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Whirlpool’S Subpart F Position Was Inconsistent With Congressional Intent, Jeffery M. Kadet Apr 2023

Whirlpool’S Subpart F Position Was Inconsistent With Congressional Intent, Jeffery M. Kadet

Articles

I believe that Whirlpool took an untenable position on allocation in its 2009 tax filings. The Tax Court in its Whirlpool decision corrected this position using a reasonable approach that used the taxpayer’s own accounting. Now, in their article, Yoder et al. have labeled the Tax Court’s approach a “fundamental flaw” while championing Whirlpool’s position. Considering this situation, it is critical that Treasury and the IRS add appropriate guidance to reg. section 1.954-3. This would clarify that in the case of sales to related or unrelated persons, with no locally based sales personnel and where group personnel in other locations …


Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2021

Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

The Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) taxes parents inequitably. Couples with a sole earner are under-taxed compared to couples with dual earners or single parents. Previous scholarship has identified these inequities and then argued that this sole earner bias should be eliminated. These arguments, however, have often been incomplete. Simply establishing that an inequity exists does not create a full argument for legal reform. After all, the Code plays favorites all the time. Scholars have traditionally turned to theories of distributive justice when evaluating whether tax preferences are warranted. These theories offer competing visions about the way resources should be …


The Rise Of Law And The Fall Of Circular 230: Tax Lawyer Professional Standards, 1985-2015, Michael Hatfield Jan 2021

The Rise Of Law And The Fall Of Circular 230: Tax Lawyer Professional Standards, 1985-2015, Michael Hatfield

Articles

This third article focuses on the two issues that dominated discussions of professional responsibility standards for tax lawyers in the 1985-2015 period: return position standards and tax shelter opinions. It opens with consideration of the ABA’s 1965 opinion providing “reasonable basis” as the standard for undisclosed return positions, and then traces the response to that opinion as the response prods the development of the 1985 replacement with its “realistic possibility of success” standard. The Article documents the extensive interaction between Congress, the Treasury Department, and the tax bar over the next 30 years during which penalties are studied and revised …


Caregivers And Tax Reform: Before And After Snapshots, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2020

Caregivers And Tax Reform: Before And After Snapshots, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) changed the way families are taxed, starting in tax year 2018. By rearranging a myriad of deck chairs, politicians painted rosy pictures of families reaping the benefits of tax reform. In reality, however, generalizations cannot be made and the extent to which any one family gains or loses depends on particular facts. Even more obscured is the way in which the TCJA changed –– and failed to change –– the taxation of different types of caregivers. This Essay seeks to provide needed clarity in this area. It begins by offering snapshots of how …


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Service (Jan. 16, 2020) On Proposed Regulations Reg-100956-19, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2020

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Service (Jan. 16, 2020) On Proposed Regulations Reg-100956-19, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

No abstract provided.


Unregulated Charity, Eric Franklin Amarante Dec 2019

Unregulated Charity, Eric Franklin Amarante

Washington Law Review

The vast majority of charities in the United States operate in a regulatory blind spot: they are neither meaningfully evaluated when they apply for charitable status nor substantively monitored after they receive charitable status. Driven by severe budget constraints, the IRS decided to essentially ignore any charity that claims it will realize less than $50,000 in annual gross receipts. From a practical perspective, the IRS’s decision makes sense. To the extent smaller charities are less likely to cause harm, it is reasonable (perhaps even preferable) to subject them to less scrutiny. This type of prioritization, known as risk-based regulation, has …


Taxing Selling Partners, Emily Cauble Mar 2019

Taxing Selling Partners, Emily Cauble

Washington Law Review

When a partner sells a partnership interest, the resulting gain or loss is treated as capital gain or loss, except to the extent that the partnership holds certain items whose sale would result in gain or loss that was not capital. Seemingly, the purpose of this regime is to prevent taxpayers from obtaining more favorable treatment by selling an interest in a partnership than what would result if the partnership were to sell its underlying assets. But given this legislative aim, the existing tax provisions produce results for taxpayers that are both unduly favorable (in that sale of a partnership …


Transitioning From Gilti To Fdii? Foreign Branch Income Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2019

Transitioning From Gilti To Fdii? Foreign Branch Income Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

In this article, Kadet and Koontz explain the risks and benefits multinationals must consider in deciding whether to transition some operations conducted within a controlled foreign corporation (along with the associated income) into a domestic group member to achieve a structure that qualifies for foreign-derived intangible income.


America's (D)Evolving Childcare Tax Laws, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2019

America's (D)Evolving Childcare Tax Laws, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

Proponents have touted the ability of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the TCJA) — enacted in the twilight of 2017 — to help American working families. But while the TCJA expanded some benefits available to parents with dependent children, these parental tax benefits may be claimed regardless of whether or to what extent childcare costs are incurred to work outside the home. To help working parents with these costs (which are often their largest expense), Congress might have turned to two other mechanisms in the tax law — the “child and dependent care credit” and the “dependent care exclusion.” …


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Serv. (Aug. 20, 2019) On Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking: Classification Of Cloud Transactions And Transactions Involving Digital Content, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2019

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To Internal Revenue Serv. (Aug. 20, 2019) On Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking: Classification Of Cloud Transactions And Transactions Involving Digital Content, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

No abstract provided.


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet To Internal Revenue Serv. (Oct. 6, 2019) On Notice 2019-30, 2019-2020 Priority Guidance Plan - Sourcing Of Cloud Services Income, Jeffery M. Kadet Jan 2019

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet To Internal Revenue Serv. (Oct. 6, 2019) On Notice 2019-30, 2019-2020 Priority Guidance Plan - Sourcing Of Cloud Services Income, Jeffery M. Kadet

Articles

No abstract provided.


Head In The Clouds, Head In The Sand: Federal Failure To Update Guidance On Computer Transaction In An International Context, Logan S. Weaver Dec 2018

Head In The Clouds, Head In The Sand: Federal Failure To Update Guidance On Computer Transaction In An International Context, Logan S. Weaver

Washington Law Review

The United States has two different rationales for taxing income of non-U.S. persons and entities. First, the income may be “sourced” to the United States, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code. Alternatively, the income may be effectively connected to a trade or business within the United States that provides income to the non-U.S. person or entity. The sourcing rules for income of non-U.S. persons and entities depend heavily on the nature of the underlying transaction and the geographical location where certain key elements of the transaction take place. So long as the non-U.S. person or entity avoids activities that …


Sourcing Rule Change: Manufacturing And Competitiveness, Jeffery M. Kadet Jan 2018

Sourcing Rule Change: Manufacturing And Competitiveness, Jeffery M. Kadet

Articles

In this article, Kadet explains how the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act favors foreign-based manufacturers selling through a U.S. sales branch over comparable U.S. manufacturers, and he recommends legislative fixes.


Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To The Internal Revenue Serv. (June 5, 2018) On Notice 2018-43, 2018-2019 Priority Guidance Plan Regulatory And Ruling Guidance Concerning Various International Tax Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz Jan 2018

Letter From Jeffery M. Kadet And David L. Koontz To The Internal Revenue Serv. (June 5, 2018) On Notice 2018-43, 2018-2019 Priority Guidance Plan Regulatory And Ruling Guidance Concerning Various International Tax Issues, Jeffery M. Kadet, David L. Koontz

Articles

A principal focus of our suggestions is the modernization and updating of regulations as well as providing guidance that will affect the many multinational corporations (MNCs) whose operations take place partially or wholly within the U.S. Many of these MNCs have embarked on complicated and legalistic schemes whose primary purpose is to shift profits without any real operational changes and to record those profits within zero- and low-taxed foreign members. Importantly, this includes not only U.S.-based MNCs, but also the many inverted MNCs that structured their inversions to remain untouched by the §7874 anti-inversion rules.


Effects Of The New Sourcing Rule: Eci And Profit Sharing, David L. Koontz, Jeffery M. Kadet Jan 2018

Effects Of The New Sourcing Rule: Eci And Profit Sharing, David L. Koontz, Jeffery M. Kadet

Articles

For the first time in eons, Congress has seen fit to change a basic rule for the sourcing of income. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (P.L. 115-97) minced few words in its addition of a single sentence to section 863(b) that applies to sales or exchanges of inventory property (1) produced in whole or in part by the taxpayer in one country, and (2) sold or exchanged in another country. The United States can either be the country where the inventory property is produced or the country where it is sold.

With this change, income from the sale of …


Pre-Enforcement Litigation Needed For Taxing Procedures, Stephanie Hunter Mcmahon Oct 2017

Pre-Enforcement Litigation Needed For Taxing Procedures, Stephanie Hunter Mcmahon

Washington Law Review

Courts have opened tax guidance to procedural attack. Consequently, taxpayers who are found to owe tax may challenge the validity of the guidance implementing the tax if the procedure used by the Treasury Department in adopting the guidance failed to comply with the Administrative Procedure Act, in particular, with notice-and-comment. This increased willingness to consider tax guidance’s procedural defects offers little to most taxpayers unless they are also given a better means to raise procedural challenges. Under current law and in most circumstances, generally, taxpayers can bring a challenge only after they have been found to owe taxes in an …


Postpartum Taxation And The Squeezed Out Mom, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2017

Postpartum Taxation And The Squeezed Out Mom, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

Faced with too-short (or nonexistent) maternity leaves, inflexible work schedules, and the soaring costs of childcare in the United States, many new mothers temporarily leave the workforce to care for their young children. Although media attention has focused on the “opt-out” mom, many more mothers are squeezed out of the external workplace. But mothers that try to return to work may discover that it is difficult to do so, as employers have been shown to be less likely to hire mothers than others. A mother that does reenter may find that even short periods out of work cost (sometimes far) …


Revisiting The Taxation Of Fringe Benefits, Jay A. Soled, Kathleen Delaney Thomas Jun 2016

Revisiting The Taxation Of Fringe Benefits, Jay A. Soled, Kathleen Delaney Thomas

Washington Law Review

The receipt of workplace fringe benefits has become increasingly ubiquitous. As a result of their employment, employees often receive a cornucopia of fringe benefits, including frequent-flier miles, hotel rewards points, rental car preferred status, office supply dollar coupons, cellular telephone use, home internet service, and, in some instances, even free lunches, massages, and dance lessons. Technological advances and workforce globalization are important contributory factors to the popularity of what were, until the turn of this century, previously unknown fringe benefits. In years past, taxpayers could readily turn to the Internal Revenue Code to ascertain the income tax effects and reporting …


Overtaxing The Working Family: Uncle Sam And The Childcare Squeeze, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2015

Overtaxing The Working Family: Uncle Sam And The Childcare Squeeze, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

Today, many working parents are caught in a “childcare squeeze”: While they require two incomes just to make ends meet, they end up spending a strikingly large percentage of their income on childcare so that they can work away from the home. Worse still, some parents find themselves “squeezed out” of the market entirely, unable to earn the additional income their family requires because they cannot find jobs that pay enough to offset soaring childcare expenses. This Article argues that the tax laws have played an important role in aggravating these hardships. Currently, the Internal Revenue Code treats the childcare …


Tax Abuse According To Whom, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2013

Tax Abuse According To Whom, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

In 1996, Congress banned the Treasury Department from enacting retroactive regulations but provided an important exception, allowing tax regulations to apply retroactively “to prevent abuse.” Congress did not, however, explicitly define abuse; nor did it designate to any specific actor the power to do so. This Article provides the first comprehensive look at the level of deference owed a Treasury regulation’s interpretation of the Internal Revenue Code’s abuse exception. Generally, a reviewing court owes some level of deference to an agency’s interpretation of the statute it is entrusted to administer. Some statutory interpretations are entitled to receive the strong standard …


Legal Ethics And Federal Taxes, 1945-1965: Patriotism, Duties, And Advice, Michael Hatfield Jan 2012

Legal Ethics And Federal Taxes, 1945-1965: Patriotism, Duties, And Advice, Michael Hatfield

Articles

This article is devoted to exploring the legal ethics writings by tax lawyers in a pivotal period of income tax history: 1945-1965, the first two decades of the federal income tax as we now know it. Although the income tax began in 1913, it was World War II that created the modem mass income tax: in 1939 there were 3.9 million individual income tax taxpayers but by 1945 there were 42.6 million. This period was also one of significant progress in the administration of the income tax: the Internal Revenue Code was re-organized in 1954 and, following widespread corruption scandals, …


Too Close To Home: Limiting The Organizations Subsidized By The Charitable Deduction To Those In Economic Need, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2011

Too Close To Home: Limiting The Organizations Subsidized By The Charitable Deduction To Those In Economic Need, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

The charitable deduction allows taxpayers to deduct amounts donated to organizations pursuing statutorily designated purposes from their otherwise taxable income. By lowering the after-tax cost of giving and encouraging taxpayers to donate more than they otherwise would, the charitable deduction subsidizes a broad variety of organizations. Some of these organizations provide widespread societal benefits, while others provide narrower benefits that remain closer to the taxpayer-donor’s home. To evaluate these current laws, this Article focuses on efficiency criteria, which limit subsidized organizations to those with donor support that does not cover the costs needed to optimally provide goods and services. Existing …


Taking The Good With The Bad: Recognizing The Negative Externalities Created By Charities And Their Implications For The Charitable Deduction, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2010

Taking The Good With The Bad: Recognizing The Negative Externalities Created By Charities And Their Implications For The Charitable Deduction, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

The tax code allows taxpayers to deduct amounts donated to an extremely broad variety of organizations deemed to create societal benefits — that is, positive externalities. But many organizations that may receive tax-deductible contributions also cause harms. Both the tax code and subsidy theory, one of the most utilized scholarly theories developed to analyze the deduction from an economic and morally neutral perspective, fail to properly account for these negative externalities. In order to do so, one needs to look beyond the economic models utilized by subsidy theorists. For instance, there should be some limit to the types of harms …


Tax Shelters And Statutory Interpretation: A Much Needed Purposive Approach, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Jan 2009

Tax Shelters And Statutory Interpretation: A Much Needed Purposive Approach, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

Articles

Few are unaware that the Tax Code and Regulations provide a detailed, complex (and lengthy) set of rules. It is hardly surprising (or new) that taxpayers attempt to avoid these rules to lower their taxes. Courts and lawmakers have long grappled to identify abusive transactions and strip taxpayers of the associated tax savings. The transactions have, however, changed dramatically over the last decade making the task much more challenging. The rapid proliferation of aggressive and diverse tax shelters has created what many refer to as a tax shelter war. In general, tax shelters refer to transactions carefully designed to fit …


Federal Tax Consequences Of Virtual World Transactions, G. Martin Bingisser Oct 2008

Federal Tax Consequences Of Virtual World Transactions, G. Martin Bingisser

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article discusses the tax consequences of transactions involving Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (“MMORPGs”). MMORPGs have recently grown in popularity and developed significant economic activity. Virtual goods used in these games are traded for both real and virtual currency. While few dispute that a sale of virtual goods for real currency is a taxable event, more complex tax issues arise concerning transactions that occur solely within virtual worlds. This article analyzes the tax consequences and policy issues surrounding such transactions.


Fifth Circuit Survey: Taxation, Michael Hatfield Jan 2007

Fifth Circuit Survey: Taxation, Michael Hatfield

Articles

During the survey period, the Fifth Circuit decided nine federal tax cases. Four of the nine cases were appealed from district courts. The remaining five were appealed from the Tax Court. Three of the Tax Court's five decisions (60%) were affirmed, and three of the four district court decisions (75%) were affirmed. Thus, the Fifth Circuit affirmed most of the lower court decisions (66%). Interestingly, only three of the decisions (33%) favored the taxpayer—EC Term of Years Trust v. United States; Garber Industries, Inc. v. Commissioner; and Estate of Baird v. Commissioner—even though the Fifth Circuit …


Ignore The Rumors—Campaigning From The Pulpit Is Okay: Thinking Past The Symbolism Of Section 501(C)(3), Michael Hatfield Jan 2006

Ignore The Rumors—Campaigning From The Pulpit Is Okay: Thinking Past The Symbolism Of Section 501(C)(3), Michael Hatfield

Articles

This Article is enough to ruin many Thanksgiving family dinners. It is about American religion, politics, and taxes. Mostly it is about taxes. As I will explain, this is what sets it apart from the contemporary legal scholarship exploring the campaign restrictions on tax exempt churches. This Introduction identifies the problem addressed in the article, then introduces the contemporary legal scholarship and the alternative approach this article takes.

Part I of this Article introduces the reader to the legal context of "the problem" of churches being unable to campaign if they choose to be Tax Exempt under Section 501 (c) …


Beyond The Little Dutch Boy: An Argument For Structural Changes In Tax Deduction Classification, Jeffrey H. Kahn Feb 2005

Beyond The Little Dutch Boy: An Argument For Structural Changes In Tax Deduction Classification, Jeffrey H. Kahn

Washington Law Review

One of the most active disputes in tax law today is the question of the proper tax consequences for a successful plaintiff, a portion of whose taxable damage award is paid to his or her attorney pursuant to a contingent fee arrangement. At issue is whether the plaintiff is taxable on the portion of the award that is payable to the attorney. One aspect of this problem was resolved prospectively by the adoption of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, but the problem continues to exist in other areas. The United States Supreme Court resolved a split in the …


The Bonds Of Joint Tax Liability Should Not Be Stronger Than Marriage: Congressional Intent Behind § 6015(C) Separation Of Liability Relief, Svetlana G. Attestatova Aug 2003

The Bonds Of Joint Tax Liability Should Not Be Stronger Than Marriage: Congressional Intent Behind § 6015(C) Separation Of Liability Relief, Svetlana G. Attestatova

Washington Law Review

Spouses who file joint tax returns are jointly and severally liable for any resulting tax deficiency. In the past, only innocent spouses—those with no knowledge of the tax understatement—could qualify for relief from such liability. In 1998, Congress expanded existing innocent spouse relief and added two new forms of relief—the separation of liability and discretionary relief provisions. Codified at 26 U.S.C. § 6015(c), separation of liability relief allocates items that give rise to a deficiency to each spouse as if they had filed separate returns, and is only available to spouses who are divorced, separated, or living apart. However, a …


Protecting The Tax-Exempt Status Of Housing Developers Participating In Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Partnershps, Marni Hussong Jan 2001

Protecting The Tax-Exempt Status Of Housing Developers Participating In Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Partnershps, Marni Hussong

Washington Law Review

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is an important source of federal funding for developers of affordable housing for low-income persons. Although for-profit and nonprofit developers compete for credits, the federal government reserves ten percent of the credits for nonprofit, tax-exempt developers. Exempt developers often sell the credits to for-profit investors, forming a partnership through which the exempt organization develops the housing and the investors receive tax benefits in exchange for capital contributions. The partnership formation, however, may jeopardize the tax-exempt status of the nonprofit organizations and result in the partnership losing the LIHTC. To maintain exempt status, the Internal …