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Full-Text Articles in Law

Puff, Puff, Tax: Internal Revenue Code Section 280e Penalizes State-Sanctioned Marijuana Companies And Undermines The Ability-To-Pay Principle, Joseph E. Thomas Jul 2021

Puff, Puff, Tax: Internal Revenue Code Section 280e Penalizes State-Sanctioned Marijuana Companies And Undermines The Ability-To-Pay Principle, Joseph E. Thomas

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


A State-Level Response To Ineffective Federal Place-Based Investment Tax Incentives, Michelle Chaing Perry Jun 2021

A State-Level Response To Ineffective Federal Place-Based Investment Tax Incentives, Michelle Chaing Perry

Boston College Law Review

Using tax expenditures, the federal government can deploy economic incentives to alter our choices in the service of public policy goals. Doing so reduces not only federal but also state tax revenue because state tax law often conforms to definitions of income contained in the Internal Revenue Code. State governments, however, may not have the same goals as Congress, so tax incentives implemented nationally may not always be a good fit for states. This Note focuses on tax expenditures directing private investments into low-income neighborhoods, known as federal place-based investment tax incentives. It argues that because their impact is ambiguous ...


The Unfair Treatment Of Cryptocurrencies By The U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Antonio Alverez Lorenzo Jun 2021

The Unfair Treatment Of Cryptocurrencies By The U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Antonio Alverez Lorenzo

Blockchain Law

This paper explores the challenges the cryptocurrency industry has been confronting in the United States due to the unfairness of the tax policies issued by the United States Internal Revenue Service. Cryptocurrency service providers, miners, investors and general consumers are being prevented from taking advantages of special tax treatments as compared to other similar properties, commodities and securities. Tax legislation has not kept pace with the development of emerging cryptocurrency technologies that enable otherwise traditional types of revenue to be generated.


The Challenges Of Nonprofit Governance, Peter Molk, D. Daniel Sokol May 2021

The Challenges Of Nonprofit Governance, Peter Molk, D. Daniel Sokol

Boston College Law Review

The stakes for proper nonprofit governance are extremely high. Over 1.5 million nonprofits are registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), collectively employing twelve million people and accounting for 5.6% of U.S. gross domestic profit. Yet whereas for-profit companies have significant checks on the behavior of boards and management, nonprofit firms lack many of the same types of internal and external governance control mechanisms. COVID-19 is just the latest shock to expose the lack of preparedness and capability of many nonprofit boards in fulfilling their essential governance functions. This Article contributes to the corporate governance literature by ...


Ground Zero: The Irs Attack On Syndicated Conservation Easements, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich May 2021

Ground Zero: The Irs Attack On Syndicated Conservation Easements, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

On June 25, 2020, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) announced a settlement initiative (“SI”) to certain taxpayers with pending docketed cases involving syndicated conservation easement (“SCE”) transactions. The SI is the current culmination of a long series of attacks by the IRS against SCE transactions. The IRS has recently found success in the Tax Court against SCEs, but the agency’s overall legal position may be overstated. It is possible that the recent SI is merely an attempt to capitalize on leverage while the IRS has it. Regardless, the current state of the law surrounding SCEs is murky at best ...


Creating Opportunity Through A Fairer Tax System, David Gamage Apr 2021

Creating Opportunity Through A Fairer Tax System, David Gamage

Public Testimony by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Taxing Option Luck, Jeesoo Nam Apr 2021

Taxing Option Luck, Jeesoo Nam

UC Irvine Law Review

As economic inequality reaches new heights every decade, academics stress the importance of the tax system in matters of equity. In contemporary winner-take-all markets, much of the massive income and wealth accumulated by the rich are the result of deliberate and calculated economic gambles that turned out in their favor. Yet theories of distributive justice such as Ronald Dworkin’s brute luck egalitarianism have committed themselves to the position that even if these market outcomes are the results of luck, the unequal outcomes are justified insofar as investors chose to take such risks.

This Article argues, in contrast to the ...


The Surprising Significance Of De Minimis Tax Rules, Leigh Osofsky, Kathleen Delaney Thomas Apr 2021

The Surprising Significance Of De Minimis Tax Rules, Leigh Osofsky, Kathleen Delaney Thomas

Washington and Lee Law Review

De minimis tax rules—rules that eliminate tax burdens for low-income taxpayers or low-dollar transactions—abound in the tax law. Despite the prevalence of such rules, legal scholarship has treated them as—well—de minimis, or as mere rounding errors that do not merit sustained attention. This perspective is understandable. If de minimis rules address insignificant taxpayers or tax liabilities, aren’t the rules themselves likely to be insignificant?

Recent tax law developments have revealed that this conception of de minimis tax rules is deeply misguided. Major allocations of tax law liability, as well as accompanying questions about the fairness ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae Scholars Of The Law Of Non-Profit Organizations In Support Of Respondent: Americans For Prosperity Foundation V. Matthew Rodriguez, Nos. 19-251 & 19-255, Ellen P. Aprill, Roger Colinvaux, Sean Delany, James Fishman, Brian D. Galle, Philip Hackney, Jill R. Horwitz, Cindy Lott, Ray D. Madoff, Jill S. Manny, Nancy A. Mclaughlin, Richard Schmalbeck Mar 2021

Brief Of Amici Curiae Scholars Of The Law Of Non-Profit Organizations In Support Of Respondent: Americans For Prosperity Foundation V. Matthew Rodriguez, Nos. 19-251 & 19-255, Ellen P. Aprill, Roger Colinvaux, Sean Delany, James Fishman, Brian D. Galle, Philip Hackney, Jill R. Horwitz, Cindy Lott, Ray D. Madoff, Jill S. Manny, Nancy A. Mclaughlin, Richard Schmalbeck

Amici Briefs

The twelve individuals filing this amicus brief are professors and scholars of the law of nonprofit organizations. No party in this case represents all three of charity’s key stakeholders: charities, states, and taxpayers who underwrite the charities’ funding. Amici are participating in this litigation in order to aid the Court in understanding how these three interests depend on one another. They also attempt to provide a clearer understanding of state supervision of charities and how that supervision related to federal tax law.


Brief Of Amici Curiae Scholars Of The Law Of Non-Profit Organizations In Support Of Respondent: Americans For Prosperity Foundation V. Matthew Rodriguez, Nos. 19-251 & 19-255, Ray D. Madoff, Ellen P. Aprill, Roger Colinvaux, Sean Delaney, James Fishman, Brian D. Galle, Philip Hackney, Jill R. Horwitz, Cindy Lott, Jill S. Manny, Nancy A. Mclaughlin, Richard Shmalbeck Mar 2021

Brief Of Amici Curiae Scholars Of The Law Of Non-Profit Organizations In Support Of Respondent: Americans For Prosperity Foundation V. Matthew Rodriguez, Nos. 19-251 & 19-255, Ray D. Madoff, Ellen P. Aprill, Roger Colinvaux, Sean Delaney, James Fishman, Brian D. Galle, Philip Hackney, Jill R. Horwitz, Cindy Lott, Jill S. Manny, Nancy A. Mclaughlin, Richard Shmalbeck

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The twelve individuals filing this amicus brief are professors and scholars of the law of nonprofit organizations. No party in this case represents all three of charity’s key stakeholders: charities, states, and taxpayers who underwrite the charities’ funding. Amici are participating in this litigation in order to aid the Court in understanding how these three interests depend on one another. They also attempt to provide a clearer understanding of state supervision of charities and how that supervision related to federal tax law.


The Implications For Australian Businesses Of Recent Developments In Us State Taxation Of Online Cross-Border Sales, Walter Hellerstein Mar 2021

The Implications For Australian Businesses Of Recent Developments In Us State Taxation Of Online Cross-Border Sales, Walter Hellerstein

Popular Media

Although there is no broad-based national consumption tax in the United States, 45 of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, as well as thousands of local jurisdictions, impose general retail sales taxes. For the twelve-month period ending in September 2020, sales taxes yielded USD 333 billion or 31.1 per cent of state tax revenues.

The US Supreme Court’s 2018 decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc. dramatically expanded the US states’ power to require remote suppliers to collect taxes on in-bound sales to local consumers. The decision repudiated the pre-existing, judicially created constitutional rule limiting the ...


Federalizing Tax Justice, Reuven Avi-Yonah, Orli Avi-Yonah, Nir Fishbien, Hayian Xu Feb 2021

Federalizing Tax Justice, Reuven Avi-Yonah, Orli Avi-Yonah, Nir Fishbien, Hayian Xu

Articles

The United States is the only large federal country that does not have an explicit way to reduce the economic disparities among more and less developed regions. In Germany, for example, federal revenues are distributed by a formula that takes into account the relative level of wealth of each state (the so-called Finanzausgleich, or fiscal equalization). Similar mechanisms are found in Australia, Canada, India, and other large federal countries. The United States, on the other hand, has no such explicit redistribution. Each state is generally considered equal and sovereign, and the federal government does not distribute revenues to equalize the ...


Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack Feb 2021

Taxing Parents: Welfarist Theories, Shannon Weeks Mccormack

BYU Law Review

The Internal Revenue Code (the "Code") taxes parents inequitably. Couples with a sole earner are undertaxed compared to couples with dual earners and to single parents. Legal tax scholarship (including my own) has identified the many inequities that result from this sole-earner bias and have called for its elimination. But while these arguments have been sufficient for some, they do remain susceptible to the criticism that they are theoretically incomplete.

That critique might proceed as follows. Simply establishing that an inequity exists does not create a full argument for legal reform. After all, it might be argued, the Code plays ...


Political Justice And Tax Policy: The Social Welfare Organization Case, Philip T. Hackney Feb 2021

Political Justice And Tax Policy: The Social Welfare Organization Case, Philip T. Hackney

Texas A&M Law Review

In addition to valuing whether a tax policy is equitable, efficient, and administrable, I argue we should ask if a tax policy is politically just. Others have made a similar case for valuing political justice as democracy in implementing just tax policy. I join that call and highlight why it matters in one arena—tax exemption. I also further that discussion by arguing that politically just tax policy does the least harm to the democratic functioning of our government and may ideally enhance it. I argue that our right to an equal voice in collective decision-making is the most fundamental ...


Pandemic Of Inequality: An Introduction To Inequality Of Race, Wealth, And Class, Equality Of Opportunity, Dr. Charles J. Reid, Jr. Jan 2021

Pandemic Of Inequality: An Introduction To Inequality Of Race, Wealth, And Class, Equality Of Opportunity, Dr. Charles J. Reid, Jr.

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


The Spirit Is Willing: A Proposal For American Single Malt Whiskey, Raymond Cleaveland Jan 2021

The Spirit Is Willing: A Proposal For American Single Malt Whiskey, Raymond Cleaveland

Seattle University Law Review

Over the past twenty-five years, small, independent American distilleries have carved out a new niche in the United States liquor market: craft single malt whiskey. Inspired by the success of single malt Scotch and other single malts, American craft distillers are now fighting for their own shelf behind the bar and in the liquor store aisle. In 2018, a cadre of these distillers petitioned the U.S. Treasury Department’s Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to formally recognize a new category of whiskey in the Code of Federal Regulations: American Single Malt Whiskey. For purposes of consumer protection ...


The Carbon Price Equivalent: A Metric For Comparing Climate Change Mitigation Efforts Across Jurisdictions, Gabriel Weil Jan 2021

The Carbon Price Equivalent: A Metric For Comparing Climate Change Mitigation Efforts Across Jurisdictions, Gabriel Weil

Dickinson Law Review

Climate change presents a global commons problem: Emissions reductions on the scale needed to meet global targets do not pass a domestic cost-benefit test in most countries. To give national governments ample incentive to pursue deep decarbonization, mutual interstate coercion will be necessary. Many proposed tools of coercive climate diplomacy would require a onedimensional metric for comparing the stringency of climate change mitigation policy packages across jurisdictions. This article proposes and defends such a metric: the carbon price equivalent. There is substantial variation in the set of climate change mitigation policy instruments implemented by different countries. Nonetheless, the consequences of ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Jan 2021

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2021

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 2019, for the first time in the history of U.S. capital markets, passive funds surpassed active funds in terms of total assets under management. The continuous growth of passive funds at the expense of active funds is a genuine cause for concern. Active funds monitor the management and partake of decision-making in their portfolio companies. Furthermore, they improve price efficiency and managerial performance by engaging in informed trading. The buy/sell decisions of active funds provide other market participants reliable information about the quality of firms. The cost of active investing is significant and it is exclusively borne ...


The Impact Of Particular Provisions Of The 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act On The United States Economy Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hillary Obinna Maduka Jan 2021

The Impact Of Particular Provisions Of The 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act On The United States Economy Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hillary Obinna Maduka

LL.M. Essays & Theses

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is the most significant overhaul of the U.S. federal tax system in the last two decades. This paper seeks to discuss some of its most significant provisions and examine their overall impact on the U.S. economy, especially throughout the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

This paper begins by undertaking an overview of the legislative history of the Act and then proceeds to discuss three provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Acts which have had a tremendous impact on the U.S. economy by altering some major provisions of the United States Internal Revenue ...


Mandatory Tax Penalty Insurance, Michael Abramowicz Jan 2021

Mandatory Tax Penalty Insurance, Michael Abramowicz

Indiana Law Journal

In a mandatory tax penalty insurance regime, taxpayers would be required to find insurers to certify portions of their tax returns. A certifying insurer would be subject to a governmental auditing regime insurers of randomly selected filings would pay an amount equal to the inverse of the selection probability multiplied by the underpayment, or they would receive money from the government in the case of overpayment. The insurers function as private auditors with no incentive to underestimate their customers' tax liability. Such a regime will consume real resources, ultimately paid by taxpayers, and thus should not be imposed universally. But ...


#Audited: Social Media And Tax Enforcement, Michelle Lyon Drumbl Jan 2021

#Audited: Social Media And Tax Enforcement, Michelle Lyon Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

With limited resources and a diminished budget, it is not surprising that the Internal Revenue Service would seek new tools to maximize its enforcement efficiency. Automation and technology provide new opportunities for the IRS, and in turn, present new concerns for taxpayers. In December 2018, the IRS signaled its interest in a tool to access publicly available social media profiles of individuals in order to “expedite IRS case resolution for existing compliance cases.” This has important implications for taxpayer privacy.

Moreover, the use of social media in tax enforcement may pose a particular harm to an especially vulnerable population: low-income ...


Political Justice And Tax Policy: The Social Welfare Organization Case, Philip Hackney Jan 2021

Political Justice And Tax Policy: The Social Welfare Organization Case, Philip Hackney

Articles

In addition to valuing whether a tax policy is equitable, efficient, and administrable, I argue we should ask if a tax policy is politically just. Others have made a similar case for valuing political justice as democracy in implementing just tax policy. I join that call and highlight why it matters in one arena – tax exemption. I argue that politically just tax policy does the least harm to the democratic functioning of our government and may ideally enhance it. I argue that our right to an equal voice in collective decision making is the most fundamental value of political justice ...


Does Tax Matter? Evidence On Executive Compensation After 162(M)'S Repeal, Gregg Polsky, Brian Galle, Andrew Lund Jan 2021

Does Tax Matter? Evidence On Executive Compensation After 162(M)'S Repeal, Gregg Polsky, Brian Galle, Andrew Lund

Scholarly Works

As part of the most sweeping federal tax reform in a generation, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) radically altered the tax treatment of compensation paid to senior executives of public companies. Prior to the TCJA, payment of such compensation in excess of one million dollars was non-deductible except to the extent the compensation was performance-based. The TCJA eliminated the exception so that all senior executive compensation above one million dollars is now non-deductible regardless of whether it is performance-based or not.

This reform provides a natural experiment to study the role of tax law in influencing managerial pay ...


Why A Federal Wealth Tax Is Constitutional, Ari Glogower, David Gamage, Kitty Richards Jan 2021

Why A Federal Wealth Tax Is Constitutional, Ari Glogower, David Gamage, Kitty Richards

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The 2020 Democratic presidential primaries brought national attention to a new direction for the tax system: a federal wealth tax for the wealthiest taxpayers. During their campaigns, Senators Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) and Bernie Sanders (I-VT) both introduced proposals to tax the wealth of multimillionaires and billionaires, and to use the revenue for public investments, including in health care and education. These reforms generated broad public support—even among many Republicans—and broadened the conversation over the future of progressive tax reform.

A well-designed, high-end wealth tax can level the playing field in an unequal society and promote shared economic prosperity ...


Valuation As A Challenge For Tax Administration, Leandra Lederman Jan 2021

Valuation As A Challenge For Tax Administration, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Valuation issues have long posed challenges for the U.S. federal tax system. This is not just because of questions about what technique will most accurately value particular types of property. A key problem for tax administration is that taxpayers have a financial incentive to claim erroneous, self-serving valuations. This Essay analyzes tax valuation through this tax compliance lens. In so doing, it highlights the importance that third parties to the taxpayer-government relationship act at arm’s length from the taxpayer. It also explains why penalties are insufficient to deter erroneous self-reported valuations. The Essay also draws on the tax ...


How To Measure And Value Wealth For A Federal Wealth Tax Reform, David Gamage, Ari Glogower, Kitty Richards Jan 2021

How To Measure And Value Wealth For A Federal Wealth Tax Reform, David Gamage, Ari Glogower, Kitty Richards

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Over the last several decades, wealth inequality has exploded, warping economic outcomes and limiting opportunity—for individuals and for the US at large.

Sky-high income inequality and runaway income gains for the nation’s highest earners compound that wealth inequality and are insufficiently taxed under the current tax regime.

Further, wealth in the US has always been heavily skewed by race.

Since the country’s founding, US laws and customs have prevented Black and brown people from receiving fair wages and accruing assets, thereby creating and perpetuating today’s massive racial wealth gap.

While our existing tax systems are ill-equipped ...


New York’S Proposed Mark-To-Market Tax Decouples From Federal Tax, Henry Ordower Jan 2021

New York’S Proposed Mark-To-Market Tax Decouples From Federal Tax, Henry Ordower

All Faculty Scholarship

A proposal decouples NY from federal tax computations to tax billionaires on unrealized appreciation. If enacted, the proposal generates basis discontinuities across borders but enhances state revenue and may prove attractive to many states. The article reviews how states seek to enhance revenues and considers issues of cross-border taxation and the fundamental right to travel.


How The State And Federal Tax Systems Operate To Deny Educational Opportunities To Minorities And Other Lower Income Students, Camilla E. Watson Jan 2021

How The State And Federal Tax Systems Operate To Deny Educational Opportunities To Minorities And Other Lower Income Students, Camilla E. Watson

Scholarly Works

The importance of education cannot be overstated. Education is a core principle of the American Dream, and as such, it is the ticket to a better paying job, homeownership, financial security, and a better way of life. Education is the key factor in reducing poverty and inequality and promoting sustained national economic growth. But while the U.S. Supreme Court has referred to education as "perhaps the most important function of the state and local governments," it has nevertheless stopped short of declaring education a fundamental right guaranteed under the Constitution. As a consequence, because education is not considered a ...


Dark Money Darker? Irs Shutters Collection Of Donor Data, Philip Hackney Jan 2021

Dark Money Darker? Irs Shutters Collection Of Donor Data, Philip Hackney

Articles

The IRS ended a long-time practice of requiring most nonprofits to disclose substantial donor names and addresses on the nonprofit annual tax return. It is largely seen as a battle over campaign finance rather than tax enforcement. Two of the nonprofits involved, social welfare organizations and business leagues, are referred to as “dark money” organizations because they allow individuals to influence elections while maintaining donor anonymity. Many in the campaign finance community are concerned that this change means wealthy donors can avoid campaign finance laws and have no reason to fear being discovered. In this Article, I focus on whether ...