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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Curriculum Designed To Teach Elementary-Age Children In Diverse Settings The Kingdom Concept Of Loving One’S Neighbor, Abigail J. Flood Mar 2024

A Curriculum Designed To Teach Elementary-Age Children In Diverse Settings The Kingdom Concept Of Loving One’S Neighbor, Abigail J. Flood

ELAIA

United States Census data from 2020 show that the country is becoming increasingly diverse and urbanized. Other research shows children are aware of race from an early age and can pick up biases and stereotypes by watching the adults around them. However, there are no children’s ministry curricula that specifically address how children should navigate differences from a biblical perspective. To fill this gap, a children’s ministry curriculum was written to model how children can love their neighbors like Jesus did, especially those who look different from themselves. The curriculum is comprised of an introduction for the ministry leader, five …


Curriculum And Instructional Strategies To Strengthen A Smoking Cessation Intervention Program, Therese Lynetta Burrell Prehay Mar 2024

Curriculum And Instructional Strategies To Strengthen A Smoking Cessation Intervention Program, Therese Lynetta Burrell Prehay

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In a British Overseas territory, a smoking cessation program was implemented in 2014 and had not been evaluated since inception. The problem that was addressed in this study was that despite the implementation of the “I Can Quit” program, it was unknown which curriculum and instructional strategy interventions participants thought were useful in supporting smoking cessation. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to explore the “I Can Quit” participants’ perspectives on the curriculum and instructional strategies used to support the smoking cessation intervention. With Knowles’s adult learning theory as the conceptual framework, participants’ perspectives on the curriculum and …


What Hospitality And Tourism Higher Educators Learned From Covid-19: A Case Of Turkiye, Ayse Collins, Ayse S. Dulger, Muharrem Tuna, Muzaffer Uysal Mar 2024

What Hospitality And Tourism Higher Educators Learned From Covid-19: A Case Of Turkiye, Ayse Collins, Ayse S. Dulger, Muharrem Tuna, Muzaffer Uysal

Journal of Global Education and Research

Among all the sectors, the hospitality and tourism sector has been detrimentally affected by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to determine how changes have been experienced specifically in the Turkish tourism higher education and tourism sector. Twenty-seven academics from the hospitality and tourism education departments were interviewed. Most agreed that restrictions have limited student access to hands-on practical courses and internships, which are crucial to developing necessary competencies. Moreover, the results showed the curriculum does not always meet the needs of the hospitality industry for a trained and skilled workforce. The challenge is to decide what …


“It Ain’T Gonna Be My History”: Collaborative Meaning-Making To Advance Curricular Sovereignty With(In) Rural, Indigenous-Serving Schools, Amanda Leclair-Diaz, Christine Stanton Feb 2024

“It Ain’T Gonna Be My History”: Collaborative Meaning-Making To Advance Curricular Sovereignty With(In) Rural, Indigenous-Serving Schools, Amanda Leclair-Diaz, Christine Stanton

The Rural Educator

This article describes storywork and collaborative meaning making as relational practices that can support stakeholder learning about curricular sovereignty with(in) rural Indigenous-serving school districts. While various treaties and policies exist to protect the educational interests of Indigenous Nations, enacting curricular sovereignty often demands extensive resources that are limited in many rural reservation and reservation bordertown contexts. The authors, who have a long-standing relationship as co-learners, exchange stories about their experiences as an Indigenous student and non-Indigenous educator within such contexts, and then engage in collaborative meaning making to think more deeply about these experiences as curriculum decision makers and scholars. …


A Roadmap For Trauma-Informed Practice Integration In Teacher Preparation Content, Kathryn S. Young, Ofelia Castro Schepers Feb 2024

A Roadmap For Trauma-Informed Practice Integration In Teacher Preparation Content, Kathryn S. Young, Ofelia Castro Schepers

Journal of Educational Research and Innovation

With the continued interest in trauma-informed practice (TIP) knowledge at the P-12 level, it has become imperative to consider the role of teacher preparation programs in providing this crucial knowledge to preservice educators. The TIP program at Mountain U (pseudonym) School of Education (SOE) is working to increase the current TIP knowledge of preservice teachers so that they are ready to implement TIP from the beginning of their careers. This paper adds to the trauma-informed literature in teacher preparation by describing the TIP initiative at Mountain U. It provides a roadmap for schools and departments that want to undertake this …


A155: Research On The Influence Of Kinesthetic Intelligence Courses With Industrialized Education On Children's Physical Fitness, Yanli Luo, Xiaoming Gong, Yanqing Chen, Lianglei Xiana, Jie Luo, Kaidi Wu Feb 2024

A155: Research On The Influence Of Kinesthetic Intelligence Courses With Industrialized Education On Children's Physical Fitness, Yanli Luo, Xiaoming Gong, Yanqing Chen, Lianglei Xiana, Jie Luo, Kaidi Wu

International Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Purpose: Nowadays, the industrialization of education has led to the shortage of teachers and consequently hindered resource allocation and curriculum optimization. These problems are profound for educators when applying Kinesthetic Intelligence (KI) curriculum for children in early childhood. This paper examines the impact of the current KI course delivery on children’s physical fitness to provide reference for researchers and educators. Methods: Forty-six kids were randomly selected from two intermediate Kindergarten classes and were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). A pre-test of physical fitness was done on eight indices such as stature, weight, throwing, and …


A127: Difficulties Facing And Coping Strategies Of Physical Education And Health Interdisciplinary Teaching In China, Jie Yang, Liping Xu, Zhihua Yin Feb 2024

A127: Difficulties Facing And Coping Strategies Of Physical Education And Health Interdisciplinary Teaching In China, Jie Yang, Liping Xu, Zhihua Yin

International Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Purpose: In response to the national demand for compound talents, “Physical Education (PE) and Health Curriculum (2022 version) for Compulsory Education” proposes to include interdisciplinary teaching in five major courses in China. Due to the lack of course cases for reference, there’s a certain gap between interdisciplinary theory and practice. Therefore, it’s urgent to analyze the difficulties faced by interdisciplinary teaching and find out the coping strategies. Methods: By using keywords such as "interdisciplinary teaching," "PE and health curriculum," and "interdisciplinary," this study collected and studied 39 articles from CNKI, Web of Science, Scopus, and other databases, and analyzed the …


A135: Challenges And Strategies Of Physical Fitness Course In Primary And Middle Schools, Yuxiao Lian, Haohui Liu, Zhihua Yin Feb 2024

A135: Challenges And Strategies Of Physical Fitness Course In Primary And Middle Schools, Yuxiao Lian, Haohui Liu, Zhihua Yin

International Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Purpose: Developing students’ overall competencies and physical health is an important goal of physical education and health curriculum (PEHC). PEHC Standards for Compulsory Education (2022) and PEHC Standards for Senior High Schools (2017) both designate Physical Fitness as a required course to achieve this goal. To date, it’s not clear about how the course has been implemented and its effectiveness. Therefore, this study was to identify problems associated with teaching Physical Fitness courses in primary and middle schools in China and to propose strategies for an improved implementation. Methods: First, the literature from CNKI, East China Normal University Library was …


Early Immersion In Team-Based Event Review: Experiential Patient Safety Education For Pgy 1 Internal Medicine Residents, Michelle Perkons, Alexis Wickersham, Sonia Bharel, Timothy Kuchera, Rebecca Jaffe Jan 2024

Early Immersion In Team-Based Event Review: Experiential Patient Safety Education For Pgy 1 Internal Medicine Residents, Michelle Perkons, Alexis Wickersham, Sonia Bharel, Timothy Kuchera, Rebecca Jaffe

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been a national push to incorporate high-fidelity quality improvement and patient safety (QIPS) education into physician training programs. In fact, integration of robust patient safety education became an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Common Program Requirement for residency programs in 2017. We developed a curriculum to not only fulfill the ACGME's requirement but also provide PGY 1 internal medicine residents with the skills needed to become active participants in ongoing patient safety work throughout their training and careers.

METHODS: Our patient safety curriculum was woven into residents' existing protected educational time and …


Perceptions Of Professionals, Faculty, And Students Regarding The Implementation Of An Agricultural Communications Degree Program In The United Kingdom, Jefferson D. Miller, Abby Davis, Kobina D. Fanyinkah, Alex Mcleod, Casandra Cox, K. Jill Rucker Jan 2024

Perceptions Of Professionals, Faculty, And Students Regarding The Implementation Of An Agricultural Communications Degree Program In The United Kingdom, Jefferson D. Miller, Abby Davis, Kobina D. Fanyinkah, Alex Mcleod, Casandra Cox, K. Jill Rucker

Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of professionals, faculty, and students regarding the implementation of an agricultural communications degree program in the United Kingdom (U.K). It aimed to gather detailed opinions to aid in the planning of future agricultural communications curricula in the U.K., where no formal academic programs in this discipline exist in higher education. This study used a qualitative approach in the form of interviews to gain in-depth opinions on four different research objectives. Participants were pooled from three different demographic groups in the U.K: industry professionals, faculty, and students. These stakeholder expressed that …


A Dakota Cultural Intervention’S Influence On Native Students’ Sense Of Belonging: A Cbpr Case Study, Heather J. Peters, Teresa R. Peterson, The Dakota Wicoḣaƞ Community Jan 2024

A Dakota Cultural Intervention’S Influence On Native Students’ Sense Of Belonging: A Cbpr Case Study, Heather J. Peters, Teresa R. Peterson, The Dakota Wicoḣaƞ Community

Psychology Publications

This community-based participatory research case study demonstrates how Dakota Wicoḣaƞ utilized Indigenous and feminist epistemologies to create, implement, and evaluate a cultural intervention, the Mni Sota Makoce: Dakota Homelands Curriculum, to increase Native 6th- and 10th-grade social studies students’ peoplehood sense of belonging (Tachine et al., 2017). Findings demonstrate Native students liked the curriculum and reported an increase in support and a decrease in invalidation of their sense of belonging. While the curriculum provided a source of racial-ethnic socialization, some European American students criticized the curriculum, which likely negatively impacted 6th-grade students psychological sense of school membership (Goodenow, 1993). Results …


High School Students' Perceptions Of Banned Books, Carissa Hennen Jan 2024

High School Students' Perceptions Of Banned Books, Carissa Hennen

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This research study consisted of interviews with twelve students ages 14-18 at a Northeastern Ohio high school to determine their opinions regarding banned books and content restrictions in schools. With book bans increasing and becoming a divisive topic, many adult figures such as parents, politicians, educators, and school administrators have made their opinions known, but student perspectives are often disregarded. This study seeks to further the research on opinions of book bans by extending these questions to students to fill this gap in research and gain deeper insight into the perception of high school students in regard to school curriculum. …


The Pancasila And Civic Education Curriculum Model At 21st Century, Eka Jayadiputra, Aim Abdul Karim, Sapriya Sapriya, Rahmat Rahmat Dec 2023

The Pancasila And Civic Education Curriculum Model At 21st Century, Eka Jayadiputra, Aim Abdul Karim, Sapriya Sapriya, Rahmat Rahmat

Jurnal Civics: Media Kajian Kewarganegaraan

The challenge of producing highly competitive and superior human resources is faced by nations worldwide, including Indonesia's education sector, specifically in Civic Education. Enhancing the quality of education requires a reconstructed curriculum that includes 21st-century competencies. This study aimed to describe the design model for developing citizenship skills in the current century. The research adopted a qualitative descriptive and quasi-experimental approach, collecting data through questionnaires, interviews, observations, documentation studies, and literature reviews. The sample comprised 180 high school students and Civic Education teachers from three schools in Bandung Regency. Findings showed that students' skills in Civic Education using the 2013 …


Deep Change Theory: Implications For Educational Development Leaders, Caitlin Martin, Elizabeth Wardle Dec 2023

Deep Change Theory: Implications For Educational Development Leaders, Caitlin Martin, Elizabeth Wardle

Publications

While chapters 1 and 2 explore the promise of theoretical frameworks for making conceptual change that leads to innovative action around teaching and learning in higher education, they also point out the challenges to this kind of work as teams of faculty strive to lead change in their programs and departments after completing the program. To summarize our claims thus far: one of the goals for the HCWE Faculty Writing Fellows Program is to empower faculty who participate to return to their departments to make programmatic changes—changes they identify as central to their work and values and program culture. The …


Decolonization Of The Writing Classroom: Creating Space For Decolonial Theory, Tools, Anti-Racist Pedagogy, And Methods To Improve The Emerging Bilingual Student Experience, Desiree L. Brown Dec 2023

Decolonization Of The Writing Classroom: Creating Space For Decolonial Theory, Tools, Anti-Racist Pedagogy, And Methods To Improve The Emerging Bilingual Student Experience, Desiree L. Brown

Masters Theses

In this thesis, the author addresses the colonial roots of the secondary writing classroom and the origin of standard academic English which enables strict standardized testing and writing assessment requirements that in-turn incite linguistic violence towards emerging bilingual students. The author frames her study within the framework of April Baker-Bell and Asao B. Inoue through a reflective/reflexive study of her teaching in a ninth grade writing classroom in a primarily Hispanic school district in South Texas, which is assessed by the state of Texas through STAAR. This study seeks to identify instances of linguistic violence being perpetuated in the writing …


Socially Engaged Engineering: A Framework For K-8 Education, Christine M. Cunningham, Gregory J. Kelly, Ashwin Mohan Dec 2023

Socially Engaged Engineering: A Framework For K-8 Education, Christine M. Cunningham, Gregory J. Kelly, Ashwin Mohan

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Socially engaged engineering provides for student learning of the design, analysis, and practices of engineering as well as the ways that engineering is situated in sociocultural contexts. This paper provides a conceptual framework regarding socially engaged engineering for K-8 educators, researchers, and curriculum designers. The framework identifies ways to support youth learning of engineering and considerations of technical, social, environmental, and ethical dimensions of engineering. As engineering enters K-8 educational settings, it is important to introduce the discipline in equity-oriented ways. We draw from the field of engineering for social justice to build this framework for examining engineering at the …


Student Athletic Therapists' Knowledge Of Pain-Relieving Medications: A Nationwide Study, Jackie Vandertuin, Dalya Abdulla, Stephanie Lowther, Joshua Collins Dec 2023

Student Athletic Therapists' Knowledge Of Pain-Relieving Medications: A Nationwide Study, Jackie Vandertuin, Dalya Abdulla, Stephanie Lowther, Joshua Collins

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: Misuse of pain-relieving medications (PRMs), including opioids, is high among injured athletes. Athletes are increasingly relying on PRMs and as a result, it is likely that student athletic therapists (SATs) have managed athletes who have misused PRMs and may have potentially missed important symptoms placing athletes in harm. While dispensing PRMs is not within the scope of practice of the SAT, recognition and referral are. Previous research has found that SATs feel ill prepared to recognize PRM misuse and feel tremendous pressure to provide correct health information to the athlete. The purpose of this study was to expand on …


Standards Based Inclusive Preschool Curriculum, Bridgette Leigh Dec 2023

Standards Based Inclusive Preschool Curriculum, Bridgette Leigh

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Abstract

The purpose of this project was to create an inclusive preschool curriculum geared toward all children ages 3-to-5 years-old. The curriculum demonstrated scripted and detailed instructions on how to conduct lessons in the developmental areas of cognitive and social-emotional. Those developmental areas were selected due to the research indicating the highest need areas for young children. In addition, the curriculum addressed: the Minnesota state educational standards for preschool age children, early childhood indicators of progress (ECIPs), and individual education plan (IEP) goals and objectives for young children who have special needs. The curriculum gives example case studies and ways …


Rhetoric Vs. Reality: A Critical Analysis Of Georgia’S Official Curriculum For United States History, Haley Dawkins Dec 2023

Rhetoric Vs. Reality: A Critical Analysis Of Georgia’S Official Curriculum For United States History, Haley Dawkins

Doctor of Education in Secondary and Middle Grades Education Dissertations

As there has been an increasing focus in education on standards-based instruction and accountability through standardized assessment, it is extremely important to analyze the standards closely. This study sought to explore and understand whose voices, experiences, and perspectives are represented and prioritized in the curriculum through the analysis of state standards and additional curricular resources. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory, this qualitative content analysis was designed to examine three of the curricular resources developed by the Georgia Department of Education to investigate how the Georgia United States History curriculum addresses race, racism, and representations of communities and individuals …


Curriculum As Theology: A Framework For Analyzing Curriculum As Theological Text, Russell Miller Dec 2023

Curriculum As Theology: A Framework For Analyzing Curriculum As Theological Text, Russell Miller

The Journal of Faith, Education, and Community

This article seeks to establish a framework that contemplates curriculum as theological text by exploring the works of Neil Postman, W.F. Pinar, and C.S. Lewis in relation to past and present research and commentary. The paper investigates a range of concepts related to theology and curriculum including culture and religion, ethics, and morality. The author argues that curriculum is intrinsically a theological endeavor due to the nature of humanity and the interaction between learning and spiritual development.


Review Of Student Agency In The Classroom: Honoring Student Voice In The Curriculum, Clyde Barnett Iii Dec 2023

Review Of Student Agency In The Classroom: Honoring Student Voice In The Curriculum, Clyde Barnett Iii

Mid-Western Educational Researcher

A review of the book Student Agency in the Classroom: Honoring Student Voice in the Curriculum by Margaret Vaughn.


Role Identities In Colombian Music Education Graduates, Jorge Hernán Hoyos Dec 2023

Role Identities In Colombian Music Education Graduates, Jorge Hernán Hoyos

The Qualitative Report

The tension between performer and teacher identities in music education is a widely recognized phenomenon within the profession. However, in Colombia, previous research has mainly focused on curricular evaluations, profile, and labor market conditions, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of identity. This study aimed to investigate the role identities among graduates of the Adventist University Corporation. Two focus groups were conducted to explore the existing condition of teacher and performer identities and the impact of government-mandated curricular modifications on recent graduates’ teacher identity. The results revealed a persistent dichotomy among participants in their working lives despite institutional efforts. …


Implications Of California State Standards In Relation To Disordered Eating For School Aged Children, Jessica De Mott Dec 2023

Implications Of California State Standards In Relation To Disordered Eating For School Aged Children, Jessica De Mott

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Food is a part of people’s lives, even when it is not acknowledged. It is distinctly tied to various cultures, ethnicities, and religions; with elements of restriction and gluttony abundant. Then, there is the complication of modern nutrition and health education that is taught in American, and more specifically in Californian schools. But, the education received on this issue has failed some students. Many school aged children reported that they experienced disordered eating, and learning content has further exacerbated this issue. This senior capstone research will examine the implications of California State Standards in relation to disordered eating for school …


De-Colonizing Media Literacy: An Indigenous Positive Deviance Case Study Of A Guam-Texas Community Empowering Civic Education For Inafaâ??Maolek Self-Determination, Roque Aguon Dec 2023

De-Colonizing Media Literacy: An Indigenous Positive Deviance Case Study Of A Guam-Texas Community Empowering Civic Education For Inafaâ??Maolek Self-Determination, Roque Aguon

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

ABSTRACT

DE-COLONIZING MEDIA LITERACY: AN INDIGENOUS POSITIVE DEVIANCE CASE STUDY OF A GUAM-TEXAS COMMUNITY EMPOWERING CIVIC EDUCATION FOR INAFA’MAOLEK SELF-DETERMINATION

This case study delves into the realm of civic and media education within varied municipalities in Guam and Texas, which, to date, have been underexplored by contemporary Indigenous social science researchers within the dominant white culture. The investigation focuses on elucidating how influencers from diverse cultural groups employ education and propaganda in the municipal public policy-making process, contributing to holistic community development, democratic citizenship education, and social transformation. The primary aim of this study is to underscore the imperative need …


Reimagining Associate Degree Nursing Education: An Insider’S View, Ntiense E. Otu Dec 2023

Reimagining Associate Degree Nursing Education: An Insider’S View, Ntiense E. Otu

Theses and Dissertations

The demographics of nursing students in the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program are diverse, hence the need for nurse educators to prepare and handle the challenges faculty face in the ADN program. Although many pieces of literature have addressed different modalities of instructional delivery and teaching methods in nursing education, transition experience of nurse educators, and teaching preparation and readiness, these are not evident in the ADN programs in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV). The teaching preparation of nurse educators and their utilization of instructional methods in the ADN program in the RGV is limited in the literature. This study …


Incorporating Sustainability Into Utah High School's Textiles And Apparel Curriculum, Michelle Clouse Dec 2023

Incorporating Sustainability Into Utah High School's Textiles And Apparel Curriculum, Michelle Clouse

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

The purpose of this study was to propose sustainability-based curriculum changes to Utah's textiles and apparel (TA) curriculum. This study's specific curriculum change proposals are limited to Sewing Construction and Textiles (SCT) 1 and Sports and Outdoor Design (SOD) 1 courses. The proposed changes were made with the input of 24 Utah FCS TA educators via a research-developed survey on Qualtrics. FCS TA educators were asked to give their input on sustainability topics already taught in their classroom, teaching methods of sustainable topics, potential barriers to incorporating sustainability into the curriculum, and their receptiveness to curriculum change.

The Teacher Attitudes …


Steps On Establishing A Faculty Development Curriculum For Health Science Educators In A New Medical School, Beatriz Tapia, Karina Madrigal, Robert Nelson Oct 2023

Steps On Establishing A Faculty Development Curriculum For Health Science Educators In A New Medical School, Beatriz Tapia, Karina Madrigal, Robert Nelson

Research Colloquium

Purpose: New Medical Schools need health science educators, to teach throughout the medical education continuum from basic science to clinical years. The need to establish a defined faculty development curriculum for health science educators will aid in standardizing best teaching practices and build a potential master teacher to move the curriculum toward active learning and innovation. The UTRGV SoM is a distributed campus, to achieve increase outreach we will offer synchronous and asynchronous online faculty development during the pandemic. This poster will share our progress to date.

Methods: A pilot, faculty development program, was established from faculty needs assessment data, …


Establishing A Mentoring Program For Health Science Educators In A New Medical School, Karina Madrigal, Beatriz Tapia, Robert Nelson Oct 2023

Establishing A Mentoring Program For Health Science Educators In A New Medical School, Karina Madrigal, Beatriz Tapia, Robert Nelson

Research Colloquium

Purpose: New Medical Schools need mentoring programs to enhance the personal and professional development of mentees and mentors. The need to establish a mentoring support mechanism is critical. This poster will share our progress to date.

Methods: A pilot mentoring program was established for junior faculty. These faculty members were paired with an associate professor or professor to serve as mentors for career development and engage in a focused scholarly project over a nine-month period.

Typically, the junior faculty is within the first three years of appointment and hold the rank of assistant professor. Each mentee will have 10% protected …


On-Ramps For Refugees: A Workplace Safety Iet Curriculum For Low-Proficiency English Learners, Annamarie Hansen Oct 2023

On-Ramps For Refugees: A Workplace Safety Iet Curriculum For Low-Proficiency English Learners, Annamarie Hansen

School of Education and Leadership Student Capstone Projects

This capstone project aims to address the question: “How can current career pathway programs be expanded to create more “on-ramps” for Refugee ELL students at lower English proficiency levels? What role can community-based organizations take in creating “on-ramps”? This paper was inspired by the teacher’s professional experiences working with refugees with lower-level English proficiency seeking to re-enter their chosen career fields. The paper provides an overview of the literature with a specific focus on Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL), the Career Pathway model, Integrated Education and Training (IET) programs, and the need for “on-ramps” to create additional points …


An Effective Small Group Reading Intervention Scope And Sequence For Students In Grades Three To Five, Caitlin Phan Oct 2023

An Effective Small Group Reading Intervention Scope And Sequence For Students In Grades Three To Five, Caitlin Phan

School of Education and Leadership Student Capstone Projects

The guiding question of this project is: What is the most effective scope and sequence for a reading academic support curriculum designed for small groups of students in grades three to five? The purpose of the project is to address the critical need for a well-defined scope and sequence for reading academic support teachers. Research that influenced the written scope and sequence includes reading intervention history, elementary students, struggling readers, types of approaches to teaching reading, and three schools of thought regarding teaching reading (Fountas and Pinnell, Orton-Gillingham, and Science of Reading). Integrating this research, the scope and sequence project …