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Full-Text Articles in Education

Transitional Periods Of Individuals With Autism: A Parental Perspective On Services, Kennedy Rogers Apr 2024

Transitional Periods Of Individuals With Autism: A Parental Perspective On Services, Kennedy Rogers

Senior Theses and Projects

This study looks at the experiences and perceptions of parents with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged eighteen or older and have experienced a significant transition out of high school. By using a qualitative method of interviews and analysis, as well as two rounds of coding, I explored the nature of program options as well as the challenges of the individuals with Autism during this time of their life. This study looked at the challenges in the transition as well as some potential insights to helping ease the challenges.


Prosodic Speech Rate, Utterance Duration, Interruption Rate, And Turn-Taking Latency In Autistic And Neurotypical Adults, Grace Madeline Bell Mar 2024

Prosodic Speech Rate, Utterance Duration, Interruption Rate, And Turn-Taking Latency In Autistic And Neurotypical Adults, Grace Madeline Bell

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the following prosodic elements: speech rate, turn-taking latency, number of interruptions, and utterance duration across two groups' neurotypical and autistic young adults. Furthermore, the end goal of this study is to help provide a baseline and clinical application of prosodic differences between autistic and neurotypical adults. Speech samples were collected from 11 neurotypical and 11 autistic young adults from the ages of 18-26. Speech samples were recorded responses from a 10-minute interview between two research assistants and the autistic or neurotypical individual. Using Praat software, speech samples were analyzed and used to …


Special Education Teacher Preparation In Saudi Arabia: Qualitative Interview Design, Salman Almughyiri Mar 2024

Special Education Teacher Preparation In Saudi Arabia: Qualitative Interview Design, Salman Almughyiri

The Qualitative Report

This study explored preservice special education teachers’ perceptions regarding special education teacher preparation courses, practicum, and evidence-based practices they recently completed. The participants of the study included five preservice special education teachers from two universities, Shaqra University and King Saud University, in Riyadh. A variety of qualitative interview designs, such as semi-structured interviews and in-depth interviews were employed to gather the data. This involved conducting a total of 15 interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Additionally, peer debriefing and member checks were used to increase the credibility of the study and help prevent personal bias. The study …


Understanding Unique Employability Skill Sets Of Autistic Individuals: A Systematic Review, Amy Jane Griffiths, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Wallace Walrod, Zachary Maupin, John Brady Mar 2024

Understanding Unique Employability Skill Sets Of Autistic Individuals: A Systematic Review, Amy Jane Griffiths, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Wallace Walrod, Zachary Maupin, John Brady

Education Faculty Articles and Research

In recent years, several publications and media outlets have highlighted how the skills and interests of autistic individuals may benefit organizations. However, there is scant empirical research on the topic. The present study's authors conducted a systematic review to find which potential employability skills, strengths, and interests of autistic individuals available research has highlighted. Data extraction methods identified 51 papers related to skills in this population. The skill sets autistic individuals may possess and the research behind these findings were organized, evaluated, and summarized. Based on these findings, investigators discuss implications for employment counseling and future research.


The Real Experts: Understanding Autism And Adhd Through The Lens Of The Individual, Mary Little Mar 2024

The Real Experts: Understanding Autism And Adhd Through The Lens Of The Individual, Mary Little

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation aims to spark intentional conversation and change geared towards shattering stigmas around the autistic and ADHD experience. Attendees will enhance their understanding of neuro-divergent populations in order to modify environments and provide interventions aligning with trauma informed care and inclusion. Attendees will also be given the opportunity to embrace the power of self disclosure and mentorship.


Identifying Critical Employability Skills For Employment Success Of Autistic Individuals: A Content Analysis Of Job Postings, Amy Jane Griffiths, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Angel Miles Nash, Wallace Walrod, Petersen Walrod, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado Feb 2024

Identifying Critical Employability Skills For Employment Success Of Autistic Individuals: A Content Analysis Of Job Postings, Amy Jane Griffiths, Amy E. Hurley-Hanson, Cristina M. Giannantonio, Angel Miles Nash, Wallace Walrod, Petersen Walrod, Rachel Torres, Raquel Delgado

Education Faculty Articles and Research

This study aimed to examine the literature on the skill sets of autistic individuals and determine how these skills align with current and projected future labour market needs. Based on a literature review, researchers identified the following skill categories common to autistic individuals: visual skills, attention to detail and systemizing composite skills. Researchers then gathered aggregated data on occupations and industries from over 90 state and federal sources in the United States. Next, they collected data on the most in-demand jobs, their industries and relevant skills by analysing hundreds of millions of online job postings. The results indicate the most …


A Design-Based, Mixed Methodology Study On Neurodiversity-Affirming Practices Among Speech-Language Pathologists In A Midwestern School District, Sarah E. Schmid Feb 2024

A Design-Based, Mixed Methodology Study On Neurodiversity-Affirming Practices Among Speech-Language Pathologists In A Midwestern School District, Sarah E. Schmid

Dissertations

As autism diagnosis increased (Maenner et al., 2023; Wright, 2017), autistic individuals increasingly advocated for services aligned with a neurodiversity perspective (Jordan, 2010; Leadbitter et al., 2021). Using a human centric, design-based approach, the researcher identified a lack of alignment between the emerging preferences of the autistic community and the services speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in a large, suburban special education school district felt competent in providing. Some SLPs in the district reported a lack of knowledge and training about the neurodiversity movement and felt further training on the topic was needed. Once the knowledge gap was identified, the researcher worked …


Paraprofessionals In A Special Education Setting: A Qualitative Exploration Of Their Perceptions, Chana S. Max, Keisha Mccoy-Dailey Jan 2024

Paraprofessionals In A Special Education Setting: A Qualitative Exploration Of Their Perceptions, Chana S. Max, Keisha Mccoy-Dailey

The Qualitative Report

Paraprofessionals support teachers and students in the classroom. Their roles and responsibilities vary; however, their goal is always to improve student achievement. The purpose of the study was to fill a gap in the literature related to special education paraprofessionals’ perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs on the support and trainings they receive prior to and during their job as a paraprofessional for students in a special education setting. Generic qualitative methodology was used to capture the thoughts, experience, and perceptions of 42 paraprofessionals across the United States. Data collection included an eight-question online questionnaire. Results of the study revealed five patterns …


Evaluating A Video Peer-Modeling Intervention On The Acquisition And Maintenance Of Social Skills For Adults With Autism In A Transition Setting, Adam K. Hammond Dec 2023

Evaluating A Video Peer-Modeling Intervention On The Acquisition And Maintenance Of Social Skills For Adults With Autism In A Transition Setting, Adam K. Hammond

Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated the use of a peer video modeling and prompting intervention used to teach three adults with autism to give a specified verbal and physical response when greeted. This intervention used a six-step task analysis to verify correct completion of the target behavior. At baseline, each of the three participants gave little to no response when greeted but after the video modeling and prompting intervention all three had acquired at least five out of six (83%) of the target behavior steps. Follow-up probes demonstrated that all three of the participants had maintained at least 4 out of 6 …


An Analysis Of The Statewide Shortage Of Aba Professionals In New York, Leanna S. Mellon, Noor Syed, Lauren Lestremau Allen Nov 2023

An Analysis Of The Statewide Shortage Of Aba Professionals In New York, Leanna S. Mellon, Noor Syed, Lauren Lestremau Allen

Excelsior: Leadership in Teaching and Learning

Support services for many Autistic students in schools is critical. Behavior analysts are one type of service provider who offer support services in and outside of school settings to Autistic students. As behavioral support services are increasing in educational settings, it is important to ensure there are a sufficient number of professionals trained to provide high quality and compassionate support. However, there may not be enough state licensed providers to meet the growing need of students across the state of New York (NY). The supply of state licensed behavior analysts (LBAs) was calculated for the state of NY, its six …


Prosodic Pitch And Intensity In Autistic Individuals, Cassidy Gooch Nov 2023

Prosodic Pitch And Intensity In Autistic Individuals, Cassidy Gooch

Theses and Dissertations

This study is an examination of how prosodic pitch and intensity compare in autistic individuals and neurotypical individuals. Ten-minute recordings of casual conversation were taken and analyzed. Participants included 11 autistic individuals and 11 neurotypical individuals with six males and five females in each group. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2; Lord et al., 2012) prosody rating scale was used to collect a perceptual evaluation of each participan's prosody, and Praat acoustic analysis software was used to collect measures of pitch and intensity over the 10-minute period to investigate how speech characteristics change with conversation partner familiarity. Results …


The Ability Of Autism-Specific Professional Development And Years Of Experience To Predict Teacher Self-Efficacy For Those Working With Students On The Autism Spectrum, Kathleen M. Howard Nov 2023

The Ability Of Autism-Specific Professional Development And Years Of Experience To Predict Teacher Self-Efficacy For Those Working With Students On The Autism Spectrum, Kathleen M. Howard

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative predictive correlation study was to examine teacher self-efficacy while working with students on the autism spectrum (ASD), as related to autism specific professional development and years of experience. Autism is being diagnosed at an exceptional rate, resulting in a greater emphasis being placed on educators to provide effective interventions, in both the general education and special education classrooms. Positive self-efficacy among teachers working with students on the autism spectrum is critical to improving educational outcomes for this unique population. A random sample of 73 teachers from six schools in a rural Virginia school district completed …


A Divine Assignment: Church Supports For Caretakers And Children Impacted By Disabilities, Pamela Scretchen Oct 2023

A Divine Assignment: Church Supports For Caretakers And Children Impacted By Disabilities, Pamela Scretchen

Discernment: Theology and the Practice of Ministry

How can the church provide leadership in the area of inclusion and offer families a place of refuge and support? How does the church care for and teach children with disabilities? As a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst, I have partnered with congregations to start programs for families impacted by disabilities. Here, we show how a family affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder challenged their church to provide a sustainable program. There is hope that the church can lead inclusion efforts and develop special needs support for caretakers. The article reveals one family’s journey in returning to worship with their autistic son and …


Implementation Of Star To Support Students With Disabilities, Lexis Barkema Oct 2023

Implementation Of Star To Support Students With Disabilities, Lexis Barkema

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

This paper examines the use of a comprehensive autism program in a school district, looking specifically at an elementary school in North Central Iowa. The school does a great job of providing support and interventions for students with autism, disabilities, and specific learning needs with the resources they currently have available to them. This school improvement plan provides a detailed outline of using a comprehensive autism program to better serve and meet the needs of students in their specific need areas. The plan will provide professional development, support, and resources for teachers and paraprofessionals who are implementing the program.


Understanding Gender Identification Within Individuals With Autism Using The Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Zackery Alan Cusworth Aug 2023

Understanding Gender Identification Within Individuals With Autism Using The Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Zackery Alan Cusworth

Theses and Dissertations

Gender is a socially derived construct that is taught and understood at young ages. However, not every individual has the same social skills to understand these seen and unseen social cues about gender. The Bem Sex-Role Inventory was given to adult individuals with autism in the United States to better understand their masculine, feminine, and androgenous perceptions. These data were then compared to the original Bem Sex-Role Inventory general population study to see if there were any differences. The data show that males with autism had lower masculine scores and higher feminine scores than males in the general population. Females …


Increasing Exercise In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review Of Instructional Strategies, Jacob Moak Aug 2023

Increasing Exercise In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review Of Instructional Strategies, Jacob Moak

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

It has been found that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are 1.6 times more likely to be obese compared to neurotypically developing children. Individuals with ASD often struggle with motor skills and experience sensory processing difficulties, which can make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity. Because of this, it is crucial to find exercise methods that are enjoyable, practical and that are tailored to the specific needs of individuals with ASD in order to help them maintain a healthy lifestyle. The current systematic review investigated the research literature on interventions used to teach exercise to individuals with …


The Impact Of The Social Story Intervention On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) In Saudi Arabia, Marwan Alkhudhayri Aug 2023

The Impact Of The Social Story Intervention On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) In Saudi Arabia, Marwan Alkhudhayri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is on the rise in Saudi Arabia, and the field of Special Education is currently working to expand awareness about ASD as well as evidence-based intervention availability in the country. The Social Stories Intervention has been shown to have positive results in work with children with ASD in other countries, however its effectiveness in Saudi Arabia had not thoroughly been examined. The Social Stories Intervention provides an important tool for practitioners to use with children with ASD in order to help improve their social skills development. The current study utilizes a single-subject design to assess the …


Collaborative Challenges Between Educational Accessibility Coordinators And Adjunct Faculty In Supporting Autism Spectrum Students, Tamara Faure, Pietro Antonio Sasso Aug 2023

Collaborative Challenges Between Educational Accessibility Coordinators And Adjunct Faculty In Supporting Autism Spectrum Students, Tamara Faure, Pietro Antonio Sasso

New York Journal of Student Affairs

Accessibility of educational accommodations has increased but can be frequently inconsistent for undergraduates with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The didactic relationship between educational accessibility staff with faculty, who are increasingly adjuncts, facilitates many course-learning accommodations. This descriptive phenomenological study explored the perceptions and professional experiences of educational accessibility coordinators with adjunct faculty in their implementation of learning accommodation for undergraduates with ASD. Findings from this study suggested that accessibility coordinators negotiated expectations of unprepared adjunct faculty and ASD students to address issues throughout the semester.

Coordinators believed ASD students struggled to navigate their experiences with adjunct professors because they were …


Exploring Levels Of Autism Symptom Support After Eligibility Determinations, Zachary Bella Aug 2023

Exploring Levels Of Autism Symptom Support After Eligibility Determinations, Zachary Bella

Theses and Dissertations

The identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) occurs in educational and health settings. Many children with autism will only receive a classification of autism in the educational setting (Esler et al., 2022, Pettygrove et al., 2013, Wiggins et al., 2020). There is significant overlap between the early intervention offered to children with autism in health settings and what is provided through Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) (National Autism Center, 2009; Morset et al., 2010). However, there is an increasing trend of children with autism being classified with significant developmental delay (SDD) instead of autism initially in schools and the impact of …


Neuroaffirmative Approaches To Extended Reality: Empowering Individuals With Autism Spectrum Condition Through Immersive Learning Environments, James Hutson, Caitlyn Mcginley Aug 2023

Neuroaffirmative Approaches To Extended Reality: Empowering Individuals With Autism Spectrum Condition Through Immersive Learning Environments, James Hutson, Caitlyn Mcginley

Faculty Scholarship

Traditional teaching and working environments often prioritize extroverted qualities, disadvantaging individuals with conditions that impact social engagement, such as autism spectrum condition (ASC). These individuals usually thrive in calmer, low-key learning environments but face challenges in lecture-style classes, and traditional office environments leading to marginalization in academic and professional settings. This study explores the neuroaffirming potential of extended reality (XR) in creating immersive learning and working environments tailored to the unique needs of individuals with ASC. By focusing on four key factors—indirect social engagement, digital communication preferences, sensory sensitivity, and avatar-based communication—XR technologies can provide a supportive and accommodating environment …


The Effectiveness Of Social Stories As Behavior Intervention For People With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angel Dawson Aug 2023

The Effectiveness Of Social Stories As Behavior Intervention For People With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angel Dawson

Culminating Projects in Special Education

The Effects of Social Stories as Behavior Intervention for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

by

Angel Dawson

A Starred Paper Proposal

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of

St Cloud State University

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree

Master of Science in

Special Education

May, 2023

Starred Paper Committee:

Bradley Kaffar, Chairperson

Frances Kayona

Cody Lewis

Table of Contents

Page

Chapter

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 3

Overview………………………………………………………………………………….3

Research Question ……………………………………………………………………….6

Importance of Review ……………………………………………………………………6

Focus of Review ………………………………………………………………………….6

Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………….7-9

Chapter

2. Review of Literature……………………………………………..………………………10

Social Stories as an Intervention…………………………………………………………10

Chapter

3. Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………25

Recommendations for Future Research……………………………………………….…26

Summary………………………………………………………………...……………….28 …


Detect Misconceptions, Construct Competence-Aligned Pedagogical Practices, And Use Instructional Strategies That Decenter Speech As A Means To Include Autistic Students, Chelsea P. Tracy-Bronson, Sara Scribner Jul 2023

Detect Misconceptions, Construct Competence-Aligned Pedagogical Practices, And Use Instructional Strategies That Decenter Speech As A Means To Include Autistic Students, Chelsea P. Tracy-Bronson, Sara Scribner

Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education

In this practice-based article, we use data and research to establish the need to examine inclusive-oriented pedagogical strategies to support autistic individuals. We believe that educators who use critical reflection can detect many of the common misconceptions about autism, learn how to re-frame these understandings, and consider different ways to support these students within inclusive classrooms. This article provides innovative pedagogical approaches for competence-aligned instruction, cultivating a web of communication access, bolstering social interaction, and supporting changes in the environment and with sensory experiences. We also describe ways to de-center speech to create a classroom that values dynamic engagement, divergent …


Pivotal Response Treatment To Decrease Challenging Behavior And Increase Functional Communication In Preschool Children With Developmental Delays, Kalie Alexandra Gilmour Jun 2023

Pivotal Response Treatment To Decrease Challenging Behavior And Increase Functional Communication In Preschool Children With Developmental Delays, Kalie Alexandra Gilmour

Theses and Dissertations

After a review of the literature on Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in young children with developmental delays, less was known on its effects on challenging behavior and functional communication in preschool age children receiving services in a traditional public school. A multiple baseline design across three participants was used to evaluate the effects of PRT on the functional communication of three preschool students with developmental delays. Based on a functional analysis, we also observed the effects of PRT on challenging behavior. A visual analysis of the data revealed a functional relation between PRT and functional communication and provided promising evidence …


The Effects Of A Peer-Mediated Social Skills Intervention On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Shannon Elizabeth Mcconaghie Jun 2023

The Effects Of A Peer-Mediated Social Skills Intervention On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Shannon Elizabeth Mcconaghie

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of a peer-mediated social skills intervention (PMI) on children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current literature discusses the effects of peer-mediated social skills interventions for children with ASD in schools and on the playground but has not been conducted in an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) clinic or in an Early Childhood Education/ABA-integrated preschool. Three dyads, each consisting of a typical peer and a target child diagnosed with ASD, participated in this study. The frequency of participants' initiations, responses, and continuations were collected throughout all phases, …


Family Member Experiences With Augmentative And Alternative Communication Systems Used By Nonspeaking Autistic Individuals, Christina M. Wotton Jun 2023

Family Member Experiences With Augmentative And Alternative Communication Systems Used By Nonspeaking Autistic Individuals, Christina M. Wotton

Doctor of Education Program Dissertations

Nonspeaking autistic individuals who have no way to communicate cannot share their thoughts, dreams, or desires. The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to explore the experiences of family members of nonspeaking autistic individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. This study documented family members’ experiences of identifying, learning, and implementing two types of AAC: Rapid Prompting Method and Spelling to Communicate. Through one-on-one interviews, five participants shared their lived experiences. Three themes emerged from the data. The first theme was an increase in well-being for the entire family. All five participants described transformations and improvements in …


Parents Of Students On The Autism Spectrum Call For Social And Academic Inclusive Practices, Stephanie C. Holmes Jun 2023

Parents Of Students On The Autism Spectrum Call For Social And Academic Inclusive Practices, Stephanie C. Holmes

Tapestry: Journal of Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Belonging in Education

Inclusive education practices must incorporate both social and academic inclusion. Before 1975, students with various disabilities did not have the same access to public education as their nondisabled or neuro-typically developing peers. With the passing of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, it was mandated that all schools that receive federal funds must provide equal access to education as a right to students with any physical, behavioral, or mental handicaps. While the mandates have broadened throughout the years, merely having a diagnosis of Autism does not guarantee resources or supports to the student unless there are also academic concerns. …


Embracing Diverse Thinkers: A Case Study Examining The Graduation Rates From A High Autism College Student Population, Beverly Donovan Jun 2023

Embracing Diverse Thinkers: A Case Study Examining The Graduation Rates From A High Autism College Student Population, Beverly Donovan

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to describe how Alpha College, a private college in the southeastern United States with high neurodiverse enrollment, generates uniquely high graduation rates for its autistic student population. The case study answers the following central question: CQ) How does Alpha College, a private college in the southeastern United States with high neurodiverse enrollment, generate high graduation rates for its autistic student population? The intrinsic case design focused on the case itself; Alpha College observes uniquely high graduation rates of autistic students. This study was guided by Blume and Singers' social stigma theory and …


Twice-Exceptional Autism And Home Education: A Phenomenological Analysis, Tiffany Brook Hartman May 2023

Twice-Exceptional Autism And Home Education: A Phenomenological Analysis, Tiffany Brook Hartman

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

It is common for autistic and particularly twice-exceptional (2e) children to be schooled from home at a higher rate than their neurotypical peers. Much of the current research investigating this phenomenon is conducted from the perspective of the public school system. This point of view is generally critical of the curriculum taught in the home, has largely limited parental voices in the literature, and overlooks possible circumstances in the public school system that might have led families to choose to homeschool. This qualitative analysis conducted open-ended interviews of parents with twice-exceptional autistic children who have home-educated or currently educate their …


Effects Of State-Level Funding Systems On Identification Rates Of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Michelle Powers, Brad Uhing May 2023

Effects Of State-Level Funding Systems On Identification Rates Of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Michelle Powers, Brad Uhing

The Advocate

Identification rates of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been increasing since the year 2000, while federal special education funding has remained stagnant. Researchers gathered data from states related to individual state funding systems, per pupil spending and identification rates of students with ASD to determine if state spending or special education funding methods affected identification rates of students with ASD. While specific funding methodology did not predict rates of identification or PPS, a correlational analysis of individual state PPS and ASD identification rates did have significant results. Spending amounts per pupil corresponded to rates of identification for ASD.


Teaching Problem-Solving Skills As A Soft Skill For Employment To Individuals With Autism And Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities Using Video Modelling In A Virtual Learning Environment, Cliff Oliech May 2023

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills As A Soft Skill For Employment To Individuals With Autism And Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities Using Video Modelling In A Virtual Learning Environment, Cliff Oliech

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with Autism (ASD) and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) exhibit poor post-secondary education employment outcomes compared to their disabled and non-disabled peers (Shattuck et al., 2012; Taylor et al., 2015). In addition, due to the COVID-19 pandemic school closures, students with ASD and/or IDD in post-secondary transition programs may have lost crucial instruction time, possibly putting them at risk for unemployment and underemployment. Consequently, this research study sought to establish through multiple-baselines across participants design how effective VM can be in teaching problem-solving skills as a soft skill for employment to post-secondary transition education students with ASD and/or IDD …