gadlin, Nancy A. Welsh

Faculty Scholarship

It’s the people who make a field.

This book draws on the thought-provoking, diverse, delightful, sometimes painful, and ultimately beautiful personal histories of some of the thinkers, inventors, influencers, reformers, disrupters, and transformers who have created—and continue to create—the field of conflict resolution. The authors of the essays in this book play a variety of roles: mediator, facilitator, arbitrator, ombuds, academic, system designer, entrepreneur, leader of public or private conflict resolution organization, researcher, advocate for conflict resolution, critic of conflict resolution. They represent the various waves of people who have populated our field, the founders, the institutionalizers, and the leaders …


Walling Out: Rules And Standards In The Beach Access Context, Timothy M. Mulvaney Dec 2020

Walling Out: Rules And Standards In The Beach Access Context, Timothy M. Mulvaney

Faculty Scholarship

The overwhelming majority of U.S. states facially allocate exclusionary rights and access privileges to beaches by categorically deciding whom to wall in and whom to wall out. In the conventional terms of the longstanding debate surrounding the design of legal directives, such “rules” are considered substantively determinant ex ante and, in application, analogically transparent across similarly situated cases. Only a small number of jurisdictions have adopted “standards” in the beach access context, which—again, on the conventional account—sacrifice both determinacy and transparency for the ability to accommodate ex post the complexities of individual cases. This Article contends that beach access policy …


Following The Money: The Aca’S Fiscal-Political Economy And Lessons For Future Health Care Reform, William M. Sage, Timothy M. Westmoreland Dec 2020

Following The Money: The Aca’S Fiscal-Political Economy And Lessons For Future Health Care Reform, William M. Sage, Timothy M. Westmoreland

Faculty Scholarship

It is no exaggeration to say that American health policy is frequently subordinated to budgetary policies and procedures. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was undeniably ambitious, reaching health care services and underlying health as well as health insurance. Yet fiscal politics determined the ACA’s design and guided its implementation, as well as sometimes assisting and sometimes constraining efforts to repeal or replace it. In particular, the ACA’s vulnerability to litigation has been the price its drafters paid in exchange for fiscal-political acceptability. Future health care reformers should consider whether the nation is well served by perpetuating such an artificial relationship …


Predictable Punishments, Brian Galle, Murat C. Mungan Dec 2020

Predictable Punishments, Brian Galle, Murat C. Mungan

Faculty Scholarship

Economic analyses of both crime and regulation writ large suggest that the subjective cost or value of incentives is critical to their effectiveness. But reliable information about subjective valuation is scarce, as those who are punished have little reason to report honestly. Modern “big data” techniques promise to overcome this information shortfall but perhaps at the cost of individual privacy and the autonomy that privacy’s shield provides.

This Article argues that regulators can and should instead rely on methods that remain accurate even in the face of limited information. Building on a formal model we present elsewhere, we show that …


Symmetry’S Mandate: Constraining The Politicization Of American Administrative Law, Daniel E. Walters Dec 2020

Symmetry’S Mandate: Constraining The Politicization Of American Administrative Law, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship

Recent years have seen the rise of pointed and influential critiques of deference doctrines in administrative law. What many of these critiques have in common is a view that judges, not agencies, should resolve interpretive disputes over the meaning of statutes—disputes the critics take to be purely legal and almost always resolvable using lawyerly tools of statutory construction. In this Article, I take these critiques, and the relatively formalist assumptions behind them, seriously and show that the critics have not acknowledged or advocated the full reform vision implied by their theoretical premises. Specifically, critics have extended their critique of judicial …


Safety, Crisis, And Criminal Law, Jenny E. Carroll Dec 2020

Safety, Crisis, And Criminal Law, Jenny E. Carroll

Faculty Scholarship

Concepts of safety and prevention of danger pervade the criminal law canon. Arizona is no exception. The state’s criminal systems pivot around central and entwined goals of protecting public safety and preventing danger. The state constitution permits pretrial detention both for the most serious offenses and when no other condition of release will adequately protect the community from the danger the accused’s freedom might pose. The rules of criminal procedure and the criminal code designate some offenses and actors “dangerous” and urge judges to weigh not only the accused’s risk of flight, but also his future dangerousness in making decisions …


Artificial Intelligence, The Law-Machine Interface, And Fair Use Automation, Peter K. Yu Dec 2020

Artificial Intelligence, The Law-Machine Interface, And Fair Use Automation, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

From IBM Watson's success in Jeopardy! to Google DeepMind's victories in Go, the past decade has seen artificial intelligence advancing in leaps and bounds. Such advances have captured the attention of not only computer experts and academic commentators but also policymakers, the mass media and the public at large. In recent years, legal scholars have also actively explored how artificial intelligence will impact the law. Such exploration has resulted in a fast-growing body of scholarship.

One area that has not received sufficient policy and scholarly attention concerns the law-machine interface in a hybrid environment in which both humans and intelligent …


Countenancing Employment Discrimination: Facial Recognition In Background Checks, Kerri A. Thompson Nov 2020

Countenancing Employment Discrimination: Facial Recognition In Background Checks, Kerri A. Thompson

Texas A&M Law Review

Employing facial recognition technology implicates anti-discrimination law under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act when used as a factor in employment decisions. The very technological breakthroughs that made facial recognition technology commercially viable—data compression and artificial intelligence— also contribute to making facial recognition technology discriminatory in its effect on members of classes protected by Title VII. This Article first explains how facial recognition technology works and its application in employee background checks. Then, it analyzes whether the use of facial recognition technology in background checks violates Title VII under the disparate impact theory of liability due to the known …


How Small Cannabis Businesses Can Survive The Hurdles Of Ip Protection, Spencer Keller Nov 2020

How Small Cannabis Businesses Can Survive The Hurdles Of Ip Protection, Spencer Keller

Texas A&M Law Review

The current state of cannabis and intellectual property laws and regulations leaves small and emerging cannabis businesses at a distinct disadvantage compared to those in other industries. Those wishing to pursue cannabis inventions and patents face an uphill battle as cannabis research and development is nearly impossible to conduct legally. The difficulty in researching cannabis has pushed companies to move their research outside of the United States, leaving those growing businesses unable to corner their market in the cannabis industry. Complicating matters further are the overly broad patents that cannabis patentees are likely receiving as a result of market participants …