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Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung Dec 2018

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung

English Publications

In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing tendency to use scores from the TOEFL iBT® Speaking test for decisions regarding the certification of international graduate students as teaching assistants at North American universities. To obtain validity evidence in support of the usefulness of the speaking scores for this secondary use of the test, this study adopted the argument‐based approach to validation. Focusing on the domain description inference in the TOEFL interpretive argument, the study investigated whether the language functions elicited by TOEFL iBT Speaking tasks can be identified in authentic discourse produced by international teaching assistants ...


L2-Arctic: A Non-Native English Speech Corpus, Guanlong Zhao, Sinem Sonsaat, Alif O. Silpachai, Ivana Lucic, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John Levis, Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna Jan 2018

L2-Arctic: A Non-Native English Speech Corpus, Guanlong Zhao, Sinem Sonsaat, Alif O. Silpachai, Ivana Lucic, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John Levis, Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna

English Publications

In this paper, we introduce L2-ARCTIC, a speech corpus of non-native English that is intended for research in voice conversion, accent conversion, and mispronunciation detection. This initial release includes recordings from ten non-native speakers of English whose first languages (L1s) are Hindi, Korean, Mandarin, Spanish, and Arabic, each L1 containing recordings from one male and one female speaker. Each speaker recorded approximately one hour of read speech from the Carnegie Mellon University ARCTIC prompts, from which we generated orthographic and forced-aligned phonetic transcriptions. In addition, we manually annotated 150 utterances per speaker to identify three types of mispronunciation errors: substitutions ...


A Model For Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar, Shannon Mccrocklin, Tammy Slater Jan 2017

A Model For Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar, Shannon Mccrocklin, Tammy Slater

English Publications

This article introduces an approach that middle-school teachers can follow to help their students carry out linguistic-based literary analyses. As an example, it draws on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to show how J.K. Rowling used language to characterize Hermione as an intelligent female in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Using a simplified SFG analysis, the authors show how teachers can help students find and use language data that can support their intuition about characters or can uncover other patterns in the text. This type of SFG analysis approach can be particularly useful for English language learners and struggling ...


Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala Jan 2017

Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala

English Publications

Automatic essay scoring (AES) refers to the process of scoring free text responses to given prompts, considering human grader scores as the gold standard. Writing such essays is an essential component of many language and aptitude exams. Hence, AES became an active and established area of research, and there are many proprietary systems used in real life applications today. However, not much is known about which specific linguistic features are useful for prediction and how much of this is consistent across datasets. This article addresses that by exploring the role of various linguistic features in automatic essay scoring using two ...


Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater Jun 2016

Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater

English Publications

ABSTRACT

Second language (L2) classroom research has sought to shed light on the processes and practices that develop L2 learners’ abilities [Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based language teaching. London: Continuum; Verplaetse, L. 2014. Using big questions to apprentice students into language-rich classroom practices. TESOL Quarterly, 179, 632–641; Zeungler, J., & Mori, J. 2002. Microanalyses of classroom discourse: A critical consideration of method. Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 283–288]. Honing in on the micro-level of classroom tasks and even further into the language of the tasks can help to reveal the patterns in teacher- and student-talk that help scaffold students’ academic literacy. Literacy, from a systemic functional view of language learning, entails having the tools to function in the social contexts that are valued in students’ lives. This ...


Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French Apr 2016

Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French

English Publications

This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program WINSTEPS to investigate the relative difficulty of the items associated with the nine versions of the interactive lectures. Results indicated that comprehension of interactive lectures was diminished with quite light accents, as has been found with monologic lectures.


Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Feb 2016

Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework outlined inferences that require backing to support integration of one AWE tool, Criterion, into a college-level English as a Second Language (ESL) writing course. The present research appraised evidence for the assumptions underlying two inferences in this argument. In the first of two studies, we assessed evidence for the evaluation inference ...


The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey Jan 2016

The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey

English Publications

Multiple-choice formats remain a popular design for assessing listening comprehension, yet no consensus has been reached on how multiple-choice formats should be employed. Some researchers argue that test takers must be provided with a preview of the items prior to the input (Buck, 1995; Sherman, 1997); others argue that a preview may decrease the authenticity of the task by changing the way input is processed (Hughes, 2003). Using stratified random sampling techniques, more and less proficient Japanese university English learners (N = 206) were assigned one of three test conditions: preview of question stem and answer options (n = 67), preview of ...


The Design Of An Instrument To Evaluate Sotware For Efl/Esl Pronunciation Teaching, John Levis, Cristiana Gomes De Fretias Menezes Martins, Vladia Maria Cabral Borges Jan 2016

The Design Of An Instrument To Evaluate Sotware For Efl/Esl Pronunciation Teaching, John Levis, Cristiana Gomes De Fretias Menezes Martins, Vladia Maria Cabral Borges

English Publications

This study aimed at designing an instrument composed of 72 questions that evaluate the extent to which sotware programs teach pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language and/or Second Language (EFL/ESL) following the principles of the Communicative Approach (Celce-Murcia et al, 2010). he designed instrument was tested for reliability and validity. For this purpose, 46 EFL/ESL teachers used the instrument to analyze an online version of the sotware program Pronunciation Power 2. he participants’ answers to the questions were subjected to reliability and validity tests. he results of these statistical tests suggest the instrument is potentially valid ...


Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi Jan 2015

Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi

English Publications

Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the interpretations made from a reported study. This article attempts to fill this void by providing a set of reporting guidelines appropriate for language assessment researchers.


New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li Jan 2015

New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li

English Publications

The assessment of oral communication has continued to evolve over the past few decades. The construct being assessed has broadened to include interactional competence, and technology has played a role in the types of tasks that are currently popular. In this paper, we discuss the factors that affect the process of oral communication assessment, current conceptualizations of the construct to be assessed, and five tasks that are used to assess this construct. These tasks include oral proficiency interviews, paired/group oral discussion tasks, simulated tasks, integrated oral communication tasks, and elicited imitation tasks. We evaluate these tasks based on current ...


Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis Jan 2015

Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis

English Publications

Success in L2 pronunciation learning is affected by both individual differ-ences and social influences on learning. While individual differences have been extensively researched, social influences have not. This study examines the beliefs and attitudes of advanced learners of English in regard to their pronunciation abilities and improvement. Twelve graduate students took part in four weeks of individualized pronunciation tutoring followed by inter-views asking about their pronunciation, use of English, and their pronuncition in social contexts. The interviews revealed four images of their pronunciation learning. The first was that their spoken language skills left them feeling pulled in conflicting directions; the ...


Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao Jan 2015

Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao

English Publications

This chapter is based on a case study conducted in Xisheng (pseudonym promised to the participants for anonymity purposes) in Northwest China to explore teachers’ perspectives on teaching under the market economy system. The original plan was to study local indigenous teachers, but that was not possible due to political sensitivity of the region at the time of data collection. As a result, we interviewed mostly Han teachers, including as many local indigenous teachers as possible. We think that the study is still useful as it was the first study of its kind and that it was informative regarding the ...


Spoken Parentheticals In Instructional Discourse In Stem And Non-Stem Disciplines, Tammy Slater, John Levis, Greta M. Levis Jan 2015

Spoken Parentheticals In Instructional Discourse In Stem And Non-Stem Disciplines, Tammy Slater, John Levis, Greta M. Levis

English Publications

Parentheticals, information that is not directly relevant to the topic being addressed, appear in all academic lectures and help listeners distinguish important from less important information. Their use is a critical skill for all teachers. Despite their importance, research on parentheticals in teaching is scarce. This chapter explores the instructional discourse of native English-speaking teaching assistants and international teaching assistants regarding the use of parentheticals, primarily in terms of the intonational and informational patterns they exhibit. Our analysis involved discourse data collected from sixteen classes, eight from chemistry (four taught by native English-speaking TAs and four taught by ITAs) and ...


From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French Jan 2014

From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French

English Publications

Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given this dilemma, this study aimed to determine the extent to which accent strength and familiarity affect comprehension and to provide a defensible direction for assessing multidialectal listening comprehension. A strength of accent scale was developed, and one US, four Australian, and four British English speakers of English were selected ...


Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2014

Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper discusses the potential of technology-mediated forms of L2 strategy instruction (SI) to not only facilitate SI but to enhance evaluation of SI interventions and L2 strategy research more generally. It uses results from a recent empirical study to show how computer-based forms of SI may offer remedies for problematic features of evaluation, including access to process data showing how learners actually perform strategy-related tasks, the timing and frequency of collection of learner perception data, and most importantly, data about task perception and meta-cognitive monitoring, which can position L2 strategies within frameworks for self-regulated learning. The underlying premise of ...


Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper explores the feasibility of an automated, online form of L2 strategy instruction (SI) as an alternative to conventional, classroom-based forms that rely primarily on teachers. Feasibility was evaluated by studying the effectiveness, both actual and perceived, of a five-week, online SI course designed to teach web-based dictionary skills integrated with knowledge of lexical patterns (involving grammatical collocation, complementation, and transitivity). Sixty-four learners in a US university ESL composition course were matched for vocabulary size and then randomly assigned to treatment and comparison groups in a learning management system. The SI treatment comprised multimedia presentations and a variety of ...


The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie Jan 2013

The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie

English Publications

For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents’ self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some preadolescent ethnic groups. This study examines the extent to which a 6-factor model of academic self-concept, in which competence and affect are distinct, is tenable for White, Hispanic, and Native American preadolescents. A total of 313 White, 331 Hispanic, and 224 Native American preadolescents from the southwestern United States were administered a modified version of ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Effectiveness Studies On Computer Technology-Supported Language Learning, Maja Grgurovic, Carol Chapelle, Mack C. Shelley Jan 2013

A Meta-Analysis Of Effectiveness Studies On Computer Technology-Supported Language Learning, Maja Grgurovic, Carol Chapelle, Mack C. Shelley

English Publications

With the aim of summarizing years of research comparing pedagogies for second/foreign language teaching supported with computer technology and pedagogy not-supported by computer technology, a meta-analysis was conducted of empirical research investigating language outcomes. Thirty-seven studies yielding 52 effect sizes were included, following a search of literature from 1970 to 2006 and screening of studies based on stated criteria. The differences in research designs required subdivision of studies, but overall results favored the technology-supported pedagogy, with a small, but positive and statistically significant effect size. Second/foreign language instruction supported by computer technology was found to be at least ...


Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated, online form of strategy instruction outside of class time, facilitating self-paced learning with sufficient practice and feedback. In addition to the L2 lexicography, vocabulary, and strategy literatures, the project is informed by instructional design principles aimed at 1) managing demands on learners’ cognitive processing capacities; 2) differentiating materials so as to appropriately target declarative or procedural ...


Not Just Showing Up To Class: New Tas, Critical Composition Pedagogy, And Multiliteracies, Barbara J. Blakely Apr 2012

Not Just Showing Up To Class: New Tas, Critical Composition Pedagogy, And Multiliteracies, Barbara J. Blakely

English Publications

New TAs, who teach most first-year composition (hereafter FYC) in major universities, gamely take on a variety of new experiences during their first semesters in the classroom (Bettencourt; Duffelmeyer “Learning to Learn,” “New Perspectives”; Farris; Marback). These TAs, despite their often-unacknowledged or overlooked teaching role in the university, can and do participate in achieving institutional and programmatic goals by further “renegotiating the definition of first- and second-year composition courses from ‘service courses’ in the academy to sites of intellectual activity and forums for sharing world views” (Neeley). Their experiences combine the challenges of being a university instructor for the first ...


Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2012

Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006) to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the ...


Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos Jan 2012

Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The increasing dominance of English has elevated the need to develop an ability to effectively communicate in writing, and this has put a strain on second language education programs worldwide. Faced with time-consuming and copious commenting on student drafts and inspired by the promise of computerized writing assessment, many "educational technology enthusiasts are looking to A WE [automated writing evaluation] as a silver bullet for language and literacy development" (Warschauer & Ware, 2006, p. 175). This chapter reviews what AWE offers for learners and teachers and raises a number of controversies regarding A WE effectiveness with the underlying message that clear ...


Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater Jan 2012

Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater

English Publications

International teaching assistants (ITAs) often receive specialized training because their spoken English is not easily comprehensible. Lack of comprehensibility may be influenced by grammatical issues (Tyler, 1994), incorrect or inadequate discourse structure (Tyler, 1992; Williams, 1992), or aspects of their pronunciation, such as unclear sentence focus (Hahn, 2004) or intonation (Pickering, 2001; Wennerstrom, 1998). Problems with comprehensibility may be compounded by ITAs having learned English through formal, written models. However, we do not know how ITAs change written text into an oral lecture, nor how their strategies differ from those of native teaching assistants (NTAs) doing the same task. This ...


Potential Of Automated Writing Evaluation Feedback, Elena Cotos Jan 2011

Potential Of Automated Writing Evaluation Feedback, Elena Cotos

English Publications

This paper presents an empirical evaluation of automated writing evaluation (AWE) feedback used for L2 academic writing teaching and learning. It introduces the Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator (IADE), a new web-based AWE program that analyzes the introduction section to research articles and generates immediate, individualized, and discipline-specific feedback. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential of IADE’s feedback. A mixed-methods approach with a concurrent transformative strategy was employed. Quantitative data consisted of responses to Likert-scale, yes/no, and open-ended survey questions; automated and human scores for first and final drafts; and pre-/posttest scores. Qualitative data ...


Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos Jan 2011

Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos

English Publications

Wimba Voice 6.0TM is a component of the Wimba Collaboraton SuiteTM 6.0, which is a set of tools for online communication that combines a series of interactive technologies. Wimba Voice allows teachers to complement their pedagogical approaches with five web-based applications: Voice Authoring, Voice Board, Voice Podcaster, Voice Presenter, and Voice Email. These applications add audio and video components to asynchronous communication and can be easily integrated into different course management environments (e.g., Angel, Blackboard, Moodle, WebCT). Consequently, Wimba Voice has attracted the interest of an increasing number of language educators who are striving to enhance teaching ...


Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli Jan 2011

Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

It is interesting to consider that task-based learning and teaching (TBLT) and computer-assisted language learning (CALL) both originated in the 1980s, were long considered marginal to mainstream language education (though this has thankfully changed), and more recently have been the focus of increasing scholarly attention, and yet to date no book has explicitly addressed the potential links between these two fields. What antecedents and principles do they share, and how can they mutually inform each other’s contributions to second language pedagogy and research? Task-based language learning and teaching with technology, edited by Michael Thomas and Hayo Reinders, attempts to ...


Assessing Language And Content: A Functional Perspective, Bernard Mohan, Constant Leung, Tammy Slater Jan 2010

Assessing Language And Content: A Functional Perspective, Bernard Mohan, Constant Leung, Tammy Slater

English Publications

This chapter will discuss the integrated assessment of language and content (IALC), with particular reference to second language learning and use. We will address the central question of IALC: what does it mean to assess language and content in an integrated way? To put the question more specifically: what does it mean to assess how wording constructs meaning (and particularly content meaning) in text in context?


Towards Systematic And Sustained Formative Assessment Of Causal Explanations In Oral Interactions, Tammy Slater, Bernard Mohan Jan 2010

Towards Systematic And Sustained Formative Assessment Of Causal Explanations In Oral Interactions, Tammy Slater, Bernard Mohan

English Publications

The questions and answers in the above exchanges are common occurrences in classroom discourse: requests by the teacher for causal explanations and efforts by the students to give them. To succeed in school, students need to be able to explain causally, and teachers need to be able to assess these explanations. Students’ causal explanations allow teachers to check understandings of how and why; thus, examining the development of this type of discourse has the potential to provide a framework for formative assessment that can promote learning. Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body ...


The Spread Of Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Carol Chapelle Jan 2010

The Spread Of Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I argue that some valuable lessons about materials evaluation can be drawn from reflection on issues in CALL evaluation. In particular, I discuss the opportunities for professionals to reconsider assumptions held about comparative research, draw upon research perspectives and methods from applied linguistics in materials evaluation, and include critical perspectives ...