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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Phenomenological Study Of The Perceptions Of Behavioral Supports For Students With Low Functioning Autism In Virtual Learning Programs, Alicia L. Chamberlin May 2024

A Phenomenological Study Of The Perceptions Of Behavioral Supports For Students With Low Functioning Autism In Virtual Learning Programs, Alicia L. Chamberlin

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of Special Education Teachers regarding positive behavioral supports for students with Low Functioning Autism (LFA) and behavioral challenges who participate in virtual learning environments. The theory guiding this study is Thorndike’s associative learning theory as it provides a framework for understanding the challenges associated with the application of behavioral supports within the virtual learning environment. The Central Research Question in this study is: What are the shared experiences of Special Education Teachers who implement positive behavioral supports (PBS) for students with LFA and behavioral challenges who participate in …


Neurodiversity Persistence In Stem Programs: A Phenomenological Study Of Self-Efficacy Among Autistic Students In Higher Education, Cecil Anthony Banning May 2024

Neurodiversity Persistence In Stem Programs: A Phenomenological Study Of Self-Efficacy Among Autistic Students In Higher Education, Cecil Anthony Banning

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of self-efficacy among neurodiverse students in STEM programs at four-year universities. Albert Bandara’s social cognitive theory (SCT) guided this study as it relates to the influence of environment, social interaction, and communication on learning development and academic mastery. Improving academic self-efficacy among neurodiverse students in STEM programs in higher education begins with understanding how these students encounter the academic world. SCT provided the framework for this study to answer the central research question and sub-questions: (1) What are the self-efficacy experiences of neurodiverse students currently enrolled in a …


A Multi-Site Case Study Examing How Iep Teams Determine The Least Restrictive Placement For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder At The Elementary School Level, Jennifer J. Hull May 2024

A Multi-Site Case Study Examing How Iep Teams Determine The Least Restrictive Placement For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder At The Elementary School Level, Jennifer J. Hull

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive, multi-site case study was to determine the criteria individualized education program (IEP) teams used to find the least restrictive environment (LRE) placement for a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the elementary school level. The theoretical framework of this study was Maslow’s theory of human motivation, which described a hierarchy that should be in place for students to be ready to learn. Knowles’s adult learning theory also guided this study as it described how the adults’ experience shaped their decision-making. I collected data through direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. Utilizing a purposeful …


Physical Aggression And Self-Injurious Behaviors Towards Self Or Others By Non-Verbal/Minimally Verbal Secondary Special Education Students With Autism In A Self-Contained Classroom: A Qualitative Case Study, Rodney Keith Jackson May 2024

Physical Aggression And Self-Injurious Behaviors Towards Self Or Others By Non-Verbal/Minimally Verbal Secondary Special Education Students With Autism In A Self-Contained Classroom: A Qualitative Case Study, Rodney Keith Jackson

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this single intrinsic case study was to describe the experiences of using multiple forms of non-verbal interventions to decrease physical aggression and self-injurious behaviors for special education staff members in self-contained classrooms in Behaviorville ISD. The theory guiding this study was B. F. Skinner’s theory on behaviorism. It explains how non-verbal interventions affect an individual’s environment, how reinforcers influence their behaviors, and how all actions are interconnected. Participants were 10 people who are full-time employees of BISD and have worked with or volunteered with non-verbal/minimally verbal secondary special education students with physical aggression, self-injurious behaviors, and autism …


Professional Development And Training For The Inclusion Of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Pre-Kindergarten: A Phenomenological Study, Melinda K. Parsons- Shadid Apr 2024

Professional Development And Training For The Inclusion Of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Pre-Kindergarten: A Phenomenological Study, Melinda K. Parsons- Shadid

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences utilizing professional resources to aid in the early childhood education development of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder for teachers at charter schools in a large city in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The problem is that there are limited professional resources to reduce early childhood education teachers' ability to educate students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder within the general classroom. One central research question and three sub-questions explored the purpose and problem of this study, which were guided by social cognitive theory. The central research question …


Understanding Unique Employability Skill Sets Of Autistic Individuals: A Systematic Review, Amy Jane Griffiths, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Wallace Walrod, Zachary Maupin, John Brady Mar 2024

Understanding Unique Employability Skill Sets Of Autistic Individuals: A Systematic Review, Amy Jane Griffiths, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Wallace Walrod, Zachary Maupin, John Brady

Education Faculty Articles and Research

In recent years, several publications and media outlets have highlighted how the skills and interests of autistic individuals may benefit organizations. However, there is scant empirical research on the topic. The present study's authors conducted a systematic review to find which potential employability skills, strengths, and interests of autistic individuals available research has highlighted. Data extraction methods identified 51 papers related to skills in this population. The skill sets autistic individuals may possess and the research behind these findings were organized, evaluated, and summarized. Based on these findings, investigators discuss implications for employment counseling and future research.


Identifying Critical Employability Skills For Employment Success Of Autistic Individuals: A Content Analysis Of Job Postings, Amy Jane Griffiths, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Angel Miles Nash, Wallace Walrod, Petersen Walrod, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado Feb 2024

Identifying Critical Employability Skills For Employment Success Of Autistic Individuals: A Content Analysis Of Job Postings, Amy Jane Griffiths, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Angel Miles Nash, Wallace Walrod, Petersen Walrod, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado

Education Faculty Articles and Research

This study aimed to examine the literature on the skill sets of autistic individuals and determine how these skills align with current and projected future labour market needs. Based on a literature review, researchers identified the following skill categories common to autistic individuals: visual skills, attention to detail and systemizing composite skills. Researchers then gathered aggregated data on occupations and industries from over 90 state and federal sources in the United States. Next, they collected data on the most in-demand jobs, their industries and relevant skills by analysing hundreds of millions of online job postings. The results indicate the most …


The Ability Of Autism-Specific Professional Development And Years Of Experience To Predict Teacher Self-Efficacy For Those Working With Students On The Autism Spectrum, Kathleen M. Howard Nov 2023

The Ability Of Autism-Specific Professional Development And Years Of Experience To Predict Teacher Self-Efficacy For Those Working With Students On The Autism Spectrum, Kathleen M. Howard

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative predictive correlation study was to examine teacher self-efficacy while working with students on the autism spectrum (ASD), as related to autism specific professional development and years of experience. Autism is being diagnosed at an exceptional rate, resulting in a greater emphasis being placed on educators to provide effective interventions, in both the general education and special education classrooms. Positive self-efficacy among teachers working with students on the autism spectrum is critical to improving educational outcomes for this unique population. A random sample of 73 teachers from six schools in a rural Virginia school district completed …


Implementation Of Star To Support Students With Disabilities, Lexis Barkema Oct 2023

Implementation Of Star To Support Students With Disabilities, Lexis Barkema

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

This paper examines the use of a comprehensive autism program in a school district, looking specifically at an elementary school in North Central Iowa. The school does a great job of providing support and interventions for students with autism, disabilities, and specific learning needs with the resources they currently have available to them. This school improvement plan provides a detailed outline of using a comprehensive autism program to better serve and meet the needs of students in their specific need areas. The plan will provide professional development, support, and resources for teachers and paraprofessionals who are implementing the program.


Neuroaffirmative Approaches To Extended Reality: Empowering Individuals With Autism Spectrum Condition Through Immersive Learning Environments, James Hutson, Caitlyn Mcginley Aug 2023

Neuroaffirmative Approaches To Extended Reality: Empowering Individuals With Autism Spectrum Condition Through Immersive Learning Environments, James Hutson, Caitlyn Mcginley

Faculty Scholarship

Traditional teaching and working environments often prioritize extroverted qualities, disadvantaging individuals with conditions that impact social engagement, such as autism spectrum condition (ASC). These individuals usually thrive in calmer, low-key learning environments but face challenges in lecture-style classes, and traditional office environments leading to marginalization in academic and professional settings. This study explores the neuroaffirming potential of extended reality (XR) in creating immersive learning and working environments tailored to the unique needs of individuals with ASC. By focusing on four key factors—indirect social engagement, digital communication preferences, sensory sensitivity, and avatar-based communication—XR technologies can provide a supportive and accommodating environment …


Embracing Diverse Thinkers: A Case Study Examining The Graduation Rates From A High Autism College Student Population, Beverly Donovan Jun 2023

Embracing Diverse Thinkers: A Case Study Examining The Graduation Rates From A High Autism College Student Population, Beverly Donovan

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to describe how Alpha College, a private college in the southeastern United States with high neurodiverse enrollment, generates uniquely high graduation rates for its autistic student population. The case study answers the following central question: CQ) How does Alpha College, a private college in the southeastern United States with high neurodiverse enrollment, generate high graduation rates for its autistic student population? The intrinsic case design focused on the case itself; Alpha College observes uniquely high graduation rates of autistic students. This study was guided by Blume and Singers' social stigma theory and …


Neurodiversity In The Classroom: Reframing General Educators’ Thoughts On Neurodiversity And Inclusion, Ivy Madden May 2023

Neurodiversity In The Classroom: Reframing General Educators’ Thoughts On Neurodiversity And Inclusion, Ivy Madden

Critical and Creative Thinking Capstones Collection

This synthesis is designed to teach general education teachers about neurodiversity and the importance of recognizing neurodivergent students to better assist them in class. This includes exploring different ways to teach, perform lessons, and provide choices for students to choose how to do their assignments in order to express their knowledge. Specifically for general educators, the ideas presented are encouraged for teachers to research and implement for both neurodivergent and neurotypical students in their classrooms.

The Action Research method of problem solving inspired this synthesis and guided it to its completion. It is dedicated to my constituents (my colleagues), and …


Twice-Exceptional Autism And Home Education: A Phenomenological Analysis, Tiffany Brook Hartman May 2023

Twice-Exceptional Autism And Home Education: A Phenomenological Analysis, Tiffany Brook Hartman

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

It is common for autistic and particularly twice-exceptional (2e) children to be schooled from home at a higher rate than their neurotypical peers. Much of the current research investigating this phenomenon is conducted from the perspective of the public school system. This point of view is generally critical of the curriculum taught in the home, has largely limited parental voices in the literature, and overlooks possible circumstances in the public school system that might have led families to choose to homeschool. This qualitative analysis conducted open-ended interviews of parents with twice-exceptional autistic children who have home-educated or currently educate their …


The Effects Social Media Has On Depressive And Neuro Developmental Disorders, Daniel James Goble Apr 2023

The Effects Social Media Has On Depressive And Neuro Developmental Disorders, Daniel James Goble

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Social media has played a huge role in society today and is one of the most common activities in everyday life for people of all ages. Due to the long amount of time that most users spend on social media daily, some trends seem to grow and become very visible over time that have a negative impact on mental health but also on neuro developmental disorders. Neurodevelopmental disorders are identified through a list of symptoms and characteristics that show a problem in how the brain is developing. Due to social media still being very new in this generation and with …


Photographs And Parent Training To Support Conversations About Past Events Between Caregivers And Children With Autism, Naima Bhana, Tracy J. Raulston, Ciara Ousley, Atikah Bagawan Apr 2023

Photographs And Parent Training To Support Conversations About Past Events Between Caregivers And Children With Autism, Naima Bhana, Tracy J. Raulston, Ciara Ousley, Atikah Bagawan

Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders: Faculty Publications

Objectives Children with autism spectrum disorder experience communication difficulties that can make it challenging to engage in conversations. Their caregivers also often struggle with finding ways to support the child’s communication. Parent-implemented interventions and visual supports are evidence-based practices to support the communication skills of children with autism.

Method A multi-method design (single-case multiple probe and qualitative) was used to evaluate the effects of family photographs, training, and telecoaching on parental implementation of communication strategies. Three parents and their children with and at risk for autism participated.

Results Results indicate that the use of photographs increased the communication strategies used …


Efficacy Of Discrete Trial Training, Paula Ahlrich Apr 2023

Efficacy Of Discrete Trial Training, Paula Ahlrich

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

This action research was driven by the researcher’s interest in Autism and Discrete Trial Training- specifically the efficacy of implementation and the generalization of skills learned into the classroom. The researcher is a preschool teacher in her 15th year of Early Childhood education. The 4-week intervention was conducted during specially designed instruction, but also how those skills taught have been displayed during large and small group time. Throughout the 4 weeks progress was monitored using the CBTU recording sheets and DTT steps. Findings revealed common generalization of skills when the student was presented with the cue outside of the trial …


Music Education Of Korean-American Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) Living In Los Angeles County And Orange County, Hyoungjik Kim Jan 2023

Music Education Of Korean-American Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) Living In Los Angeles County And Orange County, Hyoungjik Kim

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Students with special needs are legally guaranteed comprehensive educational support, but some school districts do not provide education support for students with special needs because they do not know the laws and regulations. Also, some local school districts do not provide adequate educational support for special-needs students, even though they know the law. Therefore, this qualitative study investigates the current state of music education for Korean-American students with special needs living in Los Angeles County and Orange County through surveys and statistical data on local school districts. In particular, most schools have already implemented inclusive music classes. Therefore, music teachers …


A Mother’S Prayer Through The Five Words Of A Son With Autism, Melinda S. Burchard Ph.D. Jan 2023

A Mother’S Prayer Through The Five Words Of A Son With Autism, Melinda S. Burchard Ph.D.

Faculty Educator Scholarship

Recently, my friend has been figuring out that her child has autism, processing what that means for education, for church, and for family life. She grapples with lost expectations, daily challenges, confusion, and isolation. My parenting journey is not her own, but I relate to her pain and her hopes. I wrote this first for her and now share this piece in love specifically for parents of children with disabilities. Through a very specific lens of parenting a child with a disability, using the five words of my son with severe autism, I reflect upon the deep meaning of the …


Let's Count The Ways We Can Utilize Technology To Improve Instructional Practices For Individuals With Autism, Heather Coleman, Annemarie L. Horn, Selena J. Layden, Christian Coogle Jan 2023

Let's Count The Ways We Can Utilize Technology To Improve Instructional Practices For Individuals With Autism, Heather Coleman, Annemarie L. Horn, Selena J. Layden, Christian Coogle

Human Movement Studies & Special Education Faculty Publications

To maximize instruction and learning outcomes, it is essential that educators and family members who support individuals with autism have adequate training and support required to implement evidence-based practices (EBPs) with fidelity. Research shows various coaching methods, including self-coaching and classroom-based feedback, yield positive outcomes in terms of increasing practical application and sustained use of EBPs. With the growing prevalence of autism, it is essential to find effective coaching methods that can be utilized equitably across geographic locations and learning environments. Fortunately, technology affords educators and others the opportunity to receive quality coaching and feedback without facing traditional barriers (e.g., …


Increasing Collaboration And Knowledge In School Communities To Enhance Outcomes For Autistic Students, Amy Jane Griffiths, Diana Baker, John Brady, Kelly Kennedy, Anaiza Valladolid, Rachel Wiegand, Raquel Delgado Dec 2022

Increasing Collaboration And Knowledge In School Communities To Enhance Outcomes For Autistic Students, Amy Jane Griffiths, Diana Baker, John Brady, Kelly Kennedy, Anaiza Valladolid, Rachel Wiegand, Raquel Delgado

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose

This paper describes a case study of a developmental program evaluation on the Autism Community Toolkit, a collaborative skills training program for parents and school professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the training on participants’ knowledge, competence and perceived collaboration; and potential improvements to the training program.

Design/methodology/approach

The program included multiple training sessions for families and school professionals, designed to educate participants on autism, evidence-based interventions and to increase home-school communication and collaboration. Data collection methods included pre- and post-measures and feedback forms.

Findings

Results indicated that the training program was beneficial …


Responses From Young Children Not On The Autism Spectrum On Selected Questions From The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (Ados-2), Lauren Lamar Aug 2022

Responses From Young Children Not On The Autism Spectrum On Selected Questions From The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (Ados-2), Lauren Lamar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) is a widely used instrument in the assessment of autism spectrum disorder. One of the modules requires students to answer questions requiring relatively high-level language skills but that module could be given to children as young as four years of age. It is unclear how young non-spectrum children would respond to such questions. This study analyzed types of responses provided by kindergarten, first, and second grade students when asked questions from a subtest on the ADOS-2, Module 3. The sample was largely made up of typically developing students (n = 146) with the …


Sensory Rooms: Increasing Preschool Students’ Focus And Engagement In The Classroom, Tasha Pierce Jul 2022

Sensory Rooms: Increasing Preschool Students’ Focus And Engagement In The Classroom, Tasha Pierce

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

This paper analyzes the need for schools to implement a multi-sensory room to help students regulate their sensory needs. Students today require a multitude of experiences and different levels of support in order to effectively learn. Teachers are faced with the challenge of providing this support to students so they can engage in and retain what is learned each day. To overcome this challenge, we looked at the history of multi-sensory rooms, the benefits they have for all students in the classroom, and how one can be properly implemented in a preschool classroom. We put forth an action plan that …


What Is Autism? What Is Aba? Building Understanding In Autism Awareness Month, Julyse Horr, Ouachita News Bureau Apr 2022

What Is Autism? What Is Aba? Building Understanding In Autism Awareness Month, Julyse Horr, Ouachita News Bureau

Press Releases

April has traditionally been known worldwide as Autism Awareness Month, and is a time to focus on increasing understanding and awareness of people with autism. In 2021, the Autism Society of America changed the designated terminology to Autism Acceptance Month. Regardless of which name you use, I hope you’ll take time this month to become educated on autism and help to create a more inclusive and accepting world for the autism community. Here is some introductory information to get you started.


What Is Autism? What Is Aba?: Building Understanding In Autism Awareness Month, Julyse A. Migan-Gandonou Horr, Ouachita News Bureau Apr 2022

What Is Autism? What Is Aba?: Building Understanding In Autism Awareness Month, Julyse A. Migan-Gandonou Horr, Ouachita News Bureau

Press Releases

April has traditionally been known worldwide as Autism Awareness Month, and is a time to focus on increasing understanding and awareness of people with autism. In 2021, the Autism Society of America changed the designated terminology to Autism Acceptance Month. Regardless of which name you use, I hope you’ll take time this month to become educated on autism and help to create a more inclusive and accepting world for the autism community. Here is some introductory information to get you started.


"Spreading Stupidity: Intellectual Disability And Anti-Imperialist Resistance To Bioinformational Capitalism" In Bioinformational Philosophy And Postdigital Knowledge Ecologies, Derek R. Ford, Megha Summer Pappachen '20 Apr 2022

"Spreading Stupidity: Intellectual Disability And Anti-Imperialist Resistance To Bioinformational Capitalism" In Bioinformational Philosophy And Postdigital Knowledge Ecologies, Derek R. Ford, Megha Summer Pappachen '20

Education Studies Faculty publications

We are aware that to resist in the coming age of bioinformational capitalism, we will require new knowledge ecologies. These knowledges must be socialist: able to resist the dominance of productivist and imperialist pedagogies that are saturated with capital, and now bioinformational capital’s aims. These knowledges must also be stupid: able to refuse bioinformational capital’s lust for visibility and access to the working class biology. Stupidity is able to resist primarily because it can’t be quantified, articulated, or rendered transparent. To express the importance of this refusal, we visit concepts of colonialism and disability. Disabled and colonized struggles animate the …


All God's Children: An Exploratory Study Of Factors To Promote Inclusion Of Autistic Children Within Local Church Congregations, David John Scott Quel Dec 2021

All God's Children: An Exploratory Study Of Factors To Promote Inclusion Of Autistic Children Within Local Church Congregations, David John Scott Quel

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the gap that exists within the literature concerning the parent’s perspective for incorporating Autistic individuals into the life of the church. The theory guiding this study is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In Maslow’s hierarchy, there are five level of needs. These areas are physical needs, security needs, love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualization. These are the most basic needs whether someone is disabled, has special needs, or has no problems at all. The problem remains, far too often, those individuals who are on the Autistic spectrum are looked at as …


Effects On The Social-Emotional Learning Of Students Identified As Twice-Exceptional: A Phenomenological Study, Heather Ann Bernau Nov 2021

Effects On The Social-Emotional Learning Of Students Identified As Twice-Exceptional: A Phenomenological Study, Heather Ann Bernau

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of students identified as intellectually gifted and having high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome. The study was conducted in participants’ homes or other neutral locations of the participants’ preference. The theory guiding this study was Bandura’s social cognitive theory. The social cognitive theory explains the relationship between personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior. Specifically, the study used multiple sources of data collection including a parent or adult-student questionnaire, self-portrait, three reflection items, and semi-structured interviews to study how learning interventions for students’ learning challenges (autism) affect the …


The Experience Of Special Education Graduates Who Received Pull-Out Social Skills Instruction: A Phenomenological Study, Sharon Diane Flucker Aug 2021

The Experience Of Special Education Graduates Who Received Pull-Out Social Skills Instruction: A Phenomenological Study, Sharon Diane Flucker

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of high school graduates who received special education services, in part, through a pull-out program that focused on the development of social skills in the northeast region of the state of South Carolina. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's social cognitive theory as it addressed the role of the environment, modeling, goal setting, evaluation, and sense of efficacy in human development and learning. The central research question and three sub-questions were based on the triadic reciprocality causation in Bandura’s theory. The sample size was 12. Purposeful …


Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies For Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jasmin Williams Jul 2021

Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies For Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jasmin Williams

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

The number of school-aged children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing over the past decades. As the students enter the education system, school districts and educators face challenges in meeting the academic needs of students with ASD. A 2014 report by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emphasized that although ASD varies significantly in severity, it occurs in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, and is almost five times more common among boys than girls. Thus, contemporary education professionals in all schools are likely to work with students with ASD (CDC, 2014). Teachers in …


High School Teachers' Experiences In Addressing The Challenges Of Written Expression Among Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kevin James Hasinger Jul 2021

High School Teachers' Experiences In Addressing The Challenges Of Written Expression Among Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kevin James Hasinger

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe high school special education teachers’ experiences in teaching written expression to students with autism spectrum disorder in Parker County School District, located near the mid-eastern seaboard of the United States. At the onset of the study, written expression instruction was defined as instruction that facilitates the expression of feelings, thoughts, and ideas on paper to convey meaning to and/or persuade the reader (Flowers & Hayes, 1981). The theory guiding this study was Flower and Hayes’ (1981) cognitive process theory of writing which defined three essential elements of writing: the task …